Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.2 earthquake hits northwest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

5.1 earthquake hits the southern mid-Atlantic ridge.

5.0 earthquake hits Tonga.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Depression Thirteen is located about 35 mi…55 km se of nthrn tip of Guajira pnsula Colombia and about 700 mi…1125 km e of Isla de Providencia Colombia with maximum sustained winds…35 mph…55 km/h. Present movement…w or 280 degrees at 15 mph…24 km/h.

In the Southern Hemisphere: Tropical Cyclone 03s (Three), located approximately 782 nm east-southeast of Diego Garcia, is tracking southwestward at 07 knots.

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Trinidad and Tobago – Flash flooding struck in the dual-island Caribbean nation of Trinidad and Tobago following heavy rain brought by a tropical disturbance. The heavy rain caused widespread flooding along the nation’s major roadways. At least one bridge has been closed, as have many schools.

India – At least 8 people have lost their lives and many more are feared missing after sudden flash floods on the Mal River in the Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal, India. Hundreds of people were gathered in the river and along its banks during as part of the religious festival Durga Visarjan where the idol of the Goddess Durga is immersed in the waters of the river. However, the river rose swiftly and unexpectedly at around 20:00 hours 05 October 2022, sweeping away dozens of the gathered onlookers.

Australia – Sydney recorded its wettest year in 164 years as authorities braced for major floods in Australia’s east on Thursday, with more heavy downpours expected to fall over the next three days. With almost three months of 2022 still to go, Australia’s largest city has recorded 2,200 mm of rain in a year for the first time since records began in 1858. By Thursday afternoon, Sydney had received about 2,213 mm (87 inches) of rainfall for the year, surpassing the previous record of 2,194 mm set in 1950, official data showed.


Rewilding Europe

With wildlife suffering dramatic declines due to climate change and habitat loss, conservation efforts across Europe have seen several mammal species make strong comebacks.

A new report by the Zoological Society of London, BirdLife International and the European Bird Census Council for Rewilding Europe documents “exciting” recoveries.

Brown bears began to decline during the Roman Empire, but the report says their numbers have increased by 44% to more than 50,000 since 1960. Europe’s beavers started to decline in the 17th century due to hunting, with only about 1,200 still living by the 20th century. But between 1960 and 2016, their numbers increased by 16,000% as their range expanded.

Crabs vs Mussels

Warming waters of the English Channel due to climate change have allowed the normally migratory and ravenous spider crabs to infest the French coast most of the year and ravage its mussel population.

Mussel farmers in Normandy and Brittany are demanding they be allowed to use dredging nets to drag the crabs farther out to sea to protect their shellfish and livelihoods. “They are like a carpet moving slowly across the seabed, ravaging anything on the ground and leaving nothing in their wake,” said Vincent Godefroy, the president of the National Mytiliculteurs (mussel farmers) Group. He said his members first noticed the invasion about five years ago,

Global Warming

Arctic Rain

While more snow than rain currently falls in the Arctic each year, a new study warns that the trend is likely to be reversed by the end of this century. Lead researcher Tingfeng Dou of the Chinese Academy of Sciences says that the frequency of rainy days in the Arctic could roughly double by 2100 as Earth’s climate heats even further.

“In the past, rainfall was primarily limited to the edges of the Greenland ice sheet,” Dou said. More rain will increase the melting of the tundra and Greenland’s glaciers, releasing more greenhouse gases.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 44.0 degrees Celsius (111 degrees F) at Kharga, Egypt.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 98.0 degrees Celsius (-144 degrees F) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.



The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

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Cholera – Lebanon

The Lebanese Ministry of Health announced the registration of the first cholera case in the country in nearly 30 years.

Cholera – Malawi

A total of 22 districts have reported Cholera cases since the confirmation of the first case in March 2022 in Machinga district. As of October 5, the cumulative confirmed cases and deaths reported since the onset of the outbreak is 3,960 and 111 respectively, with Case Fatality Rate at 2.8%.

Rift Valley Fever – Mauritania

In a follow-up on the human Rift Valley fever (RVF) situation in the African country of Mauritania, the country’s health ministry reported four additional human cases and one more fatality. This brings the number of cases reported to 32 and 17 deaths caused by RVF.

Dengue Fever – Vietnam

In a follow-up on the dengue fever situation in Vietnam, the Ministry of Health now reports 236,730 cases of dengue fever, including 98 deaths. This is an increase of about 12,000 cases and six deaths in the past week.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 28 September – 4 October 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that 11 eruptive events and five explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 26 September-3 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 22-24 and 27-28 September. On 22 and 28 September the ash plumes that drifted E and N produced ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 23 and 28 September.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that continuing slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by a 27 September satellite image and likely continued during 28 September-4 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 28-29 September; weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views during the rest of the week. Seismicity remained at low levels.

