Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.3 Earthquake hits Tonga.

5.9 Earthquake hits Easter Island.

5.8 Earthquake hits the Celebes Sea.

5.6 Earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

5.5 Earthquake hits Tonga.

5.5 Earthquake hits off the west coast of northern Sumatra.

5.4 Earthquake hits Tonga.

5.4 Earthquake hits Tonga.

5.2 Earthquake hits near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.

5.1 Earthquake hits near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.

5.1 Earthquake hits the Kuril Islands.

5.0 Earthquake hits the western Indian-Antarctic ridge.

5.0 Earthquake hits Unimak Island, Alaska.

5.0 Earthquake hits the Santa Cruz Islands.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms

In the Western Pacific:

Typhoon Krosa is located approximately 128 nm south-southeast of Hong Kong.

In the Eastern Pacific:

Tropical depression Eighteen-E is located about 320 mi (510 km) S of the southern tip of Baja California.

The developing tropical system over the Eastern Pacific will likely soon garner the name Tropical Storm Sonia. The latest tropical system in the Eastern Pacific will bring a new round of dangerous and life-threatening flooding and mudslides to areas in Mexico already hit hard since the summer.

NewsBytes:

Storm-force winds bring damage and about 10,000 homes and businesses across south and west Wales lost power at the peak of the high winds. The M4 was closed both ways for two hours Saturday between Margam and Pyle after a caravan overturned. The motorway closure happened after the incident in the contraflow eastbound, causing long delays.

Global Warming

Climate change is already affecting food supplies

A leaked draft of an IPCC report due in 2014 shows how climate change is already affecting food security around the world.

The report, which a spokesperson for the IPCC described as a “work in progress”, is likely to change before it is fully released in March 2014. However it lays out in concerning detail the conclusions of recent research on how climate change is affecting the world’s food supplies today, and how it is likely to in the future.

The report concludes that climate is already having an effect on food security, and that while rising temperatures may have beneficial effects on agricultural production in limited areas, globally productivity is expected to be decrease two percent per decade for the rest of the century from what it would be without mankind’s influence on the climate.

NewImage

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity:

Stromboli (Eolian Islands, Italy): Activity has remained similar since our previous visit 9 days ago: most activity is at the NW crater (towards Ginostra), where 3 vents are active and produce mild to strong strombolian explosions (to heights of up to 250 m approx) at rates of one every 5 minutes approximately, mostly from the eastern vent and sometimes from the tall hornito to the north. The eastern vent also shows weak spattering and continuous glow, suggesting a high magma level within its conduit. No activity was observed from the central crater, and the NE vent activity is weak with infrequent (20-30 minutes intervals) loud gas emissions, and only sometimes lava ejections to heights of 100-150 m.

Etna (Sicily, Italy): Tremor and surface activity have continued to decrease. Once more, Etna has surprised us, this time by NOT producing a second paroxysm shortly (few days) after the one 26 Oct (as it often did after the first such eruption in the past).

Klyuchevskoy (Kamchatka): The eruption seems to have ended. No more lava flows or strombolian explosions were seen during the past days. KVERT reports moderate seismic activity of the volcano and strong degassing at the summit.

Karymsky (Kamchatka): A volcanic ash plume was observed yesterday at 10,000 ft (3 km) altitude, indicating a likely explosion of moderate size had occurred earlier. The volcano has been in a state of intermittent strombolian to vulcanian explosive activity for years.

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Extrusion of viscous lava at the dome continues to feed at least 2 thick lava flows on the SW, NW and NE slopes. Two larger partial dome collapses occurred yesterday, producing pyroclastic flows and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 23,000 ft (7 km).

Sakurajima (Kyushu, Japan): Since the larger explosions on 27 Oct, the volcano has been a bit calmer with on average 2 explosions per day ejecting ash plumes to 7-10,000 ft (2-3 km) altitude.

Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): Explosive activity from the summit crater continued to occur intermittently. At 16:00 on 31 Oct, an explosion produced a small ash plume and an avalanche of blocks on the ESE flank that traveled about 800 m down the flank. Other explosions were reported to have occurred during the night 31 Oct-1 Nov at 23:17 and 23:30 (local time).

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): No significant change in activity have occurred recently. The volcano produces frequent (on average 3 per hour) steam and sometimes small ash emissions / explosions and continues to show weak crater glow at night.

Santa María / Santiaguito (Guatemala): In recent days the eruptive activity has increased, in particular towards more effusive activity. The Caliente lava dome produced a higher rate of lava extrusion at the edges of the dome and explosions at a rate of approx. one per hour with ash plumes of up to 500 m drifting in westerly directions. The volcano observatory warns that rapid accumulation of fresh deposits (lava flows and tephra) the risk of pyroclastic flows generated on the steep flanks of the dome is elevated, mainly on the east, south and western flanks.

Pacaya (Guatemala): Mild to moderate strombolian activity with ejections of incandescent lava to heights of 50-100 m above the Mackenney crater continues.

Fuego (Guatemala): Weak to moderate strombolian activity at the summit craters continues with little changes. Ash plumes rose to up to 500 m above the crater and drifted about 10 km in westerly directions, where light ash falls occurred in San Pedro Yepocapa and the villages of Sangre de Cristo, Morelia, Panimaché. The stronger explosions produce often loud rumblings and incandescent avalanches on the upper slopes.

Reventador (Ecuador): Sporadic explosions of small to moderate size continue to occur at the summit vent. A pilot observed an ash plume at 22,000 ft (6.7 km) altitude last night.

Tungurahua (Ecuador): Activity is at moderate levels, characterized by relatively infrequent and small ash explosions. During early October, strombolian activity had increased and explosions have become more frequent (60-100 per day) and ash-rich, sometimes accompanied by loud shock waves. Between 20 and 23 October, activity started to decrease to 20-35 explosions per day with steam and ash columns 2-3 km high, drifting mainly to westerly directions and causing fine ash fall in Palitagua, Chogluntús, El Manzano, Penipe, and Riobamba . Deflation was recorded in late October, interpreted as the result of degassing and depressurization caused by the numerous explosions. IGPEN is not certain whether the decrease in activity during late Oct is a signal that the eruptive phase is ending or whether it will increase again in the near future.

Jebel Zubair (Red Sea): A new island has emerged in late Oct at the submarine eruption site, but the exact date is currently not known. At the moment, satellite images do not allow to determine whether eruptive activity at the island continues, but suggest that it is currently low or has stopped. If any, it might be strombolian or the effusion of small lava flows. The last ash /steam plume was spotted a MODIS satellite image on 30 Oct.