Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 6 February – 12 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a 97-second-long explosive event at Agung began at 0012 on 8 February. A plume was not visible, though webcams recorded crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 4-12 February. At 1919 on 7 February an event generated a plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.3-1.7 km from the crater. During 8-12 February there were four events, three of which were explosive. Plumes rose as high as 1.9 km, and boulders were ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : On 6 February OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Copahue to Green, the lowest level on a four-colour scale, noting the return of the crater lake and infrequent surficial activity. In addition, data from the geodetic monitoring network showed only slight deformation during the previous three months. ONEMI lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a three-colour scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 12 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-8 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 4 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater (NEC); inclement weather prevented observations during 4-5 February. From the beginning of the afternoon on 6 February discrete ash emissions rose from NEC. The ash emissions were continuous from about 2215 on 7 February to 1015 on 8 February, producing relatively diffuse ash plumes that drifted S and then SE. Ash fell in Nicolosi (14 km S) and Pedara (15 km SSE). A diffuse ash plume drifted SW on 9 February.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-12 February dense white-to-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E, S, and W. Foggy conditions occasionally prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : According to Brad Scott of GeoNet, the Royal New Zealand Air Force released photos of a plume rising from Kadovar at 1640 on 10 February.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-11 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was about the same as the previous week’s estimate of 461,000 cubic meters, and there were no apparent morphological changes. Most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage and the SE flank. On 7 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 February growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was very slow (0.003-0.004 cubic meters per second). White water vapor emissions, occasionally grayish from included tephra, rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was recorded by a webcam each day. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows traveled 10-250 m down the NW flank, advancing towards Cerro Chino, and on the E flank. Minor avalanches of material from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported possible events at Rincón de la Vieja at 1906 and 1950 on 5 February and at 0120 on 6 February. An event at 0000 on 6 February was also recorded; the report noted that poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 26 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 4-10 February. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Although weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations, gas-and-ash plumes were seen rising as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the NE, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 2-8 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E and W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 1-8 February. Were small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a period of sporadic ash emissions from Turrialba began at 0540 on 8 February and lasted more than one hour. The activity produced ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the vent rim. A very small ash emission was visible on 11 February.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 6 February – 12 February 2019

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : On 8 February PVMBG reported that lava from Karangetang’s Kawah Dua (North Crater) continued to advance over 3.5 km down the Malebuhe River drainage on the NW flank into the ocean. Levees had formed at the margins channeling the lava down the middle of the flow. Avalanches from the edges of the flow generated brown and gray plumes. A lava delta was building out into the ocean and generating a dense steam plume. Drone footage acquired on 9 February showed that the flow was about 160 m wide where it crossed a road (about 210 m from the coast) and about 140 m wide at the coast. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and not enter within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic and infrasound data indicated multiple events at Poás during 7-8 February. On 8 February events were centered at vent A (Boca Roja) and produced plumes that rose no higher than 200 m and drifted SW. A sulfur dioxide odor was reported in areas downwind including San Jose de Naranjo, Grecia (16 km SW), Poás, Sarchá, Naranjo, and Atenas (32 km SW). Incandescence in the crater began to be visible at 0151 on 11 February. Passive ash emissions rose 200 m and drifted SW.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 30 January-5 February 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 28 January-1 February. An explosion at 1400 on 1 February produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. During a field survey that same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000 tons/day, an increase from the previous measurement of 1,800 tons/day recorded on 22 January. An explosion at 0228 on 3 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and ejected tephra 800-1,100 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 January an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 3-5 February ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 January-1 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 27 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 1713-1915 on 29 January an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted E, and a pyroclastic flow. Ash fell in parts of Yakushima. During 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 27 January observers noted that the inner crater was 150 m deep and had an unchanged diameter of 300 m. There was no visible lava dome at the bottom of the crater. Each day during 28 January-5 February there were 81-207 steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : During 28 January-5 February IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 600-800 m down the flanks on most days.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 25 January-1 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 415 km E and W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor, sporadic ash emissions that rose to low heights above Turrialba’s active crater were recorded on most days during 28 January-4 February. An event at 0640 on 1 February produced a taller plume which rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. OVSICORI-UNA noted that activity had been slowly decreasing in 2019. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes had been recorded, and tremors were decreasing in both energy and duration. The number of low-frequency, volcanic earthquakes (LPs) remained stable, although they had decreasing amplitudes. No explosions had been recorded, and emissions were weak, had short durations, and very dilute ash contents.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 30 January-5 February 2019

