Volcanos

Hawaii

Hawaii’s Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano, is erupting for the first time in nearly 40 years.

Dozens of earthquakes — one of them a magnitude 4.2 quake — have swarmed the region after the volcano’s Moku’āweoweo summit caldera erupted on Sunday (Nov. 27) night. Officials have issued an ashfall advisory for Hawaii’s Big Island and residents have been asked to remain vigilant. So far the eruption’s lava flows pose no risk to people living downhill from the eruption and air travel is currently unaffected.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 16 November – 22 November 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence during 14-21 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions were slightly high on 14 November at 1,100 tons per day. Six eruptive events and four explosions (during 15-16 and 20-21 November) produced volcanic plumes that rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 900 m from the vent.

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : Activity has been gradually decreasing since the last ash plume was recorded on 26 October. A thermal anomaly continued to periodically be identified in satellite images when weather conditions permitted views, though the temperature of the thermal anomaly began decreasing on 29 October.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing during 10-17 November. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 12-13 and 16 November generated ash plumes that rose to 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in eastern directions. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 16 November. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 16 November; weather clouds prevented satellite views on the other days of the week.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 15-22 November and the flow field continued to grow. Flow lobes extended about 600 m E of the vent and about 430 m S. Seismicity was low, with the occasional detection of low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite and webcam images were often cloudy through the week.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly at Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 13 and 15-17 November. Gas-and-steam emissions persisted.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that brown ash plumes from Kerinci, often dense, rose as high as 150 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE during 16-18 and 20-21 November. Weather clouds prevented visual observations during 18-20 November.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 16-22 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Manam – Northeast of New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 November ash plumes from Manam rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) and drifted NW based on satellite images.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska: AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 16-22 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Almost daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds prevented views during 21-22 November. Webcam images showed occasional minor steaming and minor ash emissions in addition to a recent mass flow and ash deposits on the upper to lower flanks visible during 15-16 November, and incandescence at the vent during 16-17 November possibly associated with lava spattering or fountaining.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 16-22 November. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit and drifted in various directions during 16-17 November. Emissions were not visible during 18-20 November, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. At 0608 on 21 November a white-to-gray ash plume rose around 400 m and drifted E. On 22 November white-to-gray ash plumes rose 300 m and drifted S at 0405, 600 m at 0503, and 800 m at 1541.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported ongoing low-level seismicity at Semisopochnoi characterized by intermittent seismic tremor and occasional low-frequency earthquakes during 16-22 November. Satellite and webcam views were mostly obscured by weather clouds, though during clear views continuous gas-and-steam emissions from the N crater of Mount Cerberus were visible.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 11-17 November was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 85 km ENE during 13-14, and 16-17 November.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 14-21 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes generally rose 600 m above the crater rim and blended into weather clouds. An explosion at 0251 on 15 November ejected blocks 500 m from the vent and produced an eruption plume that rose 2.3 km above the crater rim and drifted SE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 16 November – 22 November 2022

Ahyi – Mariana Islands (USA) : On 18 November the USGS reported that hydroacoustic and seismic signals suggestive of underwater eruptive activity at Ahyi Seamount had declined over the past week. No other signs of volcanic unrest were detected at the seamount.

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 11-17 November a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images. Gas-and-steam emissions were visible and occasional collapses from the growing lava dome produced avalanches of hot material.

Copahue – Central Chile-Argentina : Based on information from Observatorio Argentino de Vigilancia Volcánica (OAVV), SERNAGEOMIN and SEGEMAR reported a minor increase of activity at Copahue. RSAM values based on volcanic tremor began to increase on 13 November. Weather conditions prevented views of the volcano during 13-14 November. On 15 November an increase in the magnitudes of tremor signals was accompanied by increased and denser gas emissions rising 200 m above El Agrio Crater. The emissions, seen in webcam images, were mostly whitish and contained particulate material.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was first identified on 13 November and was visible daily through 20 November. An explosive Strombolian eruption began at 2330 local time on 17 November, the same day that the thermal anomaly intensified. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted SE. The Strombolian eruption and gas emissions persisted.

San Miguel – Eastern El Salvador : MARN reported that an eruption at San Miguel’s central crater began on 15 November, and by 1100 on 20 November a total of 62 phreatic explosions had been recorded, averaging 10 per day. An additional 24 explosions were recorded from 1100 on 20 November to 1100 on 21 November and 12 more were recorded between 1100 and 1100 during 21-22 November. Explosions generated gas, ash, and steam plumes that generally rose around 500 m above the crater rim, though at 1336 on 18 November and 1206 on 19 November eruption plumes rose as high as 1.1 km. Some of the events were accompanied by crater incandescence during 15-20 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions generally averaged 100-170 tons per day, below the baseline of 300 tons per day. Specific measurements during explosive events revealed that the emissions were sometimes higher; 1,200 tons per day was measured on 19 November during one of the largest explosions, and 378 tons per days was measured during an explosion on 21 November. Seismicity was characterized by volcano-tectonic events, long-period events, and tremor. Deformation data showed no significant changes.

Takawangha – Andreanof Islands (USA) : The number of small earthquakes detected near the volcano had increased during from 16 November and intensified during 17-18 November. The earthquakes were located at depths of 3-6 km below sea level with the largest magnitudes between 2 and 3. The seismicity possibly indicated magma movement at depth. The intensity of the seismicity was variable during 19-22 November.

Villarrica – Central Chile : During an overflight of Villarrica on 19 November, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed a cone on the crater floor with an incandescent vent at its center, containing a lava lake. Deposits of ejected material were seen on the flanks. That same day a 75-minute-long series of volcano-tectonic earthquakes began at 1940. There was a total of 21 events located 7.8 km ESE of the crater. The largest event, a M 1.6, occurred at 2007 at a depth of 2.5 km based on data collection and analysis of Red Nacional de Vigilancia Volcánica (RNVV) and Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), respectively.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 9 November – 15 November 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence during 9-15 November. An eruptive event at 2130 on 10 November generated an eruption plume that rose to 1 km above the crater rim. An explosion at 2010 on 15 November produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted SE. Seven volcanic earthquakes were detected.

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 3-10 November. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 3, 6, and 8-9 November; the volcano was obscured by clouds the other days of the week. On 10 November, KVERT reported that the eruptive activity was gradually decreasing.

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 November a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images. Strong fumarolic activity was visible, the lava dome continued to grow and was sometimes incandescent at night, and occasional collapses from the dome produced avalanches of hot material.

Dukono – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray gas-and-steam plumes from Dukono rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and S during 9-15 November. The Darwin VAAC reported a continuous ash plume that rose to 2.1 km altitude and extended E on 11 November, based on satellite imagery. A discrete ash plume on 14 November rose to 10.7 km altitude and drifted SW. In addition, a strong hotspot and sulfur dioxide signal was observed in satellite imagery. On the same day, a continuous ash plume rose to 2.1-2.4 km altitude and drifted NE, which persisted through 15 November.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 4, 5, 7, and 9 November generated ash plumes that rose to 2.2-3.1 km altitude and drifted in E, NE, and N directions. Ashfall was reported at Severo-Kurilsk on 7 November. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 4 November; the volcano was covered by clouds the other days of the week.

