Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.0 Earthquake hits southeast of the Loyalty Islands.

5.5 Earthquake hits the Philippine Islands.

5.2 Earthquake hits the Mid-Indian ridge.

5.0 Earthquake hits south of Fiji.

Global Warming

U.N.’s Most Dire Climate Change Warning Yet

The U.N. panel on climate change concluded in its fourth and final volume of climate assessment that humans may be forced to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero this century to avoid global temperatures rising to dangerous levels.

It also warned that failure to reduce the use of fossil fuels could compel the world to find ways of removing carbon emissions from the atmosphere in the future.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s assessment also says human activities are to blame for nearly all global warming since the 1950s.

“Science has spoken. There is no ambiguity in their message. Leaders must act. Time is not on our side,” U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said at the report’s launch in Copenhagen.

The final report must be approved by governments and scientists in advance of a 2015 deadline for a global agreement on limiting climate change.

The IPCC says the financial costs of shifting to solar, wind and other renewable sources, and improving energy efficiency, would reduce global economic growth only by 0.06 per cent annually.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity

Bardarbunga (Iceland): The volcanic eruption at Holuhraun gives no signs of weakening and continues to eject an impressive lava fountain from the central Baugur crater at a rate similar to the past few weeks. This record-breaking eruption started on the 31st of August 2014 and formed a more than 17 km long lava flow. Using the successive outlines of this lava flow as drawn on a radar image from the Icelandic Coast Guard, researchers from the Institute of Earth Sciences estimated that by now the lava has covered an area of 70 km².

Subsidence of the glacier surface above the Bárdarbunga caldera is also still going on. This vertical displacement is monitored by near real time presentation of data from a GPS station that was mounted in the centre of the caldera on September 11. There was a technical problem that prohibited transmission of these GPS data on the 8th of November, but this has been fixed. Comparison of the vertical location of this GPS station before and after the ca. 24 h communication problem shows subsidence of up to half a meter in a single day. The total subsidence recorded at Bárdarbunga caldera since 12 September is 21 m and based on earlier GPS data the total subsidence since the onset of this eruption is at least 44 m.