Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits Myanmar.

5.4 earthquake hits near the north coast of Papua, Indonesia.

5.3 earthquake hits off the coast of Aisen, Chile.

5.2 earthquake hits southeast of the Loyalty Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits south of the Kermedec Islands.

Two 5.1 earthquakes hit Reykjanes ridge.

5.1 earthquake hits southern Alaska.

5.0 earthquake hits Reykjanes ridge.

5.0 earthquake hits near the north coast of Papua, Indonesia.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Screen Shot 2022 09 30 at 10 44 34 AM

In the Atlantic Ocean: Hurricane Ian is located about 175 mi…285 km sse of Charleston South Carolina and about 260 mi…415 km ssw of Cape Fear North Carolina with maximum sustained winds…85 mph…140 km/h. Present movement…nne or 30 degrees at 10 mph…17 km/h.

Screen Shot 2022 09 30 at 10 44 23 AM

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm 16e (Orlene), located approximately 1188 nm south-southeast of San Diego, is tracking northwestward at 04 knots.

In the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm 20w (Roke), located approximately 377 nm south-southwest of Yokosuka, Japan, is tracking east-northeastward at 23 knots.

Screen Shot 2022 09 30 at 11 03 26 AM


Croatia – Police in Croatia report one person died in flash floods in the port city of Rijeka after torrential rain on 28 September 2022. 287.5 mm of rain fell in 24 hours in Rijeka. This is thought to be a record, beating the previous daily high of 249 mm set in 2013. Local media said unofficial figures showed the city recorded 140 mm of rain in just 2 hours. Streets of the city were swamped and traffic brought to a standstill. Homes and public buildings including a school and a police headquarters were damaged. Emergency services received around 200 calls for assistance. Areas of nearby Istria County were also affected, in particular in the town of Pazin. Croatia Civil Defence said floods and landslides have left several roads closed.

USA – Hurricane Ian left a trail of destruction after it made landfall in southwest Florida, USA, on 28 September 2022. Hurricane Ian made landfall in Cayo Costa with winds of 155 miles per hour (250 km/h), just short of a Category 5 hurricane. “Reports of major flooding and tornado-like damage are occurring in areas across the state. Ian will slowly move across central Florida before exiting tomorrow afternoon. Floridians should continue to take shelter indoors and heed local weather warnings,” the governor said. Strong winds, high waves and storm surge caused catastrophic damage across areas of Florida’s southwestern Gulf Coast. The National Hurricane Center said, “Severe and life-threatening storm surge inundation of 8 to 10 feet (2.4 to 3 metres) above ground level along with destructive waves is ongoing along the southwest Florida coastline from Englewood to Bonita Beach, including Charlotte Harbor.” Stormy seas caused a migrant boat to sink off the coast of Florida leaving at least 20 people missing. Initial reports in Florida suggest thousands of buildings have been flooded in areas including Fort Myers, Naples and Port Charlotte. Videos and images shared on Social Media showed wrecked boats, cars and buildings ripped from foundations floating in stormy waters. A hospital in Port Charlotte has been severely damaged by both winds and floods.

Cameroon – Flooding has affected 37,000 people in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Ongoing floods in the Far North Region began in mid-August 2022 as a result of heavy rainfall, overflowing rivers and dyke ruptures. OCHA said that, as of September 20, more than 37,439 people from 6 662 families were affected, including approximately 27,000 in the department of Mayo-Danay, 9,000 in Logone and Chari, and 1,300 in Mayo-Tsanaga. At least 2 people have died and around 95 injured. As many as 9,413 homes and 88 schools have been damaged or destroyed. Around 2 394 hectares of crops have also been damaged, and 3,019 heads of cattle lost.


Temporary Island

The recent eruption of an undersea volcano in Tonga created a new, small landmass that has grown to about 15 metres in height, covering about 3.6 hectares. The new island, in an area known as Home Reef, is not expected to withstand the waves and wind of the South Pacific for very long.

532fc1 db4ac5b03d7d40b4be280c00d5df89b3

Global Warming

Autumn Colours

Despite the deepening effects of climate change, scientists say autumn leaves in North America and Europe are not changing colour later, but they may be becoming duller. “Warmer temperatures in September and October reduce anthocyanin production in leaves, which could mean that fall colours would become less brilliantly red or purple,” said Susanne S. Renner of Washington University in St. Louis. She adds that only if the first frost comes later than it used to, would the brilliant foliage appear later. “The end result is that leaves still start to die after about the same amount of time on the tree as they have in years and even decades past,” Renner said.

Stronger El Niño’s

New research finds that the El Niño ocean warming episodes across the tropical Pacific will become more frequent as the Arctic becomes more ice-free in the warmer decades to come.

Writing in the Journal Nature Communications, lead author Jiping Liu of the University of Albany says that as the ice loss continues in the Arctic to the point that it is ice-free in summer, strong El Niño events will increase by more than a third. Arctic sea ice cover is now about 50% less in summer than a century ago. The rapidly warming Arctic is already altering weather, and the predicted increase in strong El Niños would mean there will be even stronger climate impacts later this century, Liu says.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 46.0 degrees Celsius (114.8 degrees F) at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 73.0 degrees Celsius (-99.4 degrees F) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.



