Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.9 earthquake hits Fiji.

5.8 earthquake hits Fiji.

5.1 earthquake hits the southern Mid-Atlantic ridge.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm 28w (Twenty-eight), located approximately 121 nm northwest of Andersen AFB, is tracking northwestward at 10 knots.

In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone (tc) 04b (Four), located approximately 264 nm southwest of Kolkata, India, is tracking northwestward at 14 knots.

NewsBytes:

Mexico – As strong monsoon storms moved into the sister cities, known colloquially as Ambos Nogales, on Tuesday afternoon residents uploaded numerous videos and photos of the flooding in the area. Two people died in the flooding, their bodies washing into Arizona. The floods are not uncommon during the Monsoon season. Nogales, Sonora is a densely built city of 350,000 people perched along deep canyons. When heavy storms hit, large amounts of water collect along ravines and washes. But because the Mexican city sits at a higher elevation, the rainwater ends up draining northbound into Arizona.

Global Warming

World’s Largest River Floods Five Times More Often Than It Used to

Extreme floods have become more frequent in the Amazon Basin in just the last two to three decades, according to a new study.

After analyzing 113 years of Amazon River levels in Port of Manaus, Brazil, researchers found that severe floods happened roughly every 20 years in the first part of the 20th century. Now, extreme flooding of the world’s largest river occurs every four years on average—or about five times more frequently than it used to.

This increase in flooding could be disastrous for communities in Brazil, Peru and other Amazonian nations, the researchers pointed out. There are catastrophic effects on the lives of the people as the drinking water gets flooded, and the houses get completely destroyed.

This dramatic increase in floods is caused by changes in the surrounding seas, particularly the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and how they interact. Due to a strong warming of the Atlantic Ocean and cooling of the Pacific over the same period, we see changes in the so-called Walker circulation, which affects Amazon precipitation. The effect is more or less the opposite of what happens during an El Niño event. Instead of causing drought, it results in more convection and heavy rainfall in the central and northern parts of the Amazon basin.

With temperatures in the Atlantic expected to continue warming, the scientists expect to see more of these high water levels in the Amazon River.

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Environment

El Niño Return?

Weather agencies around the world predict there is a 60 to 70 percent chance the weather-altering phenomenon El Niño will emerge during the next two months.

The last time the ocean-warming stretched across the tropical Pacific was in late 2015 into 2016.

It was among the strongest on record and caused weather-related crop damage, wildfires and disastrous flooding in various parts of the planet. But researchers say they don’t expect the new one to be as intense.

A recent study predicts that climate change is altering the dynamics of both El Niño and its ocean-cooling counterpart, La Niña, making their weather impacts more severe as the planet warms.

Nature – Images

Interesting Images

Squirrel Knot

Five infant squirrels that got their tails caught together in a giant knot were rescued and untied by the Wisconsin Humane Society. They were taken to the group’s vets by someone who came across the bizarre scene of their tails caught in what the rescuers called a “Gordian knot” of squirrel tail and nest material. “You can imagine how wiggly and unruly (and nippy!) this frightened, distressed ball of squirrelly energy was, so our first step was to anesthetize all five of them at the same time,” the Humane Society said. The squirrels were frazzled but unharmed by the experience.

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Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 117 degrees Fahrenheit (47.2 degrees Celsius) in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 106.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 76.7 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Wildfires

Wildfires – Australia

Firefighters have taken control of the blazes that have ravaged rural areas to the north and west of Townsville. Crews have battled the bushfires bravely this past fortnight with thousands of hectares of grassland destroyed, but importantly no lives or structures were lost.

Fire crews and property owners are battling two fast-moving and unpredictable bushfires in Queensland.

A large fire is moving in an easterly direction from Toogoolawah, near the Brisbane Valley Highway and Angledale Lane towards the Somerset Dam region. Mount Bepppo is expected to be the next location hit.

Another fire west of Gympie started on a Woolooga property yesterday and quickly spread, missing homes by just metres. The blaze intensified against just before midday amid rapidly changing conditions. It remains out of control and is moving in a north-easterly direction from west of Woolooga to north of the Wide Bay Highway.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 12 September -18 September 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were 13 events and also 13 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 10-18 September, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images during 7, 9, and 12-13 September. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, observed explosions that sent ash plumes to 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and occasional incandescence during 10-13 September; ash plumes visible in satellite data drifted 113 km SE and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 7 September. Dense and continuous ash emissions from the crater were visible on 10 September. Explosions during 10-11 September generated ash plumes identified in satellite images rising 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 860 km NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu’u ‘O’o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 17-18 September ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 10-16 September the new lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 16 September the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 112,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,600 cubic meters per day. White emissions of variable density rose 20 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and ONEMI reported the continuing, slow growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 11-17 September. Gas emissions persisted, and sometimes contained ash. Periodic explosions sometimes ejected material that was deposited around the crater. Notably, at 0057 on 12 September, an explosion associated with a partial dome-collapse event ejected incandescent material 700 m above the crater rim and onto the flanks. An explosion at 2224 on 13 September generated ash plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim. The event also ejected incandescent material to the SE, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled as most 400 m E. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 12-17 September there were 64-189 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Nighttime crater incandescence was sometimes visible. Explosions were detected almost every day: eight on 12 September; one on 14 September; five on 15 September; three on 16 September. A series of emissions and explosions accompanied by tremor began at 0425 on 17 September and lasted for 365 minutes; incandescent tephra was ejected. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 13 per day during 10-16 September. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km N, NE, and SE. The MIROVA system detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 12 September the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 2,060 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11, 13, 15, and 17 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.4 km (19,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. A thermal anomaly was visible each day, and also on 16 September.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 7-8 and 12-13 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 12-13 September eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater generated plumes that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. Tremor increased, and nighttime crater incandescence was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive gas-and-ash emissions from Turrialba were continuous in September through the 13th. Events during 17-18 September produced plumes that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and NW.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.4 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

5.4 earthquake hits off the coast of Chiapas, Mexico.

