Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 19 February 2020 – 25 February 2020

Huaynaputina | Peru : IGP reported that during 11 and 20-21 February small- to moderate-sized lahars descended the El Volcán drainage, on the S flank of Huaynaputina, and traveled to within 500 m of Quinistaquillas, in the province of Sánchez Cerro, Moquegua region.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 25 February IMO reported that seismic activity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavík, had significantly decreased during the previous few days, and inflation was not detected in GPS and InSAR data. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green. Preliminary data suggested a small deflation signal beginning mid-February, though further analysis was needed for confirmation. The report warned the public not to explore lava tubes in the Eldvörp area as gas measurements showed a dangerous level of oxygen depletion; there are no pre-unrest measurements existing for comparison.

San Miguel | El Salvador : SNET reported that local observers of San Miguel reported a series of rumbling noises that occurred from 1900 on 20 February to 0750 on 21 February. The report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that intermittent, low-level tremor was detected at Semisopochnoi during 19-25 February. Brief periods of elevated tremor were recorded during 19-20 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 12 February 2020 – 18 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 10-17 February there were 13 explosions and seven non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-900 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 10-17 February. Ash plumes rose 900-1,300 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate continued to be at a high level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-17 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12-13 February that sent ash plumes up to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 16 February an ash plume from Ibu rose at least 800 m above the summit (6,800 ft a.s.l.) and drifted W. The Darwin VAAC stated that on 17 February an ash plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 16 February and at 0048 on 17 February brown ash emissions rose 400 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 7-14 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-12 February white plumes rose as high as 400 m above Merapi’s summit lava dome. The volume of the dome was an estimated 407,000 cubic meters on 12 February based on drone photos, similar to 19 November 2019 measurements. An eruption at 0516 on 13 February lasted two and a half minutes and produced an ash plume that rose about 2 km above the summit and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas within a 10-km radius especially to the S, including the villages of Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. Video of the event showed incandescent material being ejected above the lava dome and lightning in the ash cloud. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite images and a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 February an ash plume from Nishinoshima rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Sangay | Ecuador | 2.005°S, 78.341°W | Elevation 5286 m

IG reported that a permanent monitoring station located near the base of Sangay was repaired during 26 January-1 February and had begun to again transmit data in real time. The technician reported constant ash emissions during the expedition. A high level of activity persisted at Sangay during 12-18 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 570-870 m above the summit and drifted W and SW according to Washington VAAC advisories. A webcam recorded lava blocks descending the SE flank on 17 February.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 7-14 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-14 February incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Very small eruptions during 9-10 February produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater rim. Rumbling and ashfall was reported in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 12 February 2020 – 18 February 2020

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the longest-travelling lava flow that began to effuse on 10 February from fissures on the E flank of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater was no longer advancing by 13 February. The end of the longest active flow was located below Marco Crater around 1,900 m elevation, based on field an aerial observations. A cone was building over three vents and had grown to 30 m high; lava fountains from the three vents rose 10-15 m above the rim of the cone. Tremor levels rapidly decreased around 1400 on 15 February, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation of changes to the surficial activity. Observers noted no activity while aboard an overflight during 0730-0800 on 16 February, though tremor continued to be recorded. By 1412 tremor ceased, signifying the end of lava effusion.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 15 February IMO reported that seismicity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavík, remained above background levels even though activity had been decreasing since the end of January. Two earthquakes larger than M 3 were detected; one of them, an M 3.1, was recorded at 0826 on 14 February. The rate of deformation had slightly increased. The Aviation Code remained at Yellow.

