Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits near the north coast of New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.

5.4 earthquake hits northern Alaska.

5.1 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.0 earthquake hits Santa Cruz, Argentina.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Potential Tropical Cyclone Sixteen is located about 390 mi…630 km ssw of the mouth of the Mississippi river with maximum sustained winds…40 mph…65 km/h. Present movement…ne or 45 degrees at 14 mph…22 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm Octave is located about 1450 mi…2330 km sw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…45 mph…75 km/h. Present movement…w or 270 degrees at 1 mph…2 km/h.

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In the Western Pacific Ocean : Tropical storm 21w (Neoguri), located approximately 401 nm south-southeast of Kadena AFB, Japan, is tracking northwestward at 03 knots.

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NewsBytes:

Chad and Cameroon – Heavy rains and floods this week have left at least 100,000 people homeless on both sides of the border between northern Cameroon and Chad. It’s the worst flooding in the area since 2012. the military is working to evacuate those stranded by floodwaters in Kaikai. Heavy rains have been pouring ceaselessly, destroying houses and farms in the northern Cameroon village of Kaikai over the past two weeks. Residents say the downpours caused Lake Maga and the Logone River to overflow.

Massachusetts, USA – Torrential rain and high winds pounded the Bay State overnight, leaving behind flooded streets in Worcester.

Global Warming

Earth Archive

A pair of Colorado State University scientists propose creating a high-resolution, 3D image of Earth’s surface in its current state before the effects of climate change alter the landscape forever.

Geographer Steve Leisz and archaeologist Chris Fisher propose scanning the planet with airborne lasers to initially capture the world’s most vulnerable locations. The same technology has been used to discover remote archeological sites.

The pair says that once completed, their nonprofit Earth Archive project would be “the ultimate gift to future generations,” which will be able to look back at Earth’s entire land area during the first half of the 21st century in unrivaled detail.

Arctic Survival

Increasingly harsh Arctic weather due to climate change could threaten the survival of plants and animals in Greenland, according to researchers from Denmark’s Aarhaus University.

They say 2018 snowfall was so heavy that it prevented almost all plants and animals in northeastern Greenland from reproducing.

Niels Martin Schmidt writes that, as opposed to the vanishing Arctic sea ice, the late-season heavy snow could be a problem if it becomes the new normal.

That’s because the Arctic growing and breeding season lasts for only a few weeks in July and August.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 119 degrees Fahrenheit (48.3 degrees Celsius) in Rafha, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 89.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 67.2 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

From 1 through 30 September 2019, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 4 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection and one associated death.

Ebola – DR Congo

The number of confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been relatively low in recent weeks, with 15 new confirmed cases reported in North Kivu and Ituri provinces during the epidemiological week of 7 October through 13 October.

Vaping-related lung illnesses – USA

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that the outbreak’s death toll has climbed to 33, up from 26 deaths reported last week. The outbreak victims range in age from 17 to 75, with an average age of 44, the agency said. What’s more, the total number of cases in the outbreak increased to 1,479, up from about 1,300 reported last week.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 9 October – 15 October 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 7-15 October. There were 13 explosions detected by the seismic network and nine non-explosive eruptive events. Eruption plumes rose 2.3-2.7 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,100 tons/day, on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambrym | Vanuatu : Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that data and observations during February-October indicated that conditions at Ambrym had become stable after the eruption in December 2018 that focused on the summit caldera and East Rift Zone. On 10 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) indicating minor unrest. VMGD warned the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius from Marum Crater, and additionally to stay away from the ground cracks resulting from the December 2019 eruption (a 500-m-radius around the major cracks at Paamal village).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim, causing ashfall in areas downwind including periodically at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,000 tons per day on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-15 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash from Ebeko was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, during 4-5 October. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions during 7-8 and 10 October that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0707 on 15 October an ash plume from Ibu rose at least 400 m above the summit and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-15 October lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1010 and 1226 on 12 October, 1026 on 13 October, and 1228 on 14 October the webcam at Anak Krakatau recorded dense gray-black ash plumes rising about 200 m above the bottom of the crater and drifting N. The 14 October event was recorded by the seismic network for three minutes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 8-15 October seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising sometimes higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling down the flanks on 10 and 14 October.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 36 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 7-13 October. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km above the summit and drifted SE and SW. There were 15 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 September ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-11 October. Explosions seen in video and satellite images on 6 and 9 October produced ash plumes that rose 6.5-11 km (21,300-36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,100 km E. Resuspended ash drifted 170 km E on 4 and 8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).