Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 10 June 2020 – 16 June 2020
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were four explosive events and one eruptive event at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 8-12 June. An explosion at 1119 on 10 June produced a plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large rocks 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained high. No observable activity was recorded during 13-15 June, though inclement weather obscured views. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-15 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-11 June that sent ash plumes up to 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and N, and as far as 85 km N and NW on 11 June. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 11 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June.
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 June ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 5-12 June along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash drifted 40 km W and E on during 6-7, 9, and 11 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.
Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that a body of lava in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was visible in 11 June satellite images. The structure was oriented in the NNW direction and was about 100 m long and 60 m wide. Adjacent to the lava body was a smaller structure, oriented N. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 300 tons/day on 14 June, which was an average rate. A thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 14 June, and at night incandescent material was sometimes ejected from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Nishinoshima | Japan : The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. During an overflight on 15 June the Japan Coast Guard noted continuous activity from the central vent, including a gray-brown to black-brown ash plume rising as high as 2 km. Ejected material landed near the cone’s base. Lava from the NE side of the central vent flowed E. Steam plumes rose along the E coast where lava entered the sea, causing discoloured brownish water offshore. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.
Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 10-16 June there were 145-302 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes did not rise more than 1 km above the crater rim. An overflight was conducted on 13 June by the National Guard, Instituto de Geofísica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), and CENAPRED scientists. They noted that the inner crater was 350-380 m in diameter and 100-150 m deep; the crater floor was covered in tephra and the remains of a lava dome which had possibly been seen in May. At 1612 that same day a minor explosion was recorded, though an ash plume was not observed due to weather clouds. Incandescent material was ejected a short distance onto the flanks. Seven minor explosions were recorded on 15 June and again on 16 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).
Reykjanes | Iceland : IMO reported that a third injection of magma since the beginning of the year was occurring beneath the Reykjanes peninsula. Data suggested that the current inflationary period began in mid-May, though earthquake activity did not increase until around 30 May. During 30 May-15 June the seismic network recorded more than 2,000 events, with the largest, an M 3.4, recorded on 13 June. The intrusion was located about 1 km W of Thorbjorn at a depth of 3-4 km, and had an estimated volume of about 1.2 million cubic meters. This third intrusion was similar to the previous two intrusions, characterized as a sill that was a few hundred meters wide and about 6 km long. In total about 12 cm of uplift has been recorded since January. The Svartsengi geothermal plant noted no chemical changes in the geothermal system, though measurements showed increased fluid flow in the rocks within the system, along with the opening of old cracks and the formation of new ones.
Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 June an ash plume from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 10-16 June ash plumes from Semeru rose at most 300 m above the summit and drifted N, SE, S, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 5-12 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 5-12 June. An eruptive event on 5 June produced gray-white plume rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Whakaari/White Island | North Island (New Zealand) :
On 16 June GeoNet reported that during the previous few months activity levels at Whakaari/White Island had gradually progressed on a downward trend based on the volcano monitoring team’s collective interpretation of all the monitoring data. Temperatures at the gas vents remained high (over 450 degrees Celsius) though a slow decline in heat input from depth has been recorded. Although magma remained at a shallow depth, an estimated 1 km below the surface, gas discharge and ground deformation were not increasing. Additionally, seismic activity, specifically the level of volcanic tremor, had been low since February-March. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.