Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.2 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.1 earthquake hits offshore O’Higgins, Chile.

5.0 earthquake hits Oaxaca, Mexico.

5.0 earthquake hits the central mid-Atlantic ridge.

5.0 earthquake hits near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

There are no current tropical storms.

NewsBytes:

Bangladesh – Farmers are estimating the huge losses they might suffer in the wake of the floods, while the rest of the flood-hit people are waiting to get relief or food assistance from the government. The flood situation has worsened in several northern districts of the country, with people living these areas facing their worst nightmare with their houses, croplands, livestock and ponds still under water. According to the Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC), water levels may continue to rise in the Padma, Brahmaputra, Dhaleswari and Jamuna rivers, causing further damage to the adjacent areas. Meanwhile, the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) has forecast heavy to extreme rainfall in the northern part of the country, which may increase the water level of the rivers crossing through the areas.

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Wildlife

Over 400 Botswana elephants killed in mystery mass die-off

The carcasses of more than 400 elephants have been discovered north of the Okavango Delta and nobody yet knows what’s killing them. The government appears to be dragging its heels in pursuit of answers.From the air, a dead elephant torn into by scavengers is a grisly sight. In north-east Botswana the presence of at least 400 must have been overwhelming.

The first carcass was found near Seronga on May 11 by researchers in a helicopter trying to discover why an elephant with a satellite tracker hadn’t moved for some time. What they found was shocking.

The dead elephants were dotted near natural waterholes in mopane woodland and along trails. They had collapsed on their chests, almost in mid-step, suggesting sudden death — almost what a chemical nerve poison would do.

A further eight elephants in the area appeared to be weak and lethargic, some walking with difficulty or in circles, suggesting neurological impairment. Puzzlingly, no young elephants appear to have died.

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Environment

Russian Methane Leaks

Satellite data have detected massive plumes of methane gas leaking from Russia’s Yamal pipeline, which carries natural gas from Siberia to Europe. The Paris-based Kayrros energy consultancy said one leak was gushing 93 metric tons of methane each hour, with the same greenhouse gas effect as the exhaust of 15,000 cars in the United States during a full year.

Radiation Mystery

Russia has denied it is responsible for a cloud of radioactive particles detected at monitoring stations across northern Europe. Officials in Finland, Norway and Sweden say that one of the isotopes, Iodine 131, does not occur in nature and is created by nuclear fission. Cobalt, ruthenium and cesium were also detected in Finland. hile the amount of the radiation is considered tiny and not dangerous, its presence has led some experts to believe it may be from the testing of Russia’s new cruise missiles, which are said to be propelled by onboard nuclear power plants.

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Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50.0 degrees Celsius) in Death Valley, California.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 96.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 71.1 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

COVID-19

The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

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Wild Poliovirus – Afghanistan

The number of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases reported in Afghanistan has risen to 26 after officials reported seven new cases during the past week.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 1 April and 31 May 2020, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported nine new cases of MERS-CoV infection, including five deaths.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 24 June 2020 – 30 June 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 22-26 June two eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1,300 m above the crater rim. An explosion at 1807 on 28 June ejected material 1,000-1,300 m away from the crater and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 and 26-30 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19-26 June that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted in various directions, though during 21-25 June they drifted 50 km WSW. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 21-25 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kanlaon | Philippines : PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic network recorded 6-44 volcano-tectonic earthquakes per day at Kanloan during 23-30 June and 1-4 volcanic earthquakes during 27-29 June. Steam plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted NE, NW, and SW. A M 3.6 earthquake was recorded at 1900 on 23 June and was felt at Intensity III in La Carlota City and at Intensity II in Bago City, Negros Occidental. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 438, 237, and 116 tonnes per day on 13, 24, and 27 June, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a bright thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 19-26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 19-26 June along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Avalanches of material on the S side of the lava flow were sometimes visible. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 19-25 June sometimes dense white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 600 m above the summit. The report noted that the lava-dome volume was an estimated 200,000 cubic meters on 13 June based on analyses of drone images. The morphology of the summit crater area had slightly changed after the 21 June eruption. Based on photos taken from the Ngepos Post about 19,000 cubic meters had been removed from the SW part of the summit, likely near or part of the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in the rate of inflation in the vicinity of Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater beginning on 20 June. The lava dome in the crater that was visible in satellite images on 11 June (but described in previous reports) had increased in volume based on analysis of 23 June images, and lengthened on the E side. The estimated growth rate of 0.1-0.3 cubic meters per second is two orders of magnitude greater than growth of the Gil-Cruz dome measured during December 2018-early 2019 and one order of magnitude greater that dome growth during August-December 2019. Occasional explosions continued to be recorded, with emissions rising to low heights, and nighttime crater incandescence was visible. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.

Nishinoshima | Japan : During an overflight of Nishinoshima on 29 June Japan Coast Guard observers noted black ash plumes vigorously rising from the central crater to more than 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. A possible collapse of the SW part of the main crater was evident in photographs taken during the overflight. Strombolian explosions ejected lava above the cone and lava traveled SW, reaching the ocean and producing steam plumes. Discoloured yellow-green water was visible as far as 1 km offshore. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-30 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 200 m above the crater rim and were sometimes audible as far away as 5 km. Lava flows on the SW flank were mostly 100-600 m long but advanced to 2 km by 30 June. Lava advanced to 100 m on the S flank during 25-26 June and to 200 m on the NW flank during 27-29 June.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 27 May-2 June seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed almost daily with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 500 m down mainly the S and E flanks. Nighttime crater incandescence was often visible.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a daily average of 12 explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 22-28 June. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 4 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE; on 27 June ashfall was reported in several areas NE possibly including the districts of Madrigal, Lari, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, and Coporaque. There were 10 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that during an overflight of Sangay on 24 June scientists observed a small explosion followed by a dense ash plume that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted W. Additionally a pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank. The overflight was conducted in partnership with Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) and the Army with the purpose of conducting maintenance on a gas and seismic station, taking visual and infrared photos of the surficial activity, and measuring volcanic gases.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-29 June explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km S, SW, W, and N. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. Avalanches of blocks descended the SE, S, and SW flanks of Caliente cone and sometimes reached the base of the complex. Local ashfall around the volcano was sometimes reported.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 24-30 June dense white-gray ash plumes from Semeru rose 200-500 m above the summit and drifted SW and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 19-26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : On 24 June AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased to background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava in the crater area, typical surface temperatures, and minor steaming. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 19-26 June. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded with plumes rising as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 25 June the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that seismic data and recent visual observations at Yasur confirmed ongoing explosions and gas-and-ash emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.