Karthala – Grand Comore Island : According to the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Civile (DGSC) – Comores on 4 October, the Observatoire Volcanologique du Karthala (OVK) reported that activity at Karthala had significantly declined during the previous few days.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 27 September-4 October, entering the lava lake. The active part of the lake stayed at a relatively steady level through the week, varying only slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were approximately 970 and 1,800 tonnes per day on 28 and 30 September, respectively.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 27 September-4 October. White emissions rose as high as 350 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, W, and NW on most days. White-and-gray plumes rose as high 500 m and drifted NW, W, and E during 29-30 September and 1-2 October.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 23-29 September and seismicity remained at high levels. As many as seven lava avalanches from the SW lava dome traveled down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, reaching a maximum distance of 1.8 km. No morphological changes to the central lava domes were evident in photographs, while the SW dome grew about 1 m taller.

Nevados de Chillan – Central Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that two long-period earthquake signals were recorded at Nevados de Chillán at 0813 on 3 October and 1630 on 4 October, and both were followed by a dense ash emission. The ash plume from the first event rose 760 m above the summit and drifted SSW, while the ash plume from the second event rose as high as 1.9 km and also drifted SSW.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 5-11 September with a daily average of 46 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. As many as nine thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N).

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 27 September-4 October. Eruptive events at 0459 and 0726 on 2 October produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. T

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : No ash emissions or explosive activity have been detected since 14 September. Seismicity had decreased, though remained at elevated levels. Steam emissions from the active vent in the N crater of Mount Cerberus persisted. Seismic tremor and a small explosion were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 3-4 October.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 15-22 September. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Plumes of re-suspended ash drifted 113 km E on 23 September.

Stromboli – Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 26 September-2 October activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosions from three vents in Area N (North Crater area) and at least two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected course material (bombs and lapilli) 80-150 m high at a rate of 3-5 explosions per hour. Spattering was visible at the N2 vent (Area N). Explosions from at least two vents in Area C-S, which were not visible due to the camera views, ejected ash and course material less than 150 m above the vent at a rate of 1-5 events per hour. At 1524 on 29 September an explosion at N2 generated an ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and ejected abundant amounts of lava fragments, lapilli, and bombs along the Sciara del Fuoco. Four subsequent, low-intensity explosions ejected tephra 100 m high. Spattering activity at the vent intensified afterwards and through the next day. Beginning at 1115 on 3 October a lava flow emerged from Area N and traveled down the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching the ocean.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 30 September-3 October. A total of 38 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and occasionally ejected large bombs from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ash sometimes fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW).

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : In a special advisory, PHIVOLCS reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Taal were as high as 10,718 tonnes per day on 29 September, creating a significant amount of vog over the caldera. Voggy conditions were reported by residents of Laurel, Agoncillo, and Santa Teresita, Batangas. The report noted that sulfur dioxide emissions had been increasing since 15 July and averaged 6,612 tonnes per day in September. In early August degassing at the volcano increased characterized by the upwelling of hot fluids in the lake and steam-rich plumes rising as high as 2.5 km above the lake’s surface.

Ta’u – American Samoa (SW Pacific) : Seismic activity has dramatically decreased and maintained low levels over the past few weeks. Analysis of data from one seismometer that had recorded earthquakes during 2005-2009 suggested that a rate of five detected earthquakes per day was characteristic of long-term background seismicity; the current earthquakes rates were at background levels.

Villarrica – Central Chile : On 3 October SERNAGEOMIN reported that recent passive emissions from Villarrica contained tephra that was deposited on the upper SW flank. Evidence suggested that there were recent fluctuations in the intensity of activity at the lava lake in the main crater.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that the minor ash and sulfur dioxide emissions from the active vent area in Whakaari/White Island’s crater only occurred on 18 September based on subsequent webcam and satellite images. The most likely cause for the emission was a gas release from small amount of magma moving into the shallow part of the volcano, though there was no evidence of increasing activity at the volcano.


Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

Two 5.3 earthquakes hit the South Sandwich Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Depression Twelve is located about 635 mi…1025 km wnw of the Cabo Verde islands with maximum sustained winds…35 mph…55 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 300 degrees at 13 mph…20 km/h.

In the Southern Hemisphere: Tropical Cyclone 03s (Three), located approximately 851 nm east-southeast of Diego Garcia, is tracking west-southwestward at 11 knots.

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Wildfires – Fiji

here have been 408 bush and grass fire incidents recorded so far this year in Fiji, data from the Pacific island country’s National Fire Authority (NFA) showed. The bushfires had caused damage to a lot of power lines, resulting in continuous power outages around the western area of Viti Levu, Fiji’s main island. The area has recorded 100 sugar cane fires and 53 rubbish fires from January to date.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 28 September – 4 October 2022

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Alaid was identified in satellite images during 22-30 September. Ash plumes were visible drifting 140 km NE and SE during 26-27 September.

Home Reef – Tonga Ridge : The Tonga Geological Services reported that the new island at Home Reef that emerged from the ocean on 10 September continued to grow through 4 October. Daily counts of eruptive events producing gas-and-steam plumes were variable, though during the middle of the week they had decreased to less than 10 events per day. By 1040 on 28 September the dimensions of the new island were estimated to be 268 m N-S and 283 m E-W, and the highest point on the island was about 15 m a.s.l. The island was surrounded by plumes of discolored water within about 200 m from the shore. The plumes were elongated to the S, and were denser with suspended material within 1 km and more diffuse at distances greater or equal to 2 km. Mariners were advised to stay 4 km away from the volcano.