Fuego – South-Central Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-12 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 9-15 November, generating daily ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5-4.8 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 10-15 km S, SE, E, NE, SW, and W, causing fine ashfall in areas downwind, including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), La Asunción, La Rochela, Ceilán, San Andrés Osuna, El Rodeo, Ceylén, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Yepocapa (8 km NW). The explosions generated weak and moderate rumbling that vibrated the roofs and windows of nearby houses. Daily block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), Honda, Santa Teresa, and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. The avalanches uplifted fine material 200 m high that dispersed to the S and SW. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 400 m above the summit. Weak crater incandescence was observed accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. On 9 November lahars were generated in the Las Lajas and Ceniza drainages, which carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks 30 cm to 1.5 m in diameter.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 9-15 November and seismicity was low. Satellite images were often cloudy, though elevated surface temperatures were identified on 9, 13, and 15 November.

Heard – Kerguelen Plateau : Satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed thermal anomalies of varying intensity over Mawson Peak (the summit area) and on the NW flank on 9 and 14 November. Weather clouds prevented views of the volcano for the rest of the month. The thermal anomaly on 9 November consisted of three pixels that trended NE-SW from the summit. The activity on 14 November was visible as a larger anomaly over a vent or multiple vents about less than 1 km NW of the peak.

Ibu – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 9-15 November. Daily white and gray gas-and-steam emissions rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and NW. On 11 November similar emissions rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted SW and NW. The Darwin VAAC reported that discrete ash emissions rose to 2.1 km altitude and drifted W on 13 November. A possible weak thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery. On 15 November a hotspot was visible, accompanied by multiple ash emissions that rose to 2.7 km altitude and drifted NE.

Karangetang – Sangihe Islands : PVMBG reported that incandescence from Karangetang’s S crater on 9 November and from both the N and S craters on 14 and 15 November. Daily white emissions rose generally 50-150 m above the summit, but sometimes as high as 200 m.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly at Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 4 and 9 November. Gas-and-steam emissions persisted.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that diffuse white-and-brown plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 150 m above the summit and drifted W during 9-15 November. The

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 9-15 November, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. On 9 November the sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600 tonnes per day (t/d). The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Krakatau – Sunda Strait : PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible in webcam images rising from Anak Krakatau during 11 and 14 November. Dense gray ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit and drifted NE at 1047 and at 2343 on 11 November. On 14 November at 0933 ash plumes rose 300 m above the summit and drifted E. Daily white gas-and-steam emissions rose 25-300 m above the summit and drifted generally E and NE.

Manam – Northeast of New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 November an ash plume from Manam rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) and drifted W based on RVO webcam images.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 9-15 November. The seismic network detected 27-74 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 2-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. An M 3.6 earthquake occurred NW of the summit on 9 November at 0621. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week.

Mayon – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that white gas-and-steam plumes from Mayon crept downslope and drifted generally W during 9-15 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 276 per day on 3 November. Faint crater incandescence was observed at night during 9-12 November. Five volcanic earthquakes were detected during 10-13 November. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), precise leveling, continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano had been slightly inflated, especially on the NW and SE flanks, since 2020.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 9-15 November and seismicity remained at high levels. Cloudy often prevented clear visuals of the summit. A seismogram detected a pyroclastic flow at 0905 on 11 November that lasted 135 seconds; it descended 1 km down the Boyong drainage (SW), though webcam images were cloudy. A second pyroclastic flow occurred at 1208 on the same day, lasting 104 seconds and descending 1 km down the Boyong drainage (SW). On 12 November a lava avalanche traveled as far as 800 m down the SW flank. Two lava avalanches were observed descending the SW for 1.5 km on 15 November.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that during 8-14 November seismicity associated with rock fracturing at Nevado del Ruiz increased in number and energy compared to the previous week. Some of the signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions. The hypocenters were located 0.6-7 km deep. The largest event was an M 3.1 that was recorded at 0225 on 10 November at a depth of 3.6 km below the crater and 2.7 km SW of the crater. The Washington VAAC reported ash plumes that rose to 6.4-7.3 km altitude (21,000-24,000 ft) and drifted S and SE on 11 November, based on satellite and webcam images. During 13-14 November ash plumes rose to 6.7 km altitude (22,000 ft) and drifted NE based on satellite and webcam images. Several low-to-moderate thermal anomalies in Arenas Crater were identified in satellite images. Gas-and-steam plumes (mainly sulfur dioxide) continued to be emitted, rising as high as 1.8 km above the summit on 8 November and drifting NW, SW, SE, and NE.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 9-15 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions were detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were seen in cloudy satellite images during 10 and 12-15 November. Clear webcam images taken on 12 and 15 November showed a lava flow and ash deposits on the upper flanks, though due to cloudy conditions earlier in the week the timing of these events is uncertain. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible in webcam images on 14 and 15 November.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that there were 39-108 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 9-15 November. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of activity. The seismic network recorded daily periods of tremor lasting from 33 minutes to 302 minutes. According to the Washington VAAC, daily ash plumes rose to 5.8-7.6 km altitude (19,000-25,000 ft) and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. Four minor explosions were detected at 1337, 1625, 1629, and 2026 on 10 November. Another four minor explosions were detected at 0141, 1109, 1223, and 1519 on 11 November. Three minor explosions were recorded at 0919, 1933, and 2057 on 12 November. Three minor explosions were detected at 1302 on 13 November, and four minor explosions at 0131, 0615, 1459, and 2330 on 14 November. A minor explosion was also detected at 0710 on 15 November. A total of five volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded on 11 and 12 November. Light ashfall was reported in Tochimilco, Puebla on 10 November.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 9-15 November. Daily seismicity was characterized by 18-47 explosions, 22-45 long-period earthquakes, and 2-18 signals that indicated emissions. During 9-12 November there were also 1-4 periods of daily harmonic tremor. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted S, W, SW, N, and NW. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night and the lava flow on the NE flank was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 22, 20.2, and 174.9 tons per day on 9, 11, and 12 November, respectively. An incandescent avalanche was visible on the N flank during the night of 9 November; by 10 November it had traveled to 800 m below the crater.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 7-13 November with a daily average of 33 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted S, E, and NE. As many as five thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N).

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 9-15 November, which included daily explosions, volcanic tremor, and gas-and-steam emissions. Incandescence at the summit was periodically visible at night. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in either or both IG webcam images and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 1.8 m above the volcano and drifted SW, W, S, N, and NW. Moderate ashfall was reported in Zuñac on 9 November. During 10-14 November an incandescent avalanche was observed descending the SE flank during the night.