Semisopochnoi | United States : A series of explosions and tremor bursts at Semisopochnoi were detected by the seismic network beginning on 14 February, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Tremor bursts lasting from three to twelve minutes every few hours were recorded the next day. Ash plumes were not visible, though a weather cloud deck persisted between 1.5 and 4.6 km (5,000 and 15,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic data continued to record small explosions and tremor bursts lasting from six to ten minutes every few hours on 16 February, but by 17 February there were almost no events recorded. Weather clouds continued to obscure views of the volcano.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 5 February 2020 – 11 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 3-7 February there were 16 explosions and 21 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 1,000-1,300 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An explosion at 0126 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km and ejected material as far as 1.8 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 1-7 February that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E and S. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 February multiple discrete ash plumes from Ibu, identified in satellite images, rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. An ongoing thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that the eruption at Kadovar continued during 1 January-7 February with frequent (hours to days) Vulcanian explosions from Main Vent at the summit. The explosions ejected rocks and ash plumes that rose 300-400 m above the vent and drifted NE and E. Residents on Blup Blup (15 km N) reported rumbling and nighttime summit incandescence. Volcanic plumes were sometimes observable in Wewak (105 km W). The Darwin VAAC stated that on 6 February an ash plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 31 January-7 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified those same days in satellite images. Vulcanian activity was recorded on 31 January and 4 February; explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 145 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 6-10 February a series of eruptive events at Anak Krakatau generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-11 February there were 57-154 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 1754 on 5 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NNE. A minor explosion at 0029 on 9 February ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An explosion at 0233 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent material as far as 500 m down the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-7 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 5 February 2020 – 11 February 2020

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that after the 3 February eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater the number of volcanic earthquakes decreased, and very small eruptive events occurred intermittently though 5 February and on 9 February. A large amount of ashfall (including lapilli up to 2 cm in diameter) was confirmed on the SE flank during field observations on 3 and 6 February. Thermal image observations revealed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. The number of volcanic earthquakes began increasing on 9 February and continued to be elevated the next day. A large-amplitude volcanic tremor event was accompanied by fluctuating tilt at 1318 on 11 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 1027 on 10 February, accompanied by rapid deformation. Volcanic tremor began just 23 minutes later, at 1050, heralding the start of a new eruption. During an overflight conducted during 1300-1330 in partly cloudy weather, observers noted that several fissures had opened on the E flank of Dolomieu Crater, between the crater rim and 2,000 m elevation. The fissures all were at least 1 km long and produced lava fountains that were no higher than 10 m. Lava flows had traveled E to 1,700 m elevation by 1315. In the evening mapping of the lava flows based on satellite data revealed a larger flow field that what was visually observed during the overflight hours before. Lava flows spanned from the E to the S, with the farthest flow traveling E to 1,400 m elevation. The data showed that the fissures at the highest elevation had opened in the same area as those from the 18 February and 11 June 2019 eruptions.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 7 February IMO reported that data collected during the previous week indicated that a magma body was located 3-5 km beneath Reykjanes. Earthquake activity had decreased during the previous two days, though inflation was ongoing, reaching 5 cm. The Aviation Code remained at Yellow.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 February an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l., or 400 m above the crater rim, and drifted SE based on satellite images and weather models. PVMBG noted that on 7 February a gray ash plume rose 400 m and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that whitish steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above Taal’s main vent during 5-11 February and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 116 tonnes per day (on 8 February). Weak steaming (plumes 10-20 m high) from ground cracks was visible along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 people were staying at other locations as of 10 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns W of the island within a 7-km radius.