The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

Screen Shot 2022 09 30 at 11 19 08 AM

Diphtheria – Pakistan

Health officials in Sindh province in southeastern Pakistan are reporting 39 diphtheria cases, including 10 fatalities in children during the past two months in Karachi and other areas.

Dengue Fever – Vietnam

To date, Vietnam health authorities report 224,771 total dengue fever cases, including 92 deaths across the country since the beginning of the year. This is an increase of 13,383 cases and five deaths reported here 10 days ago.

Gambia – Kidney Disease

On 1 August 2022, local health authorities at the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital in Banjul, reported a total of 75 cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) of unknown etiology with 50 deaths.

Cholera – Nigeria

A cholera outbreak has been declared in Gombe State on 22 September 2022, the World Health Organization reports. The first case was reported on 24 August 2022. As of 24 September, a total of 298 cases including ten deaths (CFR 3.4%) have been reported.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 21 September – 27 September 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that six eruptive events and three explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 19-26 September. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 700 m from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were somewhat high at 1,900 tons per day on 22 September. Nighttime incandescence at the crater was visible during 2-16 September. A notable eruptive event at 1335 on 23 September generated an ash plume that rose 1.7 km above the crater rim and also drifted down-flank to the SE until 1600. A large amount of ashfall was deposited on the SE flank.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 18 September. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 20-22 September.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 20-27 September. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 20-21 September; weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views during the rest of the week. A data outage that affected the local seismic network was resolved by 23 September. Seismicity was low during 24-25 September.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 16-18 and 20-21 September.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 20-27 September, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The continuously active part of the lake dropped 10 m, regained 3 m during 19-22 September, and then was unchanged the rest of the week. Breakouts of lava occurred at the W and N margins of the lake during most of the week.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : Strong winds re-suspended ash from the E flank of Klyuchevskoy and created plumes that were visible in satellite images drifting 460 km SE during 21-22 September.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 20-27 September. Daily white emissions rose as high as 350 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. At 0350 on 23 September an eruptive event produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted W. An image captured at that time showed Strombolian activity with incandescent material being ejected above the summit. White-and-gray plumes generally rose as high 500 m and drifted NW, W, and S that same day.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 16-22 September and seismicity remained at high levels. As many as 13 lava avalanches from the SW lava dome traveled down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, reaching a maximum distance of 1.9 km. No morphological changes to the SW and central lava domes were evident in photographs.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 20-27 September. Small explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 20-21 September; seismic tremor levels were variable during the rest of the week. Weather clouds often prevented views of the volcano, though elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite and webcam images during 20-21 and 23-27 September. A diffuse gas was occasionally seen in webcam images during 25-26 September, and one plume with possible ash content was visible during 26-27 September.

Pinatubo – Luzon (Philippines) : On 25 September PHIVOLCS warned of potential lahars around Pinatubo due to intense rains from a typhoon expected during 25-26 September. Significant deposits from 1991 pyroclastic density currents on the W flank may be remobilized, generating lahars down major drainages in that watershed. PHIVOLCS noted that the communities of San Marcelino, San Narciso, San Felipe, and Botolan, Zambales Province, and communities in Tarlac and Pampanga Provinces may be affected by lahars and flooding.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG characterized the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 20-27 September. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted SW, W, NW, and NE. Crater incandescence was visible nightly; the lava flow on the NE flank continued to be active, and incandescent blocks were visible rolling 600-800 m down the flanks during 20-23 and 26-27 September.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 20-27 September. Daily seismic counts ranges were 702-1,152 explosions, 12-105 long-period events, and 9-95 tremor events indicating emissions. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in IG webcam images and visible in satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 2 km above the volcano but during 25-27 September they rose as high as 3 km. The plumes drifted mostly W and NW, but some drifted SW, N, and NE. Daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. Ashfall was reported in the Chauzán sector, Chimborazo province, during 22-23 September.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 20-27 September. Eruptive events on 24 September (at 0606) and 27 September (at 0517 and 0651) produced ash plumes that rose 400-500 m above the summit and drifted W and SW.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Semisopochnoi was ongoing during 13-20 September. Seismicity remained elevated with intermittent periods of low-amplitude tremor. Steam emissions from the active vent in the N crater of Mount Cerebus were visible in webcam views on most days.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 15-22 September. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Plumes of re-suspended ash drifted 430 km E during 17-18 and 21-22 September.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 19-26 September. A total of 19 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ash fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW).

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : On 25 September PHIVOLCS warned of potential lahars around Taal due to intense rains from a typhoon expected during 25-26 September, with a particular focus on the western part of the caldera where ash deposits could become remobilized and affect the communities of Agoncillo and Laurel, Batangas Province. The report also warned that the ground cracks formed during the 2020 eruption on the NE and SW sectors of Taal Caldera may become enlarged or eroded and cause damage to buildings and houses. The ground cracks were located in the municipalities of Agoncillo, San Nicolas, Lemery, and Taal on the SW part of the caldera, and in the cities of Talisay and Tanauan on the NE side.