Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.5 earthquake hits offshore Coquimbo, Chile.

5.4 earthquake hits Vanuatu.

5.4 earthquake hits south of Sumbawa, Indonesia.

5.3 earthquake hits Guam.

5.3 earthquake hits the Kermedec Islands.

5.2 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.0 earthquake hits Coquimbo, Chile.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone 02a (Vayu), located approximately 248 nm south- southeast of Karachi, Pakistan, is tracking west-southwestward at 04 knots.

NewsBytes:

China – At least 61 people have now been killed and 356,000 evacuated from their homes as heavy rain and floods swept through large parts of southern and central China this week, Chinese rescue authorities said. In a notice published late on Thursday, China’s Ministry of Emergency Management said 9,300 homes have collapsed and 3.71 million hectares of farmland damaged during the floods.

Indonesia – Indonesian authorities warned of more flash floods and landslides after days of flooding forced the evacuation of more than 5,000 people from Central and Southeast Sulawesi, the nation’s main nickel ore producing region. Heavy rainfall may continue to lash Southeast Sulawesi and many other provinces until Saturday, the Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency said on its website. Authorities evacuated 5,703 people until Tuesday after hundreds of hectares of paddy and corn fields were inundated and several houses damaged.

Global Warming

Arctic Permafrost Is Going Through a Rapid Meltdown — 70 Years Early

In the Canadian Arctic, layers of permafrost that scientists expected to remain frozen for at least 70 years have already begun thawing. The once-frozen surface is now sinking and dotted with melt ponds and from above looks a bit like Swiss cheese, satellite images reveal.

Permafrost is ground that remains frozen for at least two years. It underlies about 15% of the unglaciated Northern Hemisphere and serves a critical role in the transfer of carbon from living things to the atmosphere.

The researchers recorded permafrost thawing to depths that were not expected until air temperatures reached levels the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted will occur after 2090, according to one of its “moderate” climate change models.

The researchers believe higher summer temperatures, low levels of insulating vegetation and the presence of ground ice near the surface contributed to the exceptionally rapid and deep thawing.

The most striking evidence is visible to the naked eye. As upper layers of permafrost thaw and ice melts, the land settles unevenly, forming what is known as thermokarst topography. Landscapes in the Canadian Arctic that had been defined by gently rolling hills are now pockmarked with ditches and small ponds. The ground at the northernmost study site sank by about 35 inches (90 centimeters) over the course of the study.

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Environment

Locusts in Sardinia

Locusts are devouring crops across the Italian island of Sardinia in the worst such invasion seen there in 70 years.

While the ravenous insects are often seen on the Mediterranean island during the summer, farmers say they are now greater in number than at any time since World War II because of extreme weather swings during the past two years.

“We had droughts in 2017 and a lot of rain in 2018, the ideal climate for locusts to emerge from fallow land and then move to cultivated fields to eat,” Michele Arbau from the agricultural association Coldiretti Sardinia told Reuters.

Heat and Dust in India

A searing heat wave across India that brought Delhi its hottest ever temperature of 118 degrees F. has killed dozens of people and severely affected wildlife.

Officials say as many as 36 people have perished in the heat so far this year.

At least one troop of monkeys died from suspected heatstroke, or from violent conflicts with other monkeys over dwindling water supplies. Similar deadly conflicts among the human population have also been reported.

Tigers that are dying from thirst in parched forests have been observed moving into communities in search of water.

Wildlife

Plant Extinctions

After analyzing the populations of more than 330,000 seed-bearing plants around the world, the study authors found that about three plant species have gone extinct on Earth every year since 1900 — a rate that’s roughly 500 times higher than the natural extinction rate for those types of plants, which include most trees, flowers and fruit-bearing plants. Unsurprisingly, human activity plays a key role in this elevated extinction trend.

The researchers found that, while roughly 1,300 seed plant species had been declared extinct since 1753, about half of those claims were ultimately proven to be false. In the last 250 years, more than 400 plants thought to be extinct have been rediscovered, and 200 others have been reclassified as a different living species. That leaves approximately 571 species confirmed extinct in the last 250 years, vanishing at a rate of roughly 18 to 26 extinctions per million species per year.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 degrees Celsius) in Jacobabad, Pakistan.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 116.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 82.2 degrees Celsius) at Russia’s Vostok base, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

Brain Disease – India

At least 43 children have died in less than two weeks in the Indian state of Bihar from a brain disease that scientists believe could be linked to consumption of lychee fruit. The children died at two hospitals in Muzaffarpur, a region of the state that is well known for its many lychee orchards harvested throughout May and June.

The state government is yet to confirm the cause of the outbreak but is attributing most of the deaths to hypoglycaemia – low blood sugar level. But doctors said that more than 150 children under the age of 10 had been admitted with symptoms of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) since 1 June, and that of these 43 had died. They said hypoglycaemia is one of the features of AES.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 5 June – 11 June 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1212 on 10 June an explosion at Agung produced a gray ash plume that rose about 1 km and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 3-10 June very small eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded, as well as periodic crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 3 June that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0604 on 7 June a grayish ash emission from Kerinci rose 800 m above the summit and drifted E according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 12 June ash plumes from Klyuchevskoy rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km N, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). Ash emissions continued later that day with plumes rising to 5 km a.s.l. and drifting 68 km WNW.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded one eruptive event at 0850 on 10 June. The event as not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 June ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, based on satellite data and weather models.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 3-10 June the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 9 June. White plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 10-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 0343 on 11 June. Emissions were not visible due to weather conditions.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that during 3-9 June an average of 12 explosion per day were recorded at Sabancaya. Ash plumes rose 2.9 km above the crater rim. On 7 June explosions generated ash plumes that drifted 30 km S and SW. The public was warned to not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 1-7 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent C.