Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.2 earthquake hits Sulawesi, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits Tristan da Cunha.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

There are no current tropical storms.

Newsbytes:

India – As many as 843 people moved to 17 emergency shelters after flooding from in Tamil Nadu, south India. Days of heavy rain caused the Thambirabarani river to break its banks on 13 January 2021, flooding areas close to the river in Tirunelveli district. Flooding was worsened by releases from Papanasam and Manimutharu Dams.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 112 degrees Fahrenheit (44.4 degrees Celsius) in Learmonth, Western Australia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 69.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.1 degrees Celsius) at Verkhoyansk, Siberia.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Global Warming

Ghastly Future

An international group of scientists warns that Earth is headed for a “ghastly future of mass extinction, declining health and climate-disruption upheavals” because of ignorance and dithering.

Writing in the journal Frontiers in Conservation Science, experts say that the scale of the threat is so great that it’s difficult even for experts to grasp. The report warns that climate-induced mass migrations, more pandemics and conflicts over resources will become inevitable unless urgent action is taken. It asks world leaders to meet the challenges posed by the climate emergency.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 6 January 2021 – 12 January 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 4-11 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high and reached extremely high levels of 5,000 tons per day on 6 January. An explosion at 1642 on 4 January produced an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim and merged into weather clouds. An explosion at 1133 on 11 January generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 31 December and 6-7 January; ash plumes rose up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1058 on 7 January an ash plume from Ibu rose 500 m above the summit and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 January ash plumes from Kadovar rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 1-4 and 6-7 January. Explosions on 2 January produced ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 130 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 1-8 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 6-12 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-700 m above the summit and rumbling and banging sounds were reported. Incandescent material was ejected as far as 700 m SE from the crater during 6-8 January. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-200 m above the summit crater on 7 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that the lava flow that began on 2 January from a vent on the SW flank, 200 m below Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater, formed 3-4 branches and was 400 m long by 6 January. Avalanches of material descended the W, SW, and S flanks. Strombolian explosions produced ash plumes that rose 100-150 m above the cone and drifted 10 km S and SW. Explosions on 7 January produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater and ejected ballistics 300 m away from the crater. Explosions rattled structures in nearby villages. Two new lava flows emerged on the N flank at 0740; one traveled 50 m and the other 200 m. Active lava flows on the W and SW flanks were 550 m long. Overnight during 7-8 January a new lava flow on the SW flank descended 425 m. During 9-12 January Strombolian explosions continued to ejected material up to 300 m above the cone. The lava flow on the SW flank reached a length of 1.2 km on 9 January and 1.5 km by 10 January; it remained active through 12 January. Ash plumes drifted 10 km W during 10-11 January, and avalanches form the crater area descended the SW and S flanks.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-12 January there were 11-31 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl. Minor ashfall was reported in several municipalities in Puebla including San Salvador el Verde (30 km NNE), Atlixco (23 km SE), San Andrés Cholula (35 km E), San Nicolás de los Ranchos (15 km ENE), and Domingo Arenas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-8 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 5 January gray ash plumes rose 800 m above Sinabung’s summit and drifted E and SE. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,000 m down the E and SE flanks. Eruptive events were recorded during 7 and 9-10 January though weather clouds mostly obscured visual confirmation of ash clouds; an ash plume rose 1 km above the summit late on 9 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.