Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.2 earthquake hits the Celebes Sea.

5.0 earthquake hits Fiji.

5.0 earthquake hits eastern Sichuan, China.

5.0 earthquake hits the western-Indian Antarctic ridge.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Post-Tropical Cyclone Eta is located about 85 mi…135 km se of Wilmington North Carolina with maximum sustained winds…45 mph…75 km/h. Present movement…ene or 60 degrees at 21 mph…33 km/h.

Tropical Storm Theta is located about 445 mi…715 km sse of the Azores with maximum sustained winds…60 mph…95 km/h. Present movement…e or 90 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Typhoon 25w (Vamco), located approximately 354 nm east of Da Nang, Vietnam, is tracking westward at 11 knots.

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Newsbytes:

Philippines – 1 person has died and 4 are missing in Camarines Norte Province of Bicol Region in the Philippines after Typhoon Vamco, known locally as Ulysses, passed over parts of Luzon Island. Vamco intensified into a typhoon as it made landfall in the vicinity of Patnanungan in Quezon Province, Calabarzon Region late on 11 November 2020. It then passed over northern Calabarzon and Central Luzon Regions and close to the Metro Manila area, bringing torrential rainfall and wind gusts of 205 km/h. Almost 200,000 people were pre-emptively evacuated ahead of the storm’s arrival, mostly in Bicol Region. As of 12 November, NDRRMC reported 36 incidents of flooding and 2 landslides across the regions of Cagayan Valley (Region II), Calabarzon and Bicol (Region V). Severe flooding was also reported in Metro Manila, where many low-lying areas were under water, particularly along the swollen Marikina river. Media described the flooding in Metro Manila as the worst in years.

Somalia – At least 73,000 people have been affected by the widespread rains and floods, mainly in Banadir, Jubaland, Hirshabelle, Galmudug and South West region. More than 13,000 people have been displaced by flooding, and reported 4 suspected deaths, according to field reports. Among those affected are more than 53,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) and members of the host community in Baidoa town, in South West State, whose living conditions were already dire. An estimated 4,000 people have been temporarily displaced from their homes in the town, of whom one third have been evacuated to higher grounds in northern Baidao. Also in South West State, overflowing water from River Shabelle has reportedly inundated six villages in Afgooye area, affecting 8,000 people, of whom 3,500 have been displaced.

Jamaica – More than 280 roads have been damaged by heavy rainfall and flooding in Jamaica in the last 3 weeks. Heavy rainfall associated with Tropical Storms Eta and Zeta has affected the island since late October 2020.

Environment

‘Rivers’ of Warm Air Melt Antarctic Ice

Strengthening rivers of relatively warm and moist air blowing southward from the middle latitudes are melting huge patches of sea ice around Antarctica, new research reveals.

Diana Francis at Khalifa University in Abu Dhabi and her colleagues found that these atmospheric rivers are now making the storms that rage around Antarctica more powerful by fuelling them with more water vapour.

The storms help churn up nutrients for marine life. But when amplified by the atmospheric rivers, they accelerate climate change by breaking up the sea ice and opening up large patches of darker ocean water. These openings, known as polynyas, reflect less solar energy back into space than the white ice, allowing the water to heat up.

Wildlife

Efforts to Save Penguins

Scientists in South Africa are trying to save from extinction the only penguin that breeds in Africa by establishing a new colony at a protected site about 140 miles southeast of Cape Town.

More than 1 million pairs of what was once South Africa’s most abundant seabird thrived back in the 1920s. But people began harvesting their eggs for human consumption, helping to cause the populations to plunge to around 13,000 breeding pairs last year. Dwindling fish stocks and climate change have also contributed to the decline. About 50 hand-raised juvenile birds, abandoned by their parents, will be released each year to try to establish a colony at the De Hoop nature reserve.

EWCOLOR

Covid-19 Threat to Wildlife

Canadian researchers warn that whales and other marine mammals could become infected with COVID-19 through inadequately treated sewage effluents.

While no such cases have been reported, scientists at Dalhousie University say their genomic mapping determined that almost all whale, dolphin and porpoise species have the same or higher susceptibility to the coronavirus as humans. “Many of these species are threatened or critically endangered,” said Dalhousie’s Graham Dellaire. “In the past, these animals have been infected by related coronaviruses that have caused both mild disease as well as life-threatening liver and lung damage.”

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 115 degrees Fahrenheit (46.1 degrees Celsius) in Matam, Senegal.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 60.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 51.1 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 28 October 2020 – 3 November 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) ; JMA reported that during 2-9 November incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Two explosions during 1-2 November produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim. An explosion was recorded at 1504 on 7 November but the weather conditions prevented visual conformation. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,200 tons per day on 9 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) ; Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5, 7, and 9-10 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 30 October-6 November that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 4 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 November intermittent, discrete ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Irazu – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazú’s seismic network recorded a significant landslide in the W part of the volcano on 4 November along with a lahar. A small thermal anomaly was detected in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data.

Laguna del Maule – Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that 10 low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes were detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex during 16-31 October; seismicity was low in the region where a swarm had occurred in June. Satellite data showed no deformation, surface changes, gas emissions, or thermal anomalies. On 6 November the Alert Level was lowered to Green, the lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for San Clemente, but declared a “Preventive Early Warning” ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 4-10 November there were 364-504 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted NW, SW, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Rincon de la Vieja – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that small-to-moderate hydrothermal eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja had greater amplitudes but were more sporadic during 2-9 November. An eruptive event at 0835 on 3 November produced a plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that gray-and-white ash plumes from Semeru rising 500 m above the summit drifted S at 0752 on 4 November and SW at 0644 on 7 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 30 October-6 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that each day during 4-9 November block avalanches descended Sinabung’s E and SE flanks generally as far as 1 km. Pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-2.5 km down the same flanks at least during 4-5 and 7 November. An eruptive event on 4 November generated a plume to an unknown height The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 30 October-6 November. A total of 24 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs 400 m from the crater and producing a gray ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that Villarrica’s webcam recorded gas-and-ash emissions that rose no higher than 350 m above the crater rim at 1442 on 5 November, with similar activity during 0757-0808 and at 1412 on 6 November. An explosive event at 0051 on 8 November ejected incandescent material and produced a plume that rose 220 m. A gas-and-ash emission at 1814 on 10 November rose 320 m and drifted SSW. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.