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 29 January 2020 – 04 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 27 January-3 February there were 26 explosions and 33 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 700-1,300 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,700 tons/day on 31 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 27 January-3 February. Plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,900 to 3,400 tons per day during 28-29 and 31 January and 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Bulusan to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) on 25 January, noting that activity at the volcano was at baseline levels. Specifically, sulfur dioxide flux had been below detectable levels since 2018, the frequency of volcanic earthquakes had been at baseline levels (0-2 earthquakes/day) since May 2019, and overall ground deformation data indicated that there was no pressurization from subsurface magma. Weak gas emissions from hydrothermal activity continued. PHIVOLCS reminded the public of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 January-4 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 24-31 January that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 29 January-2 February white-to-gray plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit; plumes drifted S on 2 February. Weather clouds prevented visual observations during 3-4 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 27 January-2 February lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 200 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 1-3 February brown ash plumes rose 150-300 m above Kerinci’s summit; ash plumes drifted NE on 1 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 24-31 January, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 27-28 and 30 January. Vulcanian activity was recorded on 30 January; explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 282 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 January-4 February white gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 900 m above the rim and drifted E, ESE, and SE. Minor explosions during 28-29 January ejected incandescent blocks that were visible at night. At 1356 on 30 January an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 3.4 km above the crater rim; parts of the plume collapsed, generating pyroclastic flows that traveled NE and SE. Two thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, one from vent CE4 (November 2019) and the second from a new vent named CE5, formed 60 m NW of the center of CE4. There had been no advancement of the lava flows (L1, L2, L3, and L4) since 24 November 2019. The number of long-period earthquakes and tremor associated with explosions both considerably decreased after December 2019. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 27 January-4 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 880-1,200 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 27-29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in Púngala and in several Chimborazo province communities during 27-28 February. A pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank on 28 January, reaching the Volcán River and causing secondary lahars in the river. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in the province of Chimborazo (W), particularly in the towns of Cebadas (35 km WNW) and Palmira (46 km W). On 30 January residents in the town of Alao (20 km NW) reported that vegetation was covered with fine white ash. An ash emission rose 570 m above the summit and drifted W on 31 January. Ashfall was reported in Macas (42 km SE) the next day. Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 200 m and drifted W on 2 February. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 3 February.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that ash plumes from Semeru rose 400-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N on 30 January as well as 2 and 4 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 23-24 and 27-30 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that during 17-31 January white vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s Main Crater and weak, diffuse white vapor rose from the WSW flank fissure. Lahars were detected mid-month. Seismic activity was low with RSAM values below 200 units. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 4 February GeoNet reported that White island remained at an elevated state of unrest. Temperatures at the vent area remained very hot at more than 550-570 degrees Celsius. Gas emissions measured during an overflight on 30 January had decreased compared to the previous week but remained at high levels. No changes to the vent area, the receding lake, or the area of lava extrusion were visually apparent. Continuing movement of the back-crater wall W of the 1914 landslide deposits was identified in satellite images, though not noted during the overflight. According to the New Zealand Police another person died as a result from the eruption, bringing the total number of deaths to 21. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 29 January 2020 – 04 February 2020