5.4 earthquake hits the Alamagan region, North Mariana Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits Kepulauan Talaud, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits offshore Tarapaca, Chile.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: The remnants of Nineteen-E are located about 55 mi…90 km e of Guaymas Mexico with maximum sustained winds…30 mph…45 km/h. Present movement…nne or 20 degrees at 9 mph…15 km/h.

NewsBytes:

North Carolina, USA – About 3.4 million chickens and turkeys and 5,500 hogs have been killed in flooding from Florence as rising North Carolina rivers swamped dozens of farm buildings where the animals were being raised for market, according to state officials. The N.C. Department of Agriculture issued the livestock mortality totals Tuesday, as major flooding is continuing after the slow-moving storm’s drenching rains. Sixteen North Carolina rivers were at major flood stage Tuesday, with an additional three forecasted to peak by Thursday.

Wildfires

Wildfires – Australia

Bushfires could travel underground across parched parts of Queensland in coming days, the Rural Fire Service has warned. The dire warning comes as most of Queensland faces a very high fire danger over the next two days and a total fire ban across the state’s south-east.

Soils throughout much of the state are extremely dry and that can help the spread of what is called “subterranean fires”. A subterranean fire burns through a tree stump or a tree and it burns what you can see, but what you’re not seeing is that it is burning underground through the root system. These sort of fires can then “pop out” of the ground days or even weeks later. The root systems of these trees can go for many, many metres into unburnt country and pop out three days later, five days later, three weeks later and start another fire.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 12 September -18 September 2018

Ioto | Japan : During an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 12 September the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force observed seawater jetting 5-10 m above the sea surface on the S coast, suggestive of a submarine eruption.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. Lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.

Sarychev Peak | Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT and KVERT reported increased activity and ash emissions at Sarychev Peak in mid-September. A thermal anomaly had been periodically visible since 7 May 2018, though more recently anomalies were detected during 8 and 11-12 September. Explosions sometimes occurred during 11 and 13-15 September, and ash emissions rose 3-4 km (10,000-13,100 ft) a.s.l. On 14 September ash plumes drifted as far as 120 km. On 14 September KVERT stated that the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange, though on 17 September SVERT noted that the Aviation Color Code was at Yellow. KVERT reported that explosions at 0910 on 17 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 21 km NE.

Semisopochnoi | United States : On 16 September AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Advisory after increased seismicity was detected at 0831. Retrospective analysis of satellite data acquired on 10 September revealed small ash deposits on the N flank of Mount Cerberus, possibly associated with two bursts of tremor recorded on 8 September. This new information coupled with intensifying seismicity and a strong tremor signal recorded at 1249 on 17 September prompted AVO to raise the ACC to Orange and the VAL to Watch. Seismicity remained elevated on 18 September with nearly constant tremor being recorded by local sensors.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 12-18 September. A lava flow had traveled 800 m down the S flank of the summit cone by 14 September, remaining confined to the ice-filled summit caldera. A webcam in Perryville (35 km S) recorded nighttime incandescence, and sporadic gas emissions in the day during clear conditions. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, and seismicity remained elevated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.8 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.2 earthquake hits Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia.

5.1 earthquake hits Fiji.

5.1 earthquake hits near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan.

5.1 earthquake hits the Carlsberg Ridge.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Post Tropical Cyclone Joyce is located about 525 mi…850 km s of the Azores with maximum sustained winds…30 mph…45 km/h. Present movement…ssw or 200 degrees at 8 mph…13 km/h.

NewsBytes:

North Carolina, USA- Hurricane Florence may have moved on from North Carolina, but the effects from the deadly storm are still threatening the state. Florence unleashed up to 36 inches of rain in some areas, causing massive flooding. And while no more rain from the hurricane is expected, officials say the flooding is going to get worse before it gets better. One consequence is that the flooding breached hog lagoons – man-made pits that store animal waste. Due to excessive flooding, CNN reported that at least seven lagoons were overflowing with water and several more lagoons became flooded. Waste from the lagoons was spilling out into the storm water, exposing people to feces and bacteria like e.coli and salmonella, which can cause vomiting, gastrointestinal issues, kidney problems and skin infections, among other health issues. Flood waters could also be contaminated with coal ash, industrial waste created by coal burning power plants. In addition to animal waste, CBS reported that tens of thousands of gallons of untreated wastewater from a sanitary sewer flowed into a tributary of the Cape Fear river basin on Sunday for four hours.

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Disease

Plague – Madagascar

An outbreak of plague in Madagascar has killed two people, a health official said on Tuesday, marking the official start of the season when the disease is considered to be at its deadliest. Last year more than 200 people were killed before epidemics of bubonic and pneumonic plague were brought under control in November.

Foot and Mouth Disease – Sierra Leone

About 500 animals, including small ruminants like goats and ship, have died in an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in Sierra Leone, report said Monday.The Ministry of Health says the highly contagious and infectious viral disease which affects animals spilled over from neighboring Guinea. It said three districts – Kono in the east and Kambia and Tonkolili in the north have been affected so far. All three districts share border with Guinea and Liberia.

Chikungunya – Sudan

The Sudan Federal Ministry of Health has reported more than 6,200 chikungunya cases in the current outbreak in Sudan’s northeastern state of Kassala. However, the health sector says the number of people affected is much higher than official numbers. Seven chikungunya related fatalities have been reported.