Nishinoshima – Izu Islands : According to JMA and the Tokyo VAAC an eruption at Nishinoshima produced ash plumes that rose to 1.8-2.6 km (6,000-8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and W during 1-4 October.

Piton de la Fournaise – Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 19 September was ongoing at a cone adjacent to the SW flank of Piton Kala Pélé during 28 September-4 October. The cone ejected lava to low heights above the rim. Lava flowed from the base of the cone in two main branches, to the SE and E, mainly through lava tubes, as far as 3 km. By 28 September the cone had grown to just over 8 m tall and around 27 m wide at its base. Average daily lava flow discharge rate estimates had a mean value of 8 meters per second at the beginning of the eruption but then stabilized at 2-4 meters per second; the flow rate increased during 28-29 September to more than 6 meters per second. Lava discharge rates were likely underestimated due to measurements hindered by weather conditions or flows obscured by tubes. Tremor levels and gas emissions also began increasing on 29 September and remained at high levels during the rest of the week. The vent at the top of the cone widened and a new, smaller cone formed on the S flank and produced lava flows. The volume of erupted lava was 2.6-5.4 million cubic meters by 30 September; peak discharge rates reached 20 meters per second at times. Sulfur dioxide emission estimates derived from satellite data had increased from about 610 tons per day on 28 September to 1,525 tons per day on 1 October. A well-defined gas plume, denser than those seen during previous days, was identified in a 30 September satellite image drifting 300 km NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A more significant sulfur dioxide plume was identified in satellite data the next day, drifting as far as 400 km. Gas plumes drifted SW during 2-3 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to increase and were about 2,500 tons per day on 3 October. The cone had grown to around 12 m tall and 43 m wide at the base. During 3-4 October the ejection of lava above the cone became less intense, and the new smaller cone was only weakly active. The southernmost lava flow had reached 1,800 m elevation in an area 1.5 km NW of Nez coupé du Tremblet. During 4-5 October tremor levels fluctuated. Lava effusion increased, averaging 10 meters per second with peaks at 25 meters per second. Lava was ejected above the main vent, which was 23 m wide; the smaller vent was not active. The eruption stopped or paused at 0748 on 5 October based on visual observations and a sudden halt in tremor signals.

Trident – Alaska : A swarm began on 24 August and within about four days the seismic network began detecting episodes of weak seismic tremor and low frequency earthquakes. The events were initially located at depths around 25 km, but then they progressively shallowed to around 5 km by 28 August. Earthquakes were located 3-6 km deep since then, though some deeper events were recorded. AVO attributed the swarm to moving magma or magmatic fluids and noted that seismic swarms had previously been recorded with no subsequent eruptions.


Rabies – Philippines

The Philippines Department of Health, Epidemiology Bureau reports that the number of human rabies cases reported in the country from the beginning of the year through September 10 is now 262 with 6 cases being reported this week.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever – South Africa

South African health officials report a second Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in the country this year in a 32-year-old man from Burgersdorp, Eastern Cape Province. The first was a fatal case of CCHF reported from the Western Cape Province.


Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.7 earthquake hits the Turkey-Iran border.

5.6 earthquake hits the Peru-Ecuador border.

5.3 earthquake hits Antofagasta, Chile.

5.1 earthquake hits Catamarca, Argentina.

5.0 earthquake hits Kepulauan Tanimbar, Indonesia.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Depression Twelve is located about 480 mi…770 km w of the Cabo Verde islands with maximum sustained winds…35 mph…55 km/h. Present movement…nw or 320 degrees at 8 mph…13 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm 17e (Paine), located approximately 884 nm south of San Diego, is tracking northwestward at 05 knots.

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Ghana – The release of excess water from a dam has caused flooding in parts of in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana flooding hundreds of homes. The Weija Dam, situated on the Densu River. Prolonged heavy rainfall in the region caused levels of the dam to increase. Normal level is 46.5 feet (14.17 metres) , while maximum operating level is 48 feet (14.63 metres) . Over recent days the level jumped to 49.5 feet (15.09 metres). Four spill gates were opened to safeguard the integrity of the dam, save the dam from collapse and save lives and properties.

Nigeria – Wide areas of the state of Kogi in the North Central region of Nigeria are underwater after the Niger and Benue rivers broke their banks. Ibaji is almost 100% under water while the other affected areas are around 30% flooded and upwards.


Wildfires – Washington, USA

There are a number of large fires burning in Washington.

• Goat Rocks: Located 7 miles east of Packwood, started on Aug. 9, 0% contained, 4,193 acres burned.

• Bolt Creek: Located 37 miles east of Seattle, Started on Sept. 10, 39% contained, 12,142 acres burned.

• Minnow Ridge: Located 25 miles north of Wenatchee, started on Sept. 10, 0% contained, 2,212 acres burned.

• White River: Located 14 miles northwest of Plains, started on Aug. 11, 10% contained, 4,206 acres burned.