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) – Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 January ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) – PVMBG reported that the current eruption at Karangetang began with increased seismicity and thermal anomalies in November 2018. Since then activity was dominated by lava-dome growth, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows. A gray ash plume rose above the summit craters on 30 January. By 2 February ’a’a lava from Kawah Dua (North Crater) had traveled 2.5 km NNW down the Melebuhe River drainage, prompting the evacuation of eight families (about 21 people). A section of the local road was closed, from W of the Batuare River to Kali Melebuhe. According to a news article the flow was 50 m thick in some areas. Seismic signals indicating avalanches sharply increased on 3 February. Lava and pyroclastic flows originated from the Kawah Dua crater, traveling as far as 1 km W down the Sumpihi River drainage, 2 km NW down the Batuare River, and 2.9 km NW down the Malebuhe drainage. BNPB reported that 112 residents (from Niambangeng, Kampung Beba, and Batubulan villages) had evacuated by 1730 on 4 February, and according to a news article the lava crossed the highway at 1800. The lava flow continued to progress and reached the ocean during 5-6 February.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) – PVMBG reported that during 25-31 January the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was 461,000 cubic meters, relatively unchanged from the previous week. During 0000-2000 on 29 January as many as nine incandescent rockfall events were recorded, with material traveling 200-700 m SE in the Gendol River drainage. Three pyroclastic flows, recorded at 2017, 2053, and 2141, traveled 1.1-1.4 km down the Gendol drainage, and produced minor ashfall in areas E including Boyolali (17 km E), Mriyan (5 km E), and Mojosongo (44 km E). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Planchon-Peteroa | Central Chile-Argentina border – Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported an increase in ash emissions at Planchón-Peteroa beginning at 1700 on 1 February, with ash plumes rising as high as 2 km and drifting E. This activity was accompanied by the appearance of discrete, very-low-frequency seismic events which were only recorded that day. On 3 February webcams showed gas-and-ash plumes rising to heights less than 2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curicó (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 1 February 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: ERUPTION AT 20190201/0027Z FL260 REPORTED OBS VA DTG:01/0040Z

Sakurajima (Kyushu, Japan): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: EXPLODED AT 20190201/0500Z FL060 EXTD SE OBS VA DTG:01/0450Z

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA EM.

Reventador (Ecuador): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT EMISSIONS OF VA

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 15 kts in ENE direction.

Nevados de Chillán (Central Chile): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT PULSES OF VA

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 27 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Anchorage warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 and is moving at 20 kts in N direction.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL060 EST VA DTG:27/0000Z

Reventador (Ecuador): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 25000 ft (7600 m) altitude or flight level 250.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Barren Island (Indian Ocean): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL030 HAVE CEASED

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 24 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 25 kts in SW direction.

Manam (Papua New Guinea): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA TO FL070 LAST OBS AT 23/0700 EXT E

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): The volcano has been particularly active recently. A series of very strong explosions occurred on Tuesday (22 Jan 2019) which destroyed the most recent lava dome that had accumulated in the summit crater. The strongest was a powerful vulcanian-type eruption at 21:07 local time, which ejected incandescent material to more than 2 km height and distance from the crater and produced an ash plume that rose approx. 4 km above the summit. The ejecta showered the entire upper cone of the volcano with glowing bombs, in up to 2 km distance.

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: NEW VA CLD

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: SPORADIC PUFFS OF VA.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 20 January 2019

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070.

Fuego (Guatemala): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude or flight level 180 .

Turrialba (Costa Rica): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 12500 ft (3800 m) altitude or flight level 125.

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: EMISSIONS OF STEAM AND PSBL VA

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: WEAK EMISSION OF VA

Nevados de Chillán (Central Chile): (19 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: NO VA EMISSIONS

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 18 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 13000 ft (4000 m) altitude or flight level 130 and is moving at 20 kts in E direction.

