Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 Earthquake hits southeast of the Loyalty Islands.

5.4 Earthquake hits the Loyalty Islands.

5.2 Earthquake hits Hokkaido, Japan.

5.2 Earthquake hits southeast of the Loyalty Islands.

5.1 Earthquake hits the Loyalty Islands.

5.1 Earthquake hits Sulawesi, Indonesia.

5.0 Earthquake hits offshore Oaxaca, Mexico.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Wp2817

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Typhoon 28w (Damrey), located approximately 328 nm southeast of Da Nang, Vietnam, is tracking westward at 08 knots.

Newsbytes:

Kenya – Marsabit’s central business district has been hugely affected by floods following rains that began early Thursday morning, and continued for the better part of the day.

India – Rain lashed Chennai for several hours from 5 p.m. on Thursday. It caused flooding on numerous roads. Subways were closed for traffic and motorists had to struggle with poor visibility. The rain affected the movement of several flights at Chennai airport and slowed down local trains on the Chennai Beach-Tambaram route. The core city and the southern suburbs bore the brunt of the rain. As of 10.30 p.m., Chennai recorded 119 mm.

Wildlife

Bonus Monarchs

Tens of thousands of migrating monarch butterflies are stuck in northern climes this autumn because of unusually warm weather and strong winds that have grounded them.

Biologist Elizabeth Howard, director of the monarch tracking group Journey North, says the colorful insects have been seen from far southern Ontario to near Cape May, New Jersey. Monarchs typically arrive in their central Mexican winter home about Nov. 1.

Howard points out that many of the stragglers are a sort of “bonus generation” that was able to emerge late in the season because of the delayed chill.

Salmon Crisis

Not a single wild salmon returned to a key breeding river in New Brunswick, Canada, to spawn for the first time on record.

“It means for the Magaguadavic River, whatever wild salmon that existed there are now extinct,” said Neville Crabbe, spokesman for the Atlantic Salmon Federation.

The federation says the decline in the once-abundant wild salmon from Atlantic Canada to Maine is partly due to an increase in salmon farming in the region.

Other factors include the construction of dams, loss of habitat, pollution, climate change and overfishi

Global Warming

Massive US Government Report Says Climate Is Warming And Humans Are The Cause

It is “extremely likely” that human activities are the “dominant cause” of global warming, according to the most comprehensive study ever of climate science by U.S. government researchers.

The climate report notes that the past 115 years are “the warmest in the history of modern civilization.” The global average temperature has increased by about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit over that period. Greenhouse gases from industry and agriculture are by far the biggest contributor to warming.

The findings contradict statements by President Trump and many of his Cabinet members, who have openly questioned the role humans play in changing the climate.

The report states that the global climate will continue to warm. How much, it says, “will depend primarily on the amount of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide) emitted globally.” Without major reductions in emissions, it says, the increase in annual average global temperature could reach 9 degrees Fahrenheit relative to pre-industrial times. Efforts to reduce emissions, it says, would slow the rate of warming.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 112 degrees Fahrenheit (44.4 degrees Celsius) in Derby, Western Australia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 71.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 57.2 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

Madagascar – Plague

The number of plague cases have topped 1800 in Madagascar, including 1,111 pneumonic plague cases, according to new data released by WHO.

From 1 August to 30 October 2017, a total of 1,836 suspected cases of plague, including 133 deaths (case fatality rate 7%), were reported. Of these, 1,111 (62%) were clinically classified as pulmonary plague, 261 (15%) were bubonic plague, one was septicemic, and 428 were unspecified (further classification of cases is in process).

Since the beginning of the outbreak, 71 healthcare workers (with no deaths) have been affected.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 25 October – 31 October 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that sulfur dioxide flux at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano was high at 1,000 and 1,400 tons per day on 23 and 27 October, respectively. Very small events at Minamidake summit crater were detected during 24-25 and 29-30 October. A thermally anomalous area on the SE flank, near Showa Crater, was identified on 25 October using a thermal camera. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 October an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : Based on satellite observations, AVO reported that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater continued to grow, and by 23 October it had dimensions of 140 x 110 m. A small, 30-second-long explosion was recorded at 1045 on 28 October in seismic and infrasound data. Weather conditions were overcast with clouds at approximately 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.; no volcanic plumes associated with the explosion were identified in satellite images emerging above the cloud level. A small explosion was recorded at 0320 on 30 October, though no ash plume was observed rising above the weather clouds at 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. in satellite data. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were detected the next day. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-31 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 20-27 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : On 27 October KVERT reported that gas-and-steam activity at Karymsky continued, and that the last ash-bearing explosions occurred on 3 October. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 25-31 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya slightly decreased compared to the previous week; there was an average of 43 explosions recorded per day during 23-29 October. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with a relatively steady rate of signals indicating emissions and an increasing number of hybrid events. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3.9 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NW, NE, E, and SE. The MIROVA system detected eight thermal anomalies. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 2,635 tons per day on 29 October. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 20-22 and 25 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that a strong explosive sequence began at the vents of Stromboli’s southern crater area (Area CS) at 1604 on 23 October. The explosions ejected coarse pyroclastic material onto the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa, and produced a dense ash plume that quickly dissipated to the SE.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Turrialba at 1030, 1105, and 1445 on 30 October generated ash plumes that rose 200-500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in the community of Pacayas (about 12 km SSW). OVSICORI-UNA noted that the ash emissions from the event at 1445 rose from the reddish crater.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 October ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km S and SE.

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 31 October the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that, based on seismic data, explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.