Santa Maria – Southwestern Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that nighttime incandescence was observed in the crater of Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 9-15 November. The lava flows continued to descend the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages, as well as the S flank. Block-and-ash avalanches from the dome, and from the middle and front of the lava flows, descended the W, SW, and S flanks. Fine ash fell on the perimeter of the volcano. Moderate gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 500-700 m above the dome complex that extended 3-6 km E, SE, S, SW, and W.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 9-15 November. A pyroclastic flow was observed descending the SE flank as far as 4.5 km at 1550 on 9 November. The event also generated a white-gray ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted NE. On 14 November an ash plume rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted SW, according to the Darwin VAAC. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 100-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NE, S, and SW.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 3-10 November was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 400 km N, NE, and E during 5-7 November.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 9-15 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. An explosion at 2238 on 11 November produced an eruption plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ash plumes during 15 November rose 1-1.3 km above the crater and drifted SE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 9 November – 15 November 2022

Ahyi – Mariana Islands (USA) : On 15 November the USGS reported that hydroacoustic sensors at Wake Island began to record signals in mid-October that are consistent with submarine volcanic activity. A combined analysis of the hydroacoustic signals and seismic data from stations on Guam and Chichijima Island, Japan, suggest the source of this activity is at or near Ahyi seamount. Contrary to initial observations of there being discolouration on the water’s surface, a reanalysis of satellite imagery from 6 November showed no evidence of water discolouration at the ocean surface.

Ambae – Vanuatu : On 15 November the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that at approximately 1300 satellite data showed a large sulfur dioxide emission from Ambae. Seismicity also slightly increased. Residents on the southern and northern parts of the island reported a strong smell of sulfur dioxide gas and heard explosions.

Kavachi – Solomon Islands :Satellite data showed distinct yellow-green discoloured water in the vicinity of the submarine Kavachi volcano on 2, 7, 12, and 22 September, 2, 7, 12, 17, and 27 October, and 1, 6, and 11 November.

Kikai -Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that minor eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, during 7-14 November. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 600 m above the crater rim. Surveillance cameras observed nightly incandescence.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 2 November – 8 November 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence during 31 October-7 November. Six eruptive events and two explosions produced volcanic plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 900 m from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were slightly high on 1 November at 1,900 tons per day.

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 27 October-3 November. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images.

Askja – Iceland : On 9 November Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Askja to Green noting that although deformation data indicted continuing magma accumulation at depth, with a total uplift of 40 cm since August 2021, it was not accompanied by elevated seismicity.

Bagana – Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 November ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on satellite data. A thermal anomaly was present at the summit.

Dukono – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and S.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 28 and 31 October and 1 November generated ash plumes that rose to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in eastern directions. Ash plumes drifted 110 km SE on 1 November. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 1-3 November.

Fuego – South-Central Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 4-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 1-8 November, generating daily ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 15 km NW, W, SW, and SSW, causing almost daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Rochela, San Andrés Osuna, Finca la Asunción, and Ceilán. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 200 m above the summit on some of the days.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 2-8 November and seismicity was low. Satellite images were often cloudy, though elevated surface temperatures were identified almost daily. The flow field continued to grow, with lobes of lava extending more than 600 m E and around 430 m S.

Grimsvotn – Iceland : On 9 November Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Grímsvötn to Green noting no short-term increases in activity, though long-term trends remained above background levels. Seismicity continued to be characterized as unusual, with an increasing number of earthquakes that were also intensifying over the past months. The levels of deformation had already exceeded the level measured before the last eruption in 2011.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 2-8 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 1-8 November. The seismic network detected 13-50 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 2-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 28 October-3 November and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.2 km down the W flank (upstream in the Kali Sat drainage). No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 2-8 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions were detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data. Trace ash deposits on the NW flank were identified in satellite images during 1-2 November, and minor steaming was visible on 3 November. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images and observed by pilots during 3-4 November, and ash deposits on the flanks were visible. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 4-8 November.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 31 October-6 November with a daily average of 30 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. As many as five thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N).

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 1-8 November. Almost daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, though weather clouds often prevented views. Incandescence at the summit was periodically visible at night. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in either or both IG webcam photos and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 2.1 km above the volcano and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ash emissions were first observed at 0520 on 4 November and then the amplitude of tremor signals increased at 0650. A pyroclastic flow descended the Volcán River drainage on the SE flank at 0700. The emissions intensified at 0840 and a plume rose 8.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW. Minor-to-moderate amounts of ash fell in several cities including Riobamba (50 km NW), Guamote (42 km WNW), Colta (55 km NW), Alausí (60 km SW), Pallatanga (70 km W), Chambo (40 km NW), and Chunchi (73 km SW) during 4-5 November.

Santa Maria – Southwestern Guatemala : On 6 November INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex transitioned from more extrusive to more explosive. The rate of lava effusion and advancement of the lava flows in the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks had notably decreased. Explosivity had become more intense and audible in the recent weeks and particularly in the previous few days, according to seismic and infrasound data, webcam images, and reports from surrounding residents. Gas emissions had increased, and sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite images during recent days. Gas, ash, and steam plumes rose as high as 500 m above the dome complex. Block avalanches from the dome, along with the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. Some block collapses generated ash clouds that rose to several hundred meters high. Lahars descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage (a tributary of Nimá I on the SE flank) on 3 November, carrying tree trunks, branches, and blocks up to 1 m in diameter. Minor ashfall was reported in Finca San José and La Quina on 5 November.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 2-8 November. An eruptive event at 0507 on 3 November produced a white-and-gray ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : On 7 November AVO stated that small explosions at the N crater of Mount Cerberus at Semisopochnoi had been detected in geophysical data during the previous week and volcanic tremor simultaneously resumed. Though ash emissions were not visually observed, the type of unrest was similar to previous periods associated with ash emissions below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 27 October-3 November was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 200 km SE on 31 October and 1 November. The Kamchatka Volcano Station reported that activity notably increased on 5 November. Debris avalanches and small pyroclastic flows were visible throughout the day and incandescent avalanches were seen traveling SE and SW at night.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 31 October-7 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. An explosion at 0137 on 4 November produced an eruption plume that rose 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 200 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 2 November – 8 November 2022

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 27 October-1 November a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images. Strong fumarolic activity was visible, the lava dome continued to grow and was sometimes incandescent at night, and occasional collapses from the dome produced avalanches of hot material. The activity had significantly decreased by 2 November.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that diffuse white-and-brown plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted NE and NW on most days during 2-7 November.

Manam – Northeast of New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 November an ash plume from Manam rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) and drifted NE based on satellite images and weather models. The plume had dissipated within four hours.

