Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 30 December 2020 – 5 January 2021
Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 28 December-4 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Four explosions were recorded during 28 December-1 January; an explosion at 1614 on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejecting bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 2-4 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 and 30-31 December; ash plumes rose up to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW).
Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 January two ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.
Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 24-28 December. Explosions on 26 and 30 December produced ash plumes that rose 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km NW. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 25 December-1 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 250 km in multiple directions. Kamchatka Volcanological Station observers reported that at about 1720 on 2 January a landslide descended the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank, producing a cloud of ash that rose about 1 km and quickly drifted SE. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 30 December-5 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1 km above the summit. Rumbling and banging sounds were reported almost daily, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km SE from the crater during 30-31 December and 4-5 January. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-200 m above the summit crater during 1-5 January. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.
Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 29 December-5 January. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 300 m above the vent and away from the crater. Lava flows on the SW and W flanks were active and varied in length between 400 and 650 m; the lava flow on the SW flank had numerous branches. Activity was most notable on 1 January; gas-and-ash plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted 10 km NW, and explosions that were sometimes strong rattled nearby houses.
Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 December-5 January explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the complex. Plumes sometimes drifted about 1 km SW. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, W, SW, and E flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ashfall on the flanks was noted almost daily, though during 1-2 January ashfall was also reported in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW).
Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that incandescent material ejected 50 m above Semeru’s summit was visible most nights during 30 December-5 January. Cloudy weather often obscured visual observations during the daytime. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank on 31 December. Incandescent material from the ends of lava flows descended 300-1,000 m, reaching a maximum distance of 550-1,250 m from the crater during 1-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector. According to BNPB, observers at the Gunungsawur Observatory, 12 km SE of Semeru, recorded heavy rain around the volcano on 30 December, resulting in multiple lahars. At 0939 a lahar in the Koboan River drainage on the SE flank was seen and also recorded by the post’s seismic station. A lahar detected at 0950 was followed by an increase in water flow in the Curah Koboan, Rejali Bondeli, and Regoyo watersheds. At 1111 the seismic station recorded a lahar and accompanying pyroclastic flow that traveled 3.5 km down the Curah Koboan drainage. At 1130 lahars in Curah Koboan drainage damaged bamboo stalls owned by a local resident in Sumberwuluh Village (15 km SE).
Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 December-1 January. A strong explosion on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 250 km W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).
Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes generally rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit during 30 December-5 January. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,200 m down the E and SE flanks each day. Three eruptive events recorded on 4 January (at 0854, 1150, and 1412) produced dense gray ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NW, and W. Three eruptive events were detected the next day as well. The first, at 0825, generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the summit. Ash emissions were not visible from the second and third events, recorded at 2027 and 2108. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Ubinas – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that at 1659 on 31 December and at 1746 on 1 January low-volume lahars descended the Volcánmayo drainage on Ubinas’s SE flank and damaged parts of the highway linking Arequipa, Querapi, Ubinas, and Huarina. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).
Villarrica – Chile : POVI reported that during an overflight of Villarrica on 2 January scientists observed an incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater that had a solidified lava bridge connecting across a partially crusted-over top. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.