Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.9 earthquake hits the Izu Islands off Japan.

5.3 earthquake hits eastern Turkey.

5.1 earthquake hits the Volcano Islands off Japan.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Southern Hemisphere: Tropical cyclone (tc) 23s (Twenty-three), located approximately 207 nm west of Darwin, Australia, is tracking west-southwestward at 09 knots.

NewsBytes:

Thailand – Pattaya city was hit by flash floods for the second consecutive day on Wednesday after being pounded by thunderstorms. Several areas were flooded up to a meter high and roads cut off after the touristic coastal city suddenly experienced torrential rain in the afternoon for over two hours. The city yesterday also saw vast areas submerged by floods following hours of heavy rain, damaging many homes and a popular beach. Many parts of the major road Pattaya Tai were inundated, causing traffic jams several kilometers long.

Wildlife

Rare Reptilian

Australian researchers say they have documented the previously unknown ability of a three-toed skink to lay three eggs, then weeks later give birth to a live baby from the same litter.

Camilla Whittington from the University of Sydney said it was the first time a vertebrate animal has been seen with such an ability.

Skinks are normally “bimodally reproductive,” giving birth in some places while laying eggs in others.

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Wildfires

Wildfires – South Korea

Thousands of firefighters and soldiers are starting to contain wildfires in South Korea on Friday which have killed one person and forced more than 4,000 people to flee their homes, the South Korean government said.

The fires broke out in eastern Gangwon Province on Thursday evening and spread to the cities of Sokcho and Gangneung, burning about 525 hectares (1,297 acres) and some 198 homes, warehouses and other buildings by early Friday.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 112 degrees Fahrenheit (44.4 degrees Celsius) in Nawabshah, Pakistan.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 100.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 73.3 degrees Celsius) at Russia’s Vostok base, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

DR Congo – Ebola – Update

This past week saw a marked increase in the number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. During this period, a total of 172 confirmed cases were reported from Katwa (50), Vuhovi (34), Mandima (28), Masereka (18), Beni (13), Butembo (12), Oicha (8), Kayna (3), Lubero (3), Kalunguta (1), Bunia (1) and Musienene (1). As of 2 April, a total of 1100 confirmed and probable EVD cases have been reported, of which 690 died (case fatality ratio 63%).

Cholera – Mozambique – Update

Cholera cases in cyclone-hit Mozambique have spiked to more than 1400 and a second person has died from the disease.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 27 March – 2 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : At 1825 on 28 March an ash plume from Agung rose above the crater to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW according to PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data. Ashfall was reported in nearby villages. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 25 March-1 April five events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 March-2 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22, 24-25, and 27-28 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 24-25 and 27 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 March there were 14-20 explosion per hour recorded at Fuego, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifting 15-25 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves vibrated nearby structures. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. A special bulletin issued on 29 March stated that activity has increased with ash plumes from explosions rising as high as 1.3 km and drifting 30 km in multiple directions. Avalanches of material traveled down the Las Lajas, Honda and Seca drainages. A special bulletin was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 March multiple ash plumes from Ibu were identified in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were visible in satellite images during 26-27 March drifting 190 km E at altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1051, 1456, and 1511 on 30 March brownish or grayish ash plumes from Kerinci rose 500-600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1325 on 30 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose 1 km a.s.l. and drifted NE. Three events were detected on 31 March (at 0035, 1219, and 1745), although no ash plumes were visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and N based on satellite data and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that by 21 March Merapi’s lava dome had grown to an estimated volume of 472,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage, and remained relatively unchanged during 22-28 March; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. As many as eight block-and-ash flows traveled up to 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. A lava flow traveled down the N flank, producing minor avalanches of material from the lava-flow front.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a two-minute-long phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 0802 on 1 April and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The report noted that a previous event had occurred at 2043 on 29 March. Intermittent tremor was recorded in between the two events.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that an average of 43 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 25-31 March. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, SE, S, and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly, and on 31 March the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported renewed activity at Sangay on 26 March based on satellite data and a Washington VAAC notice of ash. According to the VAAC a small ash plume rose less than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. Seismicity had decreased to an average of three events per day after the last eruption ended on 7 December 2018, and then to 1 event per day during the past month. There was no seismic record of the 26 March event due to technical difficulties.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the E, SE, and S flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 22-28 March. An ash plume rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 80 km S on 25 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events.