Kuchinoerabu-jima (Ryukyu Islands): (17 Jan) Following renewed unrest and a minor eruption beginning last August, earlier today a more significant explosion occurred, sending ash to 20,000ft (6km) and generating a moderate pyroclastic flow which travelled 1.5km (~1 mile) down the southwest flank, though fortunately did not affect adjacent communities. No injuries have been reported and this event was smaller than the powerful explosion in 2015. JMA has kept the alert level at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Kadovar (Northeast of New Guinea): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude or flight level 100 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.

Cleveland (Aleutian Islands, Alaska): (17 Jan) A new lava dome has been observed to be growing in the summit crater following a small explosion on January 9- continuing a pattern of behaviour typical of Cleveland since it began a period of regular activity in 2005. AVO raised Cleveland to ORANGE/WATCH.

Reventador (Ecuador): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT IMAGERY

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 15 Jan 2019

Karymsky (Kamchatka): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190114/2255Z FL150 EXTD E MOV 10KT REPORTED

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 .

Bezymianny (Central Kamchatka Depression): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190115/0606Z FL120 EXTD SE MOV 5KT REPORTED

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 and is moving at 15 kts in SW direction.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: POSS VA 15/0927

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT PUFF EMISSION

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 13 Jan 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200. Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 and is moving at 20 kts in W direction.

Kadovar (Northeast of New Guinea): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT DISCRETE EMISSIONS TO FL080 EST VA DTG:13/0100Z

Ibu (Halmahera, Indonesia): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 .

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL070 EST VA DTG:13/0730Z

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 27000 ft (8200 m) altitude or flight level 270 and is moving at 15 kts in W direction.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – January 10 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 20 kts in W direction. Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 25 kts in W direction.

Ebeko (Paramushir Island): (9 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: ERUPTION AT 20190109/2136Z FL070 EXTD NE REPORTED OBS VA DTG:09/2140Z

Krakatau (Sunda Strait, Indonesia): The northern coast of Rakata Island, facing Anak Krakatau, was hit by massive waves (up to approx 30 m high) during the catastrophic landslide and tsunami on the evening of 22 Dec. The entire beach and the slightly higher, up to 50 m wide forested platform behind it, separating it from the cliff, have been washed away and/or collapsed in landslides following the receding wave.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTIUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL070 EST VA DTG:10/0130Z

Agung (Bali): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude or flight level 180 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA EMS SEEN IN STLT.

Fuego (Guatemala): (10 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DISP.

Reventador (Ecuador): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT.

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 .

Volcanos

Tsunami set off by volcano sweeps Indonesia coast

A tsunami killed at least 168 people and injured hundreds on the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra following an underwater landslide caused by the eruption of Anak Krakatau, officials said on Sunday.

Anak Krakatau is the island that emerged from an area once occupied by Krakatau, which was completely destroyed in the 1883 disaster which killed more than 36,000 people in a series of tsunamis following an eruption of Krakatau. It first appeared in 1927 and has been growing ever since.

Coastal residents reported not seeing or feeling any warning signs, like receding water or an earthquake, before waves of up to two meters washed ashore, according to media.

Hundreds of homes and other buildings, including hotels were “heavily damaged” in the tsunami which struck along the rim of the Sunda Strait 21h27 on Saturday.

Authorities warned residents and tourists in coastal areas around the Sunda Strait to stay away from beaches and a high-tide warning remained in place through till Dec. 25.

