Global Warming

Mediterranean Warming

A new report, whose main conclusions are being presented on Thursday in Barcelona by the Mediterranean Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, shows that the temperature increase in the Mediterranean region has already reached 1.5ºC above pre-industrial levels, which means that the warming effect in this area is 20% faster than the global average.

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Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 116 degrees Fahrenheit (46.7 degrees Celsius) in Rafha, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 92.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 68.9 degrees Celsius) at Concordia, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Wildfires – Australia

Police have found the remains of two people who died in a bushfire in northern NSW. They lived on a rural property in Coongbar, 70 kilometres south-west of Casino. Police said their home on Deadman Creek Road had been destroyed by the Long Gully Road bushfire which was caused by a lightning strike.


Chikungunya – Thailand

The Thailand Bureau of Epidemiology released the latest chikungunya case numbers this week and the tally has eclipsed the 8,000 mark. Through Oct. 6, officials report 8,104 cases of the mosquito-borne disease from 52 provinces.Measles – DR Congo

Typhoid – Ireland

The Ireland Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC) in Dublin is reporting an significant increase in typhoid fever cases in 2019. Specifically, a large increase in typhoid cases have been reported among travelers returning from Pakistan.

Ebola – DR Congo

The number of reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) consistently declined in recent weeks, with 14 new confirmed cases reported in North Kivu and Ituri provinces during the epidemiological week of 30 September through 6 October.


Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 2 October – 8 October 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 30 September-7 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,000 tons/day, measured during fieldwork on 1 October. An explosion was recorded at 0055 on 4 October but weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. Two explosions during 6-7 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 1.1 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-8 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 27 September-4 October that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE, E, and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter.

Hakoneyama | Honshu (Japan) : On 7 October JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that the number of volcanic earthquakes had decreased to background levels after a spike in seismicity was recorded in May. Inflation had been detected but had become almost stagnant after late August. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active, with gas-and-steam plumes rising 100-400 m above their vents.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 October ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and N based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 30 September-6 October lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : On 3 October KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky continued to be periodically visible in satellite images. Ash explosions were last recorded on 24 September. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1253 on 6 October a brown ash emission from Kerinci rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted WSW according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded one eruptive event during 30 September-6 October. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising as high as 50 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that white emissions rose from Manam during 1-7 October and variable crater incandescence from Main Crater was visible at night. Seismicity was at low to moderate levels with RSAM values fluctuating around 300 units. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 October diffuse ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW, based on satellite data and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 24 September-1 October seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz increased in both frequency and magnitude compared to the previous week. Steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW. A tremor pulse recorded at 2353 on 29 September was associated with an ash plume that drifted NW and was observed by Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (PNNN) officials, SGC staff in the field, and residents of Manizales (25 km NW). Seismicity continued to indicate gas-and-ash emissions during 1-4 October. Beginning at 0138 on 4 October seismicity increased; several ash emissions were visible during the morning in webcam images and by SGC staff in the field. The emissions rose as high has 800 m and drifted mainly NW, causing ashfall locally and in Manizales. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2-8 October white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1 km above the rim and drifted ESE, S, and SE. Explosions on 2 and 6 October ejected incandescent material onto the flank. The lava flow on the NNE flank ceased advancing around 6 October, and small pyroclastic flows were recorded during 6-8 October. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that each day during 2-8 October there were as many as five explosions per hour detected at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 700-900 m above the complex and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE and S flanks. Ash fell in Monte Claro (S) on 2 October.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 29 September and 1-2 October video and satellite images recorded ash plumes from explosions at Sheveluch rising as high as 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l., and a notable pyroclastic flow traveled SE on 1 October. Ash plumes from the events drifted 1,400 km SE and E. On 6 October satellite images showed ash plumes rising to 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 430 km NE. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-colour scale). Later that day the ash plumes were visible in satellite images drifting 1,080 km ENE. The Alert Level was lowered back to Orange.

Tangkubanparahu | Western Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 30 September-6 October diffuse white water vapor plumes rose 150 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu’s Ratu Crater floor. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.


Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits the Pacific-Antarctic ridge.

5.4 earthquake hits the Macquarie Islands.