Villarrica – Central Chile : SERNAGEOMIN and Observatorio Argentino de Vigilancia Volcánica (OAVV) reported that activity at Villarrica increased during 1 October-7 November. Seismic signals indicated above-baseline activity, including intensifying continuous tremor and an increase in the number of long-period earthquakes. The largest earthquake was a M 2.3 event located 5.3 km ESE of the crater at a depth of 4.8 km. Acoustic data indicated that explosions became larger. Sulfur dioxide emissions recorded on two stations, 10 km ENE and 6 km ESE, averaged around 541 tons per day, with a maximum value of 1,273 tons per day on 13 October; the values were within normal ranges, though they were preceded by two months with high values. Sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite images on 1 November. The lava lake occupied an area of about 36 square meters on the crater floor based on a 14 October satellite image. During October webcam images showed eruption plumes rising as high as 460 m above the crater rim. Plumes deposited tephra on the E, S, and SW flanks within 500 m of the crater on 2, 18, 23, and 31 October. Nighttime crater incandescence seen in webcam images intensified during 1 October-7 November, and strombolian explosions ejected incandescent tephra onto the NW and SW flanks on 18 and 31 October and during 1, 2, and 6-7 November. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images on 2, 10, 15, 22, 27, and 31 October, and 1, 4, and 6 November. POVI reported that the width of lava fountains rising above the crater rim on 2 November suggested that the vent on the crater floor was about 6 m in diameter. Analysis of satellite images and reports from observers indicated that more material was being ejected onto the upper flanks in November, with clasts up to 20 cm in diameter and deposits trending NW. On 8 November SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and warned that material could be ejected within 500 m of the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 26 October – 1 November 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence. Two eruptive events and one explosion were recorded during 24-28 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during 28-31 October.

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 20-27 October. An intense daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Ash plumes drifted more than 700 m NE and SE.

Bagana – Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 October-1 November ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, and WSW based on satellite data. An intense thermal anomaly was present at the summit.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 22 and 25-27 October generated ash plumes that rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 26 October.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin was very low during 25 October-1 November and nothing significant was seen in partly cloudy satellite or web camera views. Lava effusion likely continued.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 25 October-1 November entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Krakatau – Sunda Strait : PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible in webcam images rising from Anak Krakatau during 26-28 October. Dense gray ash plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted NE at 0949 on 26 October, 1205 on 27 October, and 0438 and 1502 on 28 October. Eruptive events were also recorded at 1838 on 26 October, 1955 on 27 October, and 0438 on 28 October, though were not visually confirmed.

Maly Semyachik – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : Although Maly Semyachik was not erupting, KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 28 October, noting that a plume of ash, re-suspended by strong winds, was visible in satellite images drifting 123 km SE. Within three hours.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 25 October-1 November. The seismic network detected 19-41 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 3-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 1-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week.

Mayon – Luzon (Philippines) : On 28 October PHIVOLCS warned of potential lahars around Mayon due to intense rains from an impending tropical storm. The rains could generate lahars in several drainages, including in the Miisi, Binaan, Anoling, Quirangay, Maninila, Masarawag, Muladbucad, Nasisi, Mabinit, Matan-ag, and Basud. Communities along the middle and lower flanks and in areas downstream were vulnerable to lahars.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 21-27 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as 14 minor lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : On 1 November Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that during the previous week seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was variable and indicated continuing growth of the lava dome in Arenas Crater. The number and size of seismic signals indicating fluid movement had decreased compared to the week before. Some of the signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Although seismic signals indicating rock fracturing decreased in number, magnitudes were higher previous week. The hypocenters were located 0.2-7 km deep, mainly beneath the NE and SW parts of Arenas Crater, and beneath the E, SE, and NW flanks. The largest event was a local M 1.8 that was recorded at 0518 on 28 October at a depth of 1.8 km below the crater. Several low-to-moderate thermal anomalies in Arenas Crater were identified in satellite images and minor changes to the dome and crater floor were visible. Plumes of steam and gas (mainly sulfur dioxide) continued to be emitted, rising as high as 1.8 km above the summit on 31 October and drifting SE, ESE, and ENE.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 26 October-1 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions, detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data, had intensified during the previous week. No significant activity was observed in cloudy-to-partly-cloudy satellite and webcam views during most of the week; diffuse steam-and-ash plume rose less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 31 October-1 November and deposited minor amounts of tephra on the E flank.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 20-27 October was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 80 km SE and NW during 24-25 October.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 24-31 October and crater incandescence was visible nightly. A total of six explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 300 m from the vent. Occasional rumbling noises and ashfall were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The number of volcanic earthquakes increased starting at 0600 on 31 October; a total of about 355 events, located beneath the W flank, were recorded by 1500.

Yasur – Vanuatu : On 27 October Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Ash-and-gas emissions and low-to-moderate explosions continued to be recorded, with bombs falling in and around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 26 October – 1 November 2022

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that notable activity continued after the strong explosive 23-24 October phase at Bezymianny through 27 October. Intense fumarolic activity was visible, the lava dome was incandescent at night, and collapses from the dome produced avalanches of hot material. Ash plumes from the collapses were sometimes large; on 26 October an ash cloud 10×13 km in dimension drifted 70 km E on 26 October.

Cotopaxi – Ecuador : IG issued a report that included data analysis and additional information about the minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi recorded during 21-22 October. The eruption began with a high-frequency earthquake recorded at 1944 on 21 October and was followed by an episode of volcanic tremor from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October. A diffuse gas-and-ash cloud rose 1.7-2.3 km above the summit and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the José Rivas Refuge for climbers on the N flank. Parque Nacional Cotopaxi closed to visitors due to the emissions. A small thermal anomaly in the summit crater was identified in satellite images on 23 October; a small anomaly had been repeatedly visible since the previous eruption during August-November 2015, though it had been absent since 12 November 2020. On 22 October scientists measured sulfur dioxide emissions using a mobile Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument in an area spanning near the W entrance to Parque Nacional Cotopaxi to areas in the park. They measured higher values, 1,580 tons per day, nearer to the volcano. Analysis of ash samples collected by IG scientists at the José Rivas Refuge revealed that about 22 percent was juvenile material, indicating a magmatic component to the eruption. Parque Nacional Cotopaxi reopened on 26 October. Seismicity was at moderate levels that same day with the number of events per day progressively decreasing according to a news report. During an overflight of the summit crater on 27 October, scientists observed gas-and-steam emissions rising 500 m above the carter rim, obscuring views into the crater. The amplitude of the tremor signal on 21 October was about half of that recorded during the 2015 eruption and the tremor signal only lasted about four hours whereas in 2015 some periods lasted several days. There was no notable precursory activity including anomalous seismic activity and deformation detected in satellite or GPS data. The Washington VAAC had previously reported ash emissions on 4 July 2016, 23 January 2017, 15 July 2018, and 10 January 2020, though none were associated with increased seismicity or ashfall. Climbers had previously reported ashfall on occasion, with the last report on 27 November 2021. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that on 27 October a somewhat dense, gray-and-black plume rose around 300 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted E.