With height of 30-90 cm, the event has produced 168 fatalities, 745 injured, 30 missing, 558 houses damaged, 9 hotel units damaged, 60 damaged food stalls, 350 boats damaged.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 12 December – 18 December 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were seven events and an additional five explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 10-17 December, with ash plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 700 m. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14 and 16-17 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly SW, S, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 7-14 December that sent ash plumes to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 1445 on 14 December and 1823 on 18 December, producing ash plumes that rose 200 and 300 m above the summit and drifted NE and E, respectively. The event on 14 December lasted 48 seconds and the ash plume was dense and black. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1637 on 18 December an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and then disappeared into a weather cloud. The event ejected material that fell in the crater area, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1 km W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-13 December the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,200 cubic meters per day. By 13 December the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 359,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : In a special notice posted on 13 December INSIVUMEH reported that rumbling at Pacaya was heard within a radius of 8 km, and weak Strombolian explosions at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. Active lava flows were 200-300 m in length and traveled down the NW flank, generating avalanches of blocks that were as large as 1 m in diameter. The report also noted that the cone in the crater continued to grow, filling the crater, and was 75 m above the crater rim. During 15-16 December lava continued to flow NW and Strombolian explosions ejected material 5-25 m high.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 18 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 10-16 December. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km W and SW. MIROVA detected five thermal anomalies, and on 13 December the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,100 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that the eruption at Sangay that began on 8 August ended on 7 December after about four months of activity. The eruption was characterized by the extrusion of lava flows, and ash emissions that rose between 0.5-1.4 km (and occasionally higher than 2 km) and mainly drifted W and NW. Minor amounts of ash fell in Guayaquil on 18 September. Lava flows traveled 1-2 km down the ESE flank, and both block avalanches and possible small pyroclastic flows from the flow fronts traveled additionally as far as 7 km.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 7-8 and 11-13 December. A small explosion, recorded at 1222 on 12 December, generated an ash plume that rose 6.5-6.8 km (21,300-22,300 ft) a.s.l. That same day a gas-and-steam plume, containing a small amount of ash and drifting 150 km NE, was visible in satellite data. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported semi-continuous activity at Turrialba during 11-16 December. Ash emissions rose as high as 500 m above the vent rim and drifted NW and SW during 11-12 December. Ashfall was reported in Guadalupe (32 km WSW) on 13 December. Pulsing ash emissions were visible on 13 December and caused ashfall in areas of Valle Central. During 14-16 December emissions had diffuse amounts of ash and drifted W and SW.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that seismic data indicated that the eruption of lava from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera possibly paused on 6 December. Satellite data acquired on 10 December suggested lava effusion had stopped, though weak explosive activity from the vent possibly still occurred. No eruptive activity was evident in satellite and webcam images on the morning of 13 December. However, beginning in the afternoon intermittent tremor appeared and gradually became continuous. A plume, possibly containing ash, and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite and webcam images. A strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite and webcam data during 14-15 December, and together with an eruption plume, was consistent with lava fountaining at the summit vent. By 16 December a lava flow was erupting from the vent. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 12 December – 18 December 2018

Ambrym | Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that a fissure eruption in the ESE part of the Ambrym summit caldera near the Lewlembwi crater (4 km SE of Marum) began at 0600 on 15 December, heralded by elevated seismicity detected by the seismic network and ash emissions visible in the webcam. A notice issued later that day by VMGD stated that lava flows and lava fountains were visible, and explosions were occurring. John Tasso, a local guide, visited the caldera a few hours after the new activity started and observed lava fountains from a fissure eruption; his video was posted to his website. The lava fountains were about 40 m high; lava flows spread to the E part of the caldera. Although partially obscured by a steam plume directly above the eruption site, infrared imagery from the Sentinel-2 satellite on 15 December showed lava filling much of the 500 x 900 m Lewlembwi crater and a lava flow almost as large a few hundred meters SW of that crater. VMGD raised the Alert Level to 3 and stated that the eruption was characterized as “small scale.” The eruption continued during 16-17 December, though reports on 17 December only described ongoing ash-and-gas emissions.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : A small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. A second small explosion with a higher peak amplitude was detected at 1153 on 12 December, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. No ash cloud was observed, though weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE.

Planchon-Peteroa | Central Chile-Argentina border : Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchón-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curicó (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW).

Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that seismic activity at Soputan rapidly and significantly increased at 1700 on 15 December. An eruption began at 0102 on 16 December though dark and foggy conditions prevented views of emissions. The event lasted for almost 10 minutes, and thunderous sounds were heard at the Soputan Volcano Observation Post located in Silian Raya (about 10 km SW). The conditions improved about two hours later, and a dense ash plume was visible rising 3 km above the summit and drifting SE. Incandescence from the summit was also visible. An event that began at 0540 produced dense gray-to-black ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km above the summit and drifted SE. The event lasted for 6 minutes and 10 seconds based on the seismic network. Ash plumes from events at 0743 and 0857 rose as high as 7.5 km and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.