5.4 earthquake hits east of North Island, New Zealand.

5.1 earthquake hits Samoa.

5.0 earthquake hits Seram, Indonesia.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Super Typhoon 20w (Hagibis), located approximately 654 nm south of Yokosuka, Japan, is tracking north-northwestward at 13 knots.

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Wildfires – California

Fire crews across Northern California are responding to a number of wildfires that ignited amid critical weather conditions Wednesday, as well as a 4,400-acre blaze that has been burning near the entrance to Yosemite National Park since the weekend. Those conditions prompted Pacific Gas and Electric Co. to implement a massive public safety power shutoff, which blacked out about 513,000 customers between midnight and 4 a.m.


Measles – DR Congo

The world’s largest measles outbreak has hit a couple of grim milestones, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported 203,179 cases of measles from all 26 provinces of the country, including 4,096 deaths. UNICEF says children under the age of five represent 74 percent of the cases.


Infections in the United States from three sexually transmitted diseases hit a record high in 2018 — a high that threatens millions of Americans, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

According to a 2018 STD Surveillance Report from the CDC, combined cases of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia reached an all-time high in the United States last year with more than 2.4 million cases.

Antibiotics can cure syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, but the diseases must be caught early and not left untreated. The CDC cautioned that many cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis continue to go undiagnosed and unreported.


Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 2 October – 8 October 2019

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 2-7 October a webcam at Copahue recorded white and gray emissions rising as high as 300 m above the El Agrio Crater rim and drifting ENE, SE, and SSE. By 7 October the number and intensity of seismic events detected at Copahue had decreased to low levels. The volcano Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (second lowest level on a four-colour scale). ONEMI maintained the Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for residents, and stated that the public should stay at least 1 km away from El Agrio Crater.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that the fissure eruption on Ulawun’s WSW flank had ceased by 4 October, producing only diffuse white-to-gray steam plumes with a blueish tinge from the main coalesced vent. Weak incandescence from the vent was visible at night on 5 October. The lava-flow rate slowed to 3-5 m a day, likely because it was no longer being fed. RSAM decreased to 1,000 units; regular small high-frequency events were recorded during 4-7 October. RVO recommended that the Alert Level be reduced to Stage 2.


Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.4 earthquake hits eastern Kazakhstan.

5.2 earthquake hits offshore Maule, Chile.

5.2 earthquake hits the Izu Islands off Japan.

5.0 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Super Typhoon 20w (Hagibis), located approximately 258 nm south-southwest of Iwo To, Japan, is tracking north-northwestward at 10 knots.

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Wildfires – Australia

About 500 firefighters were battling out-of-control wildfires in eastern Australia that have now destroyed at least 30 homes. More than 40 bushfires were burning across New South Wales state. Temperatures were cooler Wednesday after strong winds and stifling heat restricted firefighting efforts Tuesday. More than 100,000 hectares (380 square miles) have burned with the small village of Rappville, population 250, among the worst affected.


Rabies – Malaysia

The rabies outbreak in Sarawak that was declared on July 1, 2017 is now entering its third year. The number of pet bites in dogs and cats is still high, averaging from 40 to 60 cases a day, at a rate similar to that of the first year of the rabies outbreak.

In 2019, a large number of dogs and cats biting humans tested positive for rabies. According to a report from the Department of Veterinary Services of Sarawak, as of September 30, 2019, a total of 138 (32.8%) samples from a total of 420 test dogs and cats were diagnosed with rabies. This year, there were five (5) confirmed cases of rabies among humans.

Cholera – Sudan

On 8 September, Sudan’s Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) notified WHO about a cholera outbreak in four localities in the Blue Nile State (BNS), south-eastern Sudan, bordering Ethiopia and South Sudan. The first case was detected on 28 of August 2019. From 28 August through 8 October 2019, a total of 247 suspected cholera cases, including 8 deaths (case fatality ratio: 3.5 %), have been reported from four localities in Blue Nile State

Yellow Fever – Nigeria

From 29 August through 22 September 2019, Nigeria reported an outbreak of yellow fever with an epi-centre in the Yankari game reserve of Alkaleri LGA, Bauchi state. According to Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), 231 suspected cases have been reported in four states.