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 0521 on 3 February an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 7 km above the crater rim, based on satellite images, and ejected material 600 m away from the crater. A pyroclastic flow traveled about 900 m SW, the first one recorded since 29 January 2019. Ashfall was confirmed in the northern part of neighboring Yakushima Island (a large amount in Miyanoura, 32 km ESE) and southern Tanegashima. According to a news article the eruption caused one flight to be diverted and one to be cancelled. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1213 on 31 January a phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja ejected material onto the N flanks and generated a plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. Lahars descended rivers on the N flank and reached populated areas 7-10 km downriver around 40 minutes after the eruption.

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that whitish steam plumes rose as high as 800 m above Taal’s main vent during 29 January-4 February and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 231 tonnes per day (on 3 February). According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 23,915 people in 152 evacuation centers, and an additional 224,188 people were staying at other locations as of 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns W of the island within a 7-km radius.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 22 January 2020 – 28 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 20-27 January there were 27 explosions and nine non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 1-1.7 km away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,400 tons/day on 20 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-28 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19-20 January that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 19 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna’s Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 21-26 January. The cone in VOR produced Strombolian explosions which increased in frequency and resulted in rapid cone growth (especially the N part). Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2). Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 21-22 January there were several episodes of ash emissions at NSEC, originating from the vent that had opened on 11 December 2019 on the side of the saddle area. Ash emissions rarely rose form the E vent.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 20-26 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 150 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 24 January a brown ash plume rose 500 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 17-24 January. Strombolian activity was visible daily, and Vulcanian activity was evident on 22 January. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l.; an ash plume drifted 460 km E on 22 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 January ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 January an ash emission from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Semeru continued during 20-26 January, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 17-24 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 22-28 January. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images, though became weak during 26-28 January. Infrasound data suggested that minor explosions were occurring at the summit during 22-23 January. Small steam plumes from the summit were visible on 22, 23, and 26 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that white plumes rose as high as 700 m above the rim of Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 17-24 January. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. No changes in crater morphology were observed during an overflight on 21 January compared to 21 February 2019 observations; white plumes rose 400 m above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported low levels of activity at Villarrica during 1-15 January, characterized by whitish gas plumes rising 250 m above the crater rim and nighttime crater incandescence observed during periods of clear weather. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions averaged around 349 tons per day, peaking at 468 tons per day on 3 January. Low-energy thermal anomalies were identified on 11, 13, and 14 January. POVI reported that lava fountaining from 4-5-m-diameter vents was visible during 18-20 and 22 January. Low levels of activity and minor explosions were noted on 27 January. SERNAGEOMIN maintained the Alert Level at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 22 January 2020 – 28 January 2020

Fernandina | Ecuador : A reported from IG on 23 January noted that seismicity increased after the approximately nine-hour long 12 January eruption at Fernandina, characterized by sporadic earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 3 and small swarms. The strongest earthquake was a M 4.2 recorded on 21 January. Most of the earthquakes were shallow though occasionally some were located at depths greater than 10 km. Deformation of about 35 cm was detected around the fissures that produced the lava flows. The lava flows emitted on 12 January covered an approximate area of 3.8 square kilometers; no new thermal anomalies nor gas emissions have been recorded since the eruption.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high.

Reykjanes | Iceland : IMO reported possible magma accumulation beneath Reykjanes, centered along the plate boundary below the Svartsengi fissure system, just W of Thorbjorn. Deformation began on 21 January and was unusually rapid, with the rate of inflation occurring at 3-4 mm per day (3 cm total by 29 January), as detected by InSAR and continuous GPS data. Magma accumulation, if that was causing the inflation, was small with an estimate volume of 1 million cubic meters, at 3-5 km depth. Deformation on the Reykjanes peninsula had been measured for three decades with no previously comparable signals. An earthquake swarm accompanied the deformation, just E of the center of the inflation. The largest earthquakes were M 3.6 and 3.7, recorded on 22 January, and felt widely on the Reykjanes peninsula and all the way to Borgarnes region. Earthquake swarms are relatively common, though coupled with deformation caused IMO to raise the Aviation Code to Yellow on 26 January. The swarm was declining by 26 January. On 29 January IMO stated that data showed continuing uplift and the earthquake swarm was ongoing.

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that white steam-laden plumes rose as high as 800 m above Taal’s main vent during 22-28 January and drifted SW and NE; ash emissions ceased around 0500 on 22 January. Remobilized ash drifted SW on 22 January due to strong low winds, affecting the towns of Lemery (16 km SW) and Agoncillo, and rose as high as 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. as reported by pilots. PHIVOLCS stated that since the 12-13 January phreatomagmatic eruption activity has generally weakened. Both the number and magnitude of volcanic earthquakes declined; by 21 January hybrid earthquakes had ceased and both the number and magnitude of low-frequency events had diminished. GPS data had recorded a sudden widening of Taal Caldera by ~1 m, uplift of the NW sector by ~20 cm, and subsidence of the SW part of Volcano Island by ~1 m just after the main eruption phase. The rate of the deformation patterns was smaller during 15-22 January, and generally corroborated by field observations; Taal Lake had receded about 30 cm by 25 January but about 2.5 m of lakewater recession (due to uplift) was observed around the SW portion of the lake, near the Pansipit River Valley where ground cracking had been reported. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) on 26 January and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns W of the island within a 7-km radius. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low at 140 tonnes per day on 22 January but averaged around 250 tonnes per day through 26 January; emissions were 87 tonnes per day on 27 January and below detectable limits the next day. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 125,178 people in 497 evacuation centers as of 2020 on 28 January.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 15 January 2020 – 21 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime crater incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 14-20 January. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded by the seismic network. A total of 21 explosions were detected, with ash plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater rim and large blocks ejected as far as 1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 7-20 January. Plumes rose 0.9-1 km above the crater rim during 15-20 January and caused ashfall in areas downwind; the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes mainly drifted S, SE, E, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-21 January ash plumes from Dukono rose 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 11 and 13-14 January that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January.