Manam – Northeast of New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 October an ash plume from Manam rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) and drifted NW based on satellite images. The plume had dissipated within three hours.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 25-31 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 544 tonnes per day on 27 October. There were 2-16 daily counts of small phreatomagmatic bursts during 25-29 October. The Tokyo VAAC noted that three ash plumes rose as high as 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SW during 26-28 October based on SIGMETS (Significant Meteorological statements) issued by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. Six volcanic earthquakes and a three-minute-long tremor signal were recorded during 25-26 October, four periods of volcanic tremor were recorded during 28-29 October, and 64 periods were recorded during 31 October-1 November. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake were visible early in the week; white steam emissions rose as high as 600 m above the lake on most of the days.

Villarrica – Central Chile : POVI reported that Strombolian explosions at Villarrica intensified on 31 October and ejected material onto the upper flanks. A lava fountain rising above the crater rim was visible on 1 November.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 19 October – 25 October 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that four eruptive events and seven explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 17-24 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions during 13-16 and 18 October generated ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 13 October and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 15-16 October.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 19-25 October along with low levels of seismicity. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-22 October.

Home Reef – Tonga Ridge : The Tonga Geological Services reported that the eruption at Home Reef that began on 10 September was over. Satellite-based measurements showed that the island had not changed in size since 28 September, remaining at 268 m N-S, 283 m E-W, and 15-18 m high. A thermal anomaly was last observed on 17 October.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 19-25 October entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Krakatau – Sunda Strait : PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible rising from Anak Krakatau during 24-25 October. Webcam views showed that at 1757 on 24 October a dense black ash plume rose about 150 m above the summit, and at 2111 a dense gray-to-black ash plume rose 150 m and drifted E. Dense gray-to-black ash plumes were visible on 25 October at 0727, 0956, and 1711 rising 150-200 m above the summit and drifting NE. An eruptive event was recorded at 1845 by the seismic network; a webcam photo showed incandescent material being ejected above the crater rim.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 18-25 October. Daily white emissions rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. During 22-23 October white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m and drifted W.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 14-20 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as five minor lava avalanches that traveled up to 1.8 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 18-25 October and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple daily explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Sequences of small explosions during 18-20 October were accompanied by incandescence near the summit in webcam views. Webcam images from the afternoon of 20 October showed a new dark flow of lava and debris extending about a third of the way down the E flank. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on almost all days.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 18-25 October. Daily seismicity was characterized by 9-45 explosions, 2-67 long-period earthquakes, 4-25 signals that indicated emissions, and during 20-25 October there were 2-6 periods of harmonic tremor. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted SW, W, and NW. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible and the lava flow on the NE flank was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 52-83 tons per day during 19-23 October.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 18-25 October. Daily seismic counts ranges were 230-734 explosions, 39-86 tremor events indicating emissions, and 1-2 lahar events; 10-23 long-period events were recorded during 22-23 October. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in IG webcam images and/or visible in satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 2.1 km above the volcano and drifted NW, W, and SW. Almost daily thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, though weather clouds sometimes prevented views. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 363-1,716 tons per day during 18-25 October. Incandescence at the summit and from a new lava flow on the SE flank was visible during 18-19 October; incandescence from lava-flow activity continued to be periodically visible the rest of the week.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 19-24 October. Eruptive events at 0454 and 0633 on 20 October, 0451 on 21 October, 0634 on 23 October, and 0554 on 24 October produced ash plumes that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted mainly S and W.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 14-20 October. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 17-24 October. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. A total of 119 explosions during 17-21 October produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the vent. Occasional rumbling noises and ashfall were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Only one explosion was reported during 21-24 October. Plumes rose as high as 1.5 km and blocks were ejected as far as 200 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : On 26 October GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island characterized by persistent gas-and-steam emissions and intermittent, minor, passive ash emissions during the previous two weeks. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low, averaging around 217 tonnes per day when measured during an overflight on 7 October. During an observation overflight on 19 October scientists saw gas-and-steam plumes rising from several vents on the NW and W sides of the lake. The temperature of the emissions was 145 degrees Celsius, slightly less than the 165 degrees measured on 5 October.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 19 October – 25 October 2022

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 14-20 October. An intense thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 13-16 and 20 October; weather clouds obscured views on the other days. Explosive activity during 13-16 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 360 km E and SE.

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : Activity at Bezymianny increased during 22-23 October characterized by incandescence at the summit, sometimes strong fumarolic activity, and an increasing temperature of a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A strong explosive phase commenced and by 2340 local time on 23 October satellite images showed ash plumes rising to 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 10 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. By 1005 local time on 24 October the phase was over, and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Satellite images showed gas-and-steam plumes drifting NE and an intense thermal anomaly. The ash plumes from the day before had drifted as far as 1,915 km NE.

Cotopaxi – Ecuador : IG reported minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi. A low-amplitude tremor signal recorded by the seismic network from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October was associated with gas-and-ash emissions. The emissions were not visible due to darkness and weather conditions, but minor ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported by mountaineers in the Refugio José Rivas, 2 km N of the summit crater; the mountaineers evacuated. The Washington VAAC reported that during 2150-2200 on 21 October ash plumes rose to 7.6-8.5 (25,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on information from IG and the Guayaquil MWO, satellite images, and webcam views. The ash had dissipated by 0410 on 22 October. A second ash plume was identified in webcam and satellite images rising to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W at 0700 on 22 October. Ash was no longer visible by 1250. IG noted that following the end of the tremor signal seismicity declined and plumes of gas-and-steam rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W. Weather conditions at the volcano improved on 23 October and a layer of dark gray ash on the volcano, deposited the previous two days, became visible. Based on seismic data and media reports, small secondary lahars generated from the melted glacier beneath the ash deposit, were recorded during 1115-1300 and traveled short distances down the flanks. Weather clouds frequently prevented views of the volcano during 24-25 October, though steam emissions rising 200 m above the summit and drifting W were visible during a break in the cloud cover the morning of 25 October.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that white-and-brown or gray plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 750 m above the summit and drifted NE and NW during 18-24 October.

Langila – New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 October an ash plume from Langila rose 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The plume had dissipated within 5 hours.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 19-25 October. The seismic network detected 10-46 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 3-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. A M 3.1 earthquake was recorded at 2035 on 23 October at a depth of 4 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that there were 27-62 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 19-25 October. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of activity. The seismic network recorded daily periods of tremor lasting from 16 minutes to 10 hours and 35 minutes. One or two daily volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. During 20-23 October daily periods of low-amplitude, high-frequency events varied between two hours and 19 minutes to five hours, and periods of harmonic tremor lasted from 11 minutes to five hours and 35 minutes. A small explosion was recorded at 0039 on 25 October. According to a news article a small new lava dome, about 60 m in diameter, had been growing on the crater floor since 7 October.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 18-25 October. Daily white steam emissions rose as high as 3 km above the lake and drifted NE, NW, and SW. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake were periodically visible. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 6,702 tonnes per day on 20 October. The seismic network recorded 0-6 daily volcanic earthquakes and a few periods of volcanic tremor during 20-23 October. Webcam images showed increased activity during 21-22 October with 29 small phreatomagmatic bursts from a vent on the NE part of the lake, each lasting 1-5 minutes long. Some of the events produced 200-m-tall steam-rich plumes and very, short, dark ash plumes that immediately collapsed back into the water. Not all events generated detectable signals in the seismic and infrasound records. Ash plumes rose to 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 October and drifted W according to the Tokyo VAAC. Two small phreatomagmatic bursts, each lasting 6-7 minutes long were recorded during 22-23 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,403 tonnes per day on 24 October. Ground deformation measurements continued to show slight inflation in the western half of the caldera and deflation in the eastern half.

Villarrica – Central Chile : On 25 October SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica had been gradually increasing. Both the number and amplitude of long-period earthquakes increased during the month, and further increased the last week. Continuous tremor increased slightly. Webcams showed persistent gas emissions rising 460 m above the crater rim, and ash plumes drifting downwind on 2 and 23 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 535 (plus or minus 115) tonnes per day, peaking at 1,273 tonnes per day on 13 October. These values were within normal levels and were lower than in September. Crater incandescence increased in both frequency and intensity, consistent with reports from POVI and other collaborators, and likely indicated periodic Strombolian activity. On 14 October satellite images showed the active lava lake covering an area of 36 square meters in the E part of the crater floor. A partial collapse (less than 300 square meters) of the inner SSW crater rim was also evident. POVI reported that lava fountaining and Strombolian explosions were visible in webcam images at 1917 on 18 October. The most intense thermal anomaly over the crater since September 2019 was detected in satellite images on 23 October, and crater incandescence was visible in webcam images. That same day tourists described seeing splashes of lava ejected from a depth of 80 m and hearing loud degassing sounds. Deposits of ejected tephra were visible around the crater rim and on the upper flanks on 24 October, and intense crater incandescence was visible in images on 25 October.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 12 October -18 October 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that 10 eruptive events and four explosions at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 10-17 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly. No notable changes at the summit were visible during an overflight on 12 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions were characterized as extremely high on 14 October at 4,000 tons per day.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE during 7-13 October. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk during 6-7 and 13 October.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 11-18 October. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though continued slow growth of the flow field and steaming from a new flow margin were identified in satellite images on 12 October. Seismicity remained at low levels.

Home Reef – Tonga Ridge : The Tonga Geological Services reported that the last eruptive event at Home Reef occurred at 0209 on 13 October, based on satellite images processed by VOLCAT (Volcanic Cloud Analysis Toolkit) software. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images at 0146 on 17 October.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : On 15 October KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code for Karymsky to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale), noting that strong explosions were last recorded on 7 August. Though a thermal anomaly continued to be identified in satellite images, the temperature of that anomaly had been decreasing since the explosions. Gas-and-steam emissions persisted, and in recent days snow sometimes covered the volcano.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 11-18 October entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. Part of the lake’s surface was continuously active.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island : PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 11-18 October. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the summit almost daily and drifted in multiple directions. At 0351 on 14 October an eruptive event produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1.2 km above the summit and drifted SW.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 12-18 October. The seismic network detected 22-65 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 3-5 km beneath Mokua?weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. A pair of earthquakes, M 4.6 and M 5, were recorded at 0907 on 14 October. The first one was located S of Pahala, just offshore, at a depth of about 13 km. The second earthquake followed 24 seconds later and was located S of Pahala (beneath Highway 11) at a depth of 7.4 km. The earthquakes were followed by more than 150 aftershocks in the Pahala region over the next two days. Twenty of the aftershocks were greater than M 2.5 and four were M 3-4. HVO noted that the unrest was likely driven by accumulation of new magma 3-8 km beneath the summit.

Mayon – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that white steam plumes from Mayon rose no higher than 500 m above the summit and drifted E. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 301 tonnes per day on 12 October. One volcanic earthquake was detected during 16-17 October. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), precise leveling, continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano had been slightly inflated, especially on the NW and SE flanks, since 2020.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 7-13 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as seven lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs.

Nevados de Chillan – Central Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 11-18 October. At 0043 on 12 October a long-period earthquake was recorded and was possibly associated with an emission, but weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. A long-period earthquake at 1504 on 13 October was followed by a dense gray-black ash plume that rose almost 2.3 km and drifted NNE. Pyroclastic flows descended the NNE flank. Another long-period event, at 2108 on 15 October, was followed by the ejection of incandescent material as high as 800 m above the crater rim and as far as 700 m NE onto the flank. Explosions at 1613 on 16 October produced a dense grayish-black ash plume that rose more than 400 m and drifted SE, though weather clouds inhibited views. A pyroclastic flow traveled more than 500 m NNE.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 11-18 October and seismic tremor continued. Multiple explosions were recorded in seismic and infrasound data almost daily. Clear webcam views captured very small ash emissions and lava in the immediate vicinity of the vent during 11-14 October, and incandescent rock fragments being ejected from the vent during 13-14 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most days during 13-18 October.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 6-14 October. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 10-17 October. A total of 71 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 600 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Occasional ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during the first half of the week.

Villarrica – Central Chile : POVI posted an 18 October photo of Villarrica showing incandescence above the crater rim and noted that crater incandescence had been visible on clear nights.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 12 October -18 October 2022

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 7-14 October and a daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Explosive activity on 16 October generated ash plumes that rose to 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 293 km ESE.

Bulusan – Luzon (Philippines) : On 12 October PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Bulusan to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) due to increased seismicity, inflation, and gas emissions. From 0500 on 11 October to 1500 on 12 October the seismic network detected 126 weak earthquakes located at depths of 0-5 km. Most of the events were concentrated beneath the NW flank and summit area and were indicative of rock-fracturing processes. Other data suggested increased hydrothermal activity and unrest including increased temperatures and carbon dioxide emissions at area hotsprings beginning earlier in the year, pronounced inflation of the SW and S flanks that began in September, and a sulfur odor reported by residents of Sitio Talistison in Barangay Mapaso (Irosin) and Barangay San Roque (Bulusan) during 10-11 October. Daily earthquakes totaled 164 during 13-14 October and 79 during 14-15 October; daily counts were 26-32 during 15-18 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 302-386 tonnes per day during 15-16 October. P

Chikurachki – Paramushir Island (Russia): KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Chikurachki began at around 0310 on 16 October. A dense ash plume identified in satellite images rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 240 km ESE. At 1011 and 1620 that same day ash plumes were visible in satellite images rising as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting ESE; by 1620 ash plumes from the eruption had extended as far as 523 km. KVERT noted that ash emissions were last seen at 0130 on 17 October and a thermal anomaly was visible at 0432.

Grimsvotn – Iceland : Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that the small jökulhlaup at Grímsvötn that began on 10 October had peaked on 16 October and then began to subside. The onset of the jökulhlaup was slower than forecasted, flowing in the Gigjukvisl River at about 300 cubic meters per second by 12 October. The ice sheet had subsided a total of 7 m. A M 2 earthquake was recorded on 13 October just NE of Grímsvötn but did not signal increased seismicity. By 14 October the outflow from the lakes was an estimated 500 cubic meters per second and subsidence has totaled 15 m. Four earthquakes, all under M 2.5, were recorded during 15-16 October.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that white-and-black plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 350 m above the summit and drifted NE during 15-16 October. Two VONAs were posted on 19 October; at 0620 on 19 October an ash plume rose 500 m above the summit and drifted NW, and at 0815 an ash plume rose 700 m and drifted NW.

Nishinoshima – Izu Islands : JMA reported that on 12 October ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose 2.2-3.5 km (7,200-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Stromboli – Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that activity had decreased at Stromboli by 16 October following a week that included lava overflows at vent N2 (in Area N, North Crater), a partial collapse of the vent rim, and both pyroclastic and lava flows descending the Sciara del Fuoco. Lava flows continued to effuse from N2 during 10-15 October, though they gradually traveled to shorter distances through the week. Material from the eroded channel of the Sciara del Fuoco and collapses from the lava flows descended the channel, contacted the water and produced steam and ash plumes, and formed a delta of debris. By 15 October lava flows had rebuilt the N2 rim which prevented lava from flowing down the Sciara del Fuoco. Explosive activity at N2 was variable from low levels to intense spattering that culminated into lava fountaining during 10-13 October. The activity abruptly decreased on 14 October, though minor spattering continued. Occasional low-intensity ash emissions were visible during the morning of 16 October and spattering had ceased. Activity at N1 during 10-16 October was characterized by low-intensity explosions ejecting bombs and lapilli less than 80 m high.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 11-18 October. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake continued to be visible almost daily, and white steam emissions that generally rose as high as 1.5 km above the lake drifted in variable directions. Low-level background tremor and 1-9 daily volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 11-14 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 3,882 tonnes per day on 13 October. Activity increased during 14-15 October with six small phreatomagmatic bursts, each lasting 1-2 minutes long, and 26 volcanic earthquakes. Steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 2.4 km and drifted NE and SE. Based on SIGMETS (Significant Meteorological statements) issued by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 14-15 October three ash plumes rose as high as 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. During 15-16 October one phreatomagmatic burst was recorded along with 12 volcanic earthquakes and nine periods of volcanic tremor, each 2-70 minutes long. Six periods of volcanic tremor, totaling almost 4.5 hours, were detected during 16-17 October, and sulfur dioxide emissions were 4,422 tonnes per day on 17 October. Ground deformation measurements continued to show slight inflation in the western half of the caldera and deflation in the eastern half.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 5 October -11 October 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that nine eruptive events and one explosion at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 3-10 October. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected 600-900 m from the vent. Incandescence at the crater was visible nightly.

Bulusan – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS issued a special advisory for Bulusan on 7 October, noting that 29 volcanic earthquakes were recorded from 0500 on 6 October until the time the report was issued at 1500 on 7 October. Minor white steam emissions rose from vents in the crater and from NW vents. Data from continuous GPS and radial tilt measurements indicated short-term inflation on the S flanks since April 2022. The inflation and increased seismicity were likely caused by shallow hydrothermal processes.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE during 29 September-6 October. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 29 September and 6 October.

Fuego – South-Central Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 4-10 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km NW, W, SW, and SSW causing almost daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, and Ceilán. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 350 m above the summit on some of the days. Lahars resulting from substantial rainfall descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the ESE flank on 11 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that continuing slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by a 5 October satellite image and likely continued during 6-11 October. Seismicity remained at low levels, though it slightly increased during 5-6 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 4-8 October; weather clouds prevented webcam and satellite views during 8-11 October.

Home Reef – Tonga Ridge : The Tonga Geological Services reported that daily steam plumes from Home Reef were identified in satellite images during 4-11 October. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 5 October. At 0040 on 6 October an ash plume rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 5 km SE. Satellite-based measurements showed that the island had not changed in size between 28 September and 10 October, remaining at 268 m N-S and 283 m E-W. The island reached 15-18 m above the water surface, and was steeper on the E half but more gently sloped on the W. The daily emission count variable with about 8-19 events per day during 4-9 October and about 1-3 per day during 10-11 October.

Ibu – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 4-11 October. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes of variable densities rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 30 September and during 1-2 and 5-6 October.

Katmai – Alaska : AVO reported that on 9 October strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes blew unconsolidated ash SE across Shelikof Strait to Kodiak Island at an altitude up to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash was originally deposited during the Novarupta eruption in 1912.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that by 5 October about 111 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted from the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater since the current eruption began on 29 September 2021, raising the crater floor by 143 m. Lava continued to enter the lake during 5-11 October. The active part of the lake stayed at a relatively steady level through the week, varying only slightly.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island : PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 5-11 October. Daily white emissions rose as high as 500 m above the summit and drifted W, NW, and NE. White-and-gray plumes rose as high 200 m and drifted NW and W during 9-10 October. Webcam images posted with the daily observatory reports often showed incandescence above the crater rim.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 30 September-6 October and seismicity remained at high levels. The SW lava dome produced as many as five lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.8 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank, and one that traveled 800 m down the W flank upstream of upstream of Kali Putih. No significant morphological changes to the central and SW lava domes were evident in drone photographs, though both domes continued to grow.

Nevados de Chillan – Central Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing activity at Nevados de Chillán during 16 September-11 October. Dome 4 in Nicanor Crater grew until mid-September, coincident with thermal anomalies seen in satellite images, which decreased and were not present during the second half of the month. Explosions during 16-30 September and into early October produced ash plumes that generally rose no higher than 1 km above the crater rim. Notably, an explosion on 19 September produced an ash plume that rose 1.1 km and drifted SE, and ejected blocks 500 m from the crater rim. An incandescent ash plume from a second explosion rose 1.7 km and drifted SE, causing ashfall on that flank. The explosions that day partially destroyed the dome. At 1906 on 8 October a long-period earthquake signal was followed by an ash plume that rose 1.7 km and drifted NNE. An explosion at 1926 on October generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted NNW. Pyroclastic flows traveled short distances down the NNW flank.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 4-11 October. Seismic tremor continued. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 5-6 October and incandescence was visible in nighttime webcam images. Discolored snow near the vent was visible in webcam views during the morning of 7 October suggesting low-level explosive activity; a small explosion was recorded at 1503 that same day though cloudy conditions prevented visual confirmation. Two small explosions were detected during 8-11 October. Very small ash emissions and lava near the vent were visible in occasional clear webcam images during 10-11 October.