Ijen | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-18 January white plumes rose 250-400 m above Ijen’s water lake surface and no change in the colour of the water was noted. An increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was detected; continuous tremor emerged on 11 January, peaked on 15 January, and then decreased during 17-18 January. The temperature of the lake water fluctuated, though overall it decreased from 38 degrees Celsius in June 2019 to 20 degrees Celsius on 14 January; the lake water was 46 degrees Celsius during a period of increased activity from February to March 2018. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or descend to the crater floor.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 13-19 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 50-300 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 10-12 and 15-16 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nishinoshima | Japan : The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-21 January Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim, building a small cone. Multiple lava flows, some short-lived, traveled as far as 150 m W and S, and down the NW flank towards Cerro Chino.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 15-22 January seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Daily gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted W, NW, and N. Incandescent blocks rolled 700 m down the flanks. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1.4 km W and SW. INSIVUMEH noted that ashfall was likely in areas downwind. Avalanches of material descended the NW, SW, and SE flanks of Caliente cone.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 10-17 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that after almost a week of relatively quiet conditions at Shishaldin, during 16-17 January seismicity began to climb and the temperature of the thermal anomaly slightly increased. Activity intensified at 0030 on 19 January and by around 0630 the plume became more ash-rich. By around 0828 the ash plume rose to 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km E, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Lava flows descended the NE and N flanks and generated lahars. By 1530 seismicity abruptly decreased, though around the same time the robust steam-and-ash plume (visible to pilots and in webcam and satellite images) rose as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and continued to drift 150 km SSE. Minor amounts of ash fell in False Pass. Ash emissions had significantly declined by 2200 and seismicity was low; the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch just after midnight the next morning. A detached volcanic cloud was identified in satellite images drifting ESE over the Pacific Ocean. During 20-21 January elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though the N-flank flow was not active. Seismicity remained above background levels, and coincided with detections in infrasound data that suggested small explosions at the vent. Steaming from the summit was visible in webcam images.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that Suwanosejima’s seismic network recorded an explosion at Ontake Crater on 10 January and occasional small eruptive events during 12-17 January. Plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. Residents of Toshima Village (4 km SSW) reported ashfall and explosion and rumbling sounds. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 22 January GeoNet reported that lava had been extruded into the vents created by the 9 December White Island eruption based on visual observations from the week before and on 21 January. Airborne gas measurements indicated high levels on 21 January and the vent temperature was very hot at more than 400 degrees Celsius. According to a news article another person died as a result from the eruption, bringing the total number of deaths to 20. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 15 January 2020 – 21 January 2020