Rincon de la Vieja – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing eruptive activity at Rincón de la Vieja characterized by occasional small phreatic explosions. A small explosion at 1923 on 4 October lasted two minutes but was not visually observed due to darkness and weather conditions. Small gas-and-steam emissions were recorded at 1647 on 8 October and 0940 on 9 October; at least the first emission was seen rising above the crater rim.

Santa Maria – Southwestern Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 4-11 October. Effusion from Caliente cone fed lava flows that descended the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks. Block avalanches from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. The avalanches sometimes generated minor ash plumes. Incandescence from the dome and the lava flows was often visible at night or during early mornings. Explosions during 6-7 October ejected incandescent material onto all flanks. A sulfur odor was reported in Mirador de Samriaguito. Small explosions were recorded during 9-10 October.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch was characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, and lava-dome extrusion during 29 September-6 October. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 3-10 October. A total of 55 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and occasionally merged into weather clouds. The explosions ejected large blocks as far as 700 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible nightly.

Villarrica – Central Chile : POVI reported increased activity at Villarrica on 10 October. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images and was the most intense anomaly recorded since January 2021. Incandescence above the crater rim was visible in a webcam image.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : On 10 October GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island during the previous week based on webcam views, overflights, and satellite images. Very vigorous steam-and-gas plumes were seen rising from the active vent in webcam images though the week. Sometimes minor amounts of ash were included in the plumes from collapses of the vent walls. On 5 October the temperature of the emissions was 165 degrees Celsius and sulfur dioxide gas flux was low at 200-234 tonnes per day, measured during an overflight. Sulfur dioxide emissions had not been detected in satellite images since 18 September.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 5 October -11 October 2022

Chirinkotan – Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT reported that an ash plume from Chirinkotan was identified in satellite images at 1030 on 7 October rising 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 80 km ESE.

Grimsvotn – Iceland : Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that recent GPS measurements indicated that the ice sheet had subsided about 3 m and the lake beneath the glacier at Grímsvötn had begun to drain, though the water had not reached the glacier’s margins. Neither seismicity nor gas emissions were elevated, though activity at the volcano had been increasing over time. Notably, a pulse of seismic tremor was recorded for about an hour during the previous week, and magmatic gases were measured in fumarolic plumes in 2020. By 12 October the outflow of water was about 300 cubic meters per second, with the onset of the jökulhlaup occurring slower than initially calculated, and the ice sheet had subsided a total of 7 m. The flooding was likely going to be equal to that seen during the summer and would likely not impact bridges or structures.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : On 5 October HVO noted recent increases in seismicity and deformation at Mauna Loa. The number of earthquakes increased from 5-10 per day in June to 10-20 per day during July-August. The number of daily earthquakes again intensified, to 40-50 per day, starting at about 0200 on 23 September, and peaks as high as 100 per day were recorded on 23 and 29 September. The small-magnitude (less than M3) earthquakes occurred beneath Moku‘aweoweo, the summit caldera, at depths of 2-3 km. Inflation accompanied the swarm and had also increased during the past two weeks. Daily earthquake counts were relatively unchanged during 6-12 October. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. Earthquakes were clustered beneath the summit caldera at depths of 3-5 km and below the NW flank at depths of 6-8 km.

Mayon – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that since the Alert Level for Mayon was raised to 1 (on a 0-5 scale) on 21 August monitoring data had showed nothing notable. Changes in morphology of the dome and minor aseismic extrusion estimated at about 40,000 cubic meters was detected during 6 June-20 August based on daily visual and camera monitoring data. Based on these observations, the lava dome grew an additional 48,000 cubic meters by 4 October; re-mobilized light-colored ash had been deposited in Miisi Gully (S flank) beginning 2 October, likely derived from lava fragmentation during the extrusion process. Freshly extruded lava at the base of the summit lava dome was seen during an aerial survey conducted on 7 October. Daily white steam plumes were visible drifting down-flank and then to the W, WSW, and SSW during 8-10 October. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), precise leveling, continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano had been slightly inflated, especially on the NW and SE flanks, since 2020. Short-term inflation on the W to SW flanks and short-term deflation on the E and SE flanks had been detected since August.

Nishinoshima – Izu Islands : JMA reported that the eruption at Nishinoshima continued during 5-11 October. Ash plumes rose 2.2-3.5 km (7,200-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Stromboli – Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that activity at Stromboli had been more intense in the past two weeks with a large explosion on 29 September, short-lived lava overflows of the craters during 3-4 October, and collapses with pyroclastic flows and lava flows on 9 October. At 1524 on 29 September an explosion at vent N2 in Area N (North Crater area) generated an ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and ejected abundant lava fragments, lapilli, and bombs along the Sciara del Fuoco. Activity during 3-9 October generally consisted of ongoing explosions from three vents in Area N and at least two vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected bombs and lapilli 80-150 m high every 10-20 minutes. Explosions ejecting coarse material, along with sometimes intense spattering, occurred at two N2 vents. Explosions from at least two vents in Area C-S, which were not visible due to the camera views, ejected ash and coarse material less than 150 m above the vent at a rate of 1-6 events per hour. At 1108 on 3 October a fissure opened on the outer flank of N2, within the Sciara del Fuoco, and produced a lava flow that traveled to the coast; the flow was cooling by 1800. At 1107 the next morning, 4 October, lava overflowed the N crater (likely N2) and unconsolidated lava rolled down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco. Activity again intensified on 9 October beginning at 0921 when lava overflowed from an area in the N part of N2 and lava effused from the fissure that had opened on 3 October. At 0922 the rim of N2 collapsed and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled down the Sciara del Fuoco, reached the sea within 30 seconds, and advanced over the water for a few hundred meters. Immediately afterwards a large amount of lava flowed down the Sciara del Fuoco in two main branches and reached the coast within a few minutes. Lava continued to flow to the coast during the rest of the day. The Dipartimento della Protezione Civile raised the Alert Level to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Collapses of material in the Sciara del Fuoco continued overnight, possibly due to erosion of the channels from lava flows. By 0919 on 10 October lava flows were only reaching part way down the Sciara del Fuoco, stopping about 400 m from the coast. Lava flows continued to stop part way down the flank during 10-12 October. Frequent collapses of material in the channel eroded by the lava flow and material from the lava flow itself descended to the coast. Spattering from Area N was visible.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported continuing unrest at Taal during 5-11 October. Upwelling gasses and hot fluids in the lake continued to be visible. A small, three-minute-long phreatomagmatic burst occurred on 5 October; according to the Washington VAAC an ash plume rose to 600 m (2,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. White steam emissions rose 900 m above the lake, though during 10-11 October plumes rose as high as 2.4 km.