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 13-19 January dense white gas plumes rose 25-300 m above the bottom of Anak Krakatau’s crater. Two eruptive events were recorded by the seismic network on 15 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : White plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Semeru was recorded at 0725 on 18 January and lasted almost four minutes. A gray ash plume rose around 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Ash plumes rose 300-400 m and drifted W and N during 19-21 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that the eruption at Taal continued during 14-21 January, though was generally weaker. Activity during 15-16 January was characterized by dark gray, steam-laden plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the vents in Main Crater and drifted S and SW. Satellite images showed that the Main Crater lake was gone, and new craters had formed on the floor and N flank of Volcano Island. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 4,186 tonnes per day on 15 January. Eruptive events at 0617 and 0621 on 16 January generated short-lived, dark gray ash plumes that rose 500 and 800 m, respectively, and drifted SW. Weak steam plumes rose 800 m and drifted SW during 1100-1700, and nine weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network. Dropping water levels of Taal Lake were first observed in some areas on 16 January but reported to be lake-wide the next day. The known ground cracks in the barangays of Lemery, Agoncillo, Talisay, and San Nicolas in Batangas Province widened a few centimeters by 17 January, and a new steaming fissure was identified on the N flank of the island. Steady steam emissions were visible during 17-21 January. Infrequent weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated and were as high as 4,353 tonnes per day on 20 January and as low as 344 tonnes per day on 21 January. From 1300 on 12 January to 0800 on 21 January the Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) had recorded a total of 718 volcanic earthquakes; 176 of those had magnitudes ranging from 1.2-4.1 and were felt with Intensities of I-V. During 20-21 January there were five volcanic earthquakes with magnitudes of 1.6-2.5; the Taal Volcano network (which can detect smaller events not detectable by the PSN) recorded 448 volcanic earthquakes, including 17 low-frequency events. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 148,987 people in 493 evacuation centers as of 1800 on 21 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 8 January 2020 – 14 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime crater incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 6-14 January. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded by the seismic network. Explosions were recorded during 6, 10, and 12-14 January; ash plumes rose 1.8-2.3 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 13 January ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 3, 5, and 9 January that sent ash plumes up to 2.9 km (9,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE and SE, and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 8 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 6-12 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 100-400 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 3-10 January. Strombolian activity was visible all week and Vulcanian explosions were noted on 6 January. Ash plumes drifted 55 km ENE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 January there were 76-268 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash (during 8-9 December). An explosion at 0631 on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. The event also ejected incandescent material onto the flanks as far away as 1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of eight daily low- to medium-intensity explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 6-12 January. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. There were six thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the 282-m-diameter lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite and webcam images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 1-11 January ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was identified in satellite images during 9-10 January.

Semisopochnoi | United States : On 9 January AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting that explosions had not been detected since 19 December 2019. In addition, seismic tremor had last been recorded on 29 December 2019; seismicity subsequently declined but remained above background levels.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 3-10 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO summarized the 7 January eruptive activity at Shishaldin, characterizing the period of activity during 0500-1200 as the most sustained explosive activity of the eruptive sequence so far. Ash plumes drifted over 200 km ENE, were ash rich during 0900-1200, and caused several flight cancellations and minor ashfall in Cold Bay. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images during 7-10 January, indicating lava effusion; seismicity decreased but remained above background levels. Satellite images acquired during 10-14 January showed weak surface temperatures, indicated cooling lava; seismicity remained above background levels.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA recorded 13 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 3-10 January. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 600 m from the crater. Explosion and rumbling sounds, as well as ashfall, were reported in areas 4 km SSW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 15 January GeoNet reported that White Island remained in an elevated state of unrest. Very hot (440 degrees Celsius) and strong steam and gas emissions continued to rise from the 9 December vents. Three short-lived episodes of tremor recorded during 8-10 January were accompanied by minor explosions at the active vents. Sulfur dioxide emission rates were within normal ranges, suggesting no additional magma movement since just after the December eruption. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 8 January 2020 – 14 January 2020

Fernandina | Ecuador : IG reported that a M 4.7 earthquake was recorded at 1642 on 12 January at Fernandina and followed by a swarm of 29 local earthquakes all below M 3.1. A new eruption began just before 1810 from a circumferential fissure located near the E edge of the caldera, at elevations around 1300-1400 m above sea level. Several lava flows descended the E flank; Galapagos National Park rangers witnessed the eruption from the Bolívar Channel station. A gas cloud rose 1.5-2 km above the fissure and drifted WNW. A second peak in seismicity was recorded 30-40 minutes after the eruption onset and then gradually decreased. Gas emissions decreased sometime after 2100 and thermal anomalies began to gradually diminish.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 6-12 January dense white gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the bottom of Anak Krakatau’s crater. An eruptive event on 7 January produced a dense ash plume that rose 200. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : An eruption at Kuchinoerabujima began at 1505 on 11 January and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, drifted E, and then faded into a weather cloud. Tephra was ejected 300 m from the crater, and ashfall was reported on neighboring Yakushima Island. The eruption continued until 0730 on 12 January, producing ash plumes that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW; afterwards only white plumes were visible rising 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that seismicity at Taal began to increase on 28 March 2019 and fluctuated between moderate and high levels throughout the year and into 2020. A seismic swarm beneath Taal began at 1100 on 12 January and a phreatic eruption commenced at 1300. The initial eruptive activity was characterized by increased steaming from at least five vents in Main Crater and phreatic explosions that generated 100-m-high plumes. PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and reminded the public that the entire Volcano Island (the main cone of Taal) is in a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Booming was heard at 1400 in Talisay, Batangas (4 km NNE, all distances are measured from the center of Main Crater lake). Activity escalated at 1404; volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt locally were accompanied by an eruption plume that rose 1 km. Ash fell in the SSW part of Taal. The Alert Level was raised to 3 and the evacuation of high-risk barangays was recommended. Activity again intensified around 1730, prompting PHIVOLCS to raise the Alert Level to 4 and recommend a total evacuation of the island and high-risk areas within a 14-km radius. The eruption plume of steam, gas, and tephra significantly intensified and rose 10-15 km (32,800-49,200 ft) a.s.l., producing frequent lightning. Wet ash fell in areas downwind, including as far N as Quezon City (75 km). According to news articles schools and government offices were ordered to close and the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (56 km N) in Manila suspended flights. About 6,000 people had been evacuated but the number was expected to rise. Residents described heavy ashfall, low visibility, and fallen trees.

Ashfall was reported in a wide area; in a statement issued at 0320 on 13 January PHIVOLCS noted that ashfall was reported in Tanauan (18 km NE), Batangas; Escala (11 km NW), Tagaytay; Sta. Rosa (32 km NNW), Laguna; Dasmariñas (32 km N), Bacoor (44 km N), and Silang (22 km N), Cavite; Malolos (93 km N), San Jose Del Monte (87 km N), and Meycauayan (80 km N), Bulacan; Antipolo (68 km NNE), Rizal; Muntinlupa (43 km N), Las Piñas (47 km N), Marikina (70 km NNE), Parañaque (51 km N), Pasig (62 km NNE), Quezon City, Mandaluyong (62 km N), San Juan (64 km N), Manila; Makati City (59 km N) and Taguig City (55 km N). Lapilli (2-64 mm in diameter) fell in Tanauan and Talisay; Tagaytay City (12 km N); Nuvali (25 km NNE) and Sta. Rosa, Laguna. Felt earthquakes (Intensities II-V) continued to be recorded in local areas.

The eruption progressed to a magmatic eruption during 0249-0428 on 13 January, characterized by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning. Activity briefly waned then resumed with sporadic weak fountaining and explosions that generated 2-km-high, dark gray, steam-laden plumes. New lateral vents opened on the N flank, producing 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall impacted areas SW including in Cuenca (15 km SSW), Lemery (16 km SW), Talisay, and Taal (15 km SSW), Batangas. News articles noted that more than 300 domestic and 230 international flights were cancelled as the Manila Ninoy Aquino International Airport was closed during 12-13 January; some flights could depart in the early afternoon of 13 January. Some roads from Talisay to Lemery and Agoncillo were impassible and electricity and water services were intermittent. Ashfall in several provinces caused power outages. Authorities continued to evacuate high-risk areas within a 14-km radius of Taal; by 13 January more than 24,500 people had moved to 75 shelters out of a total number of 460,000 people within 14 km.

In a bulletin posted at 0800 on 14 January PHIVOLCS noted that lava fountaining continued and steam plumes rose form Main Crater. Fissures on the N flank produced 500-m-tall lava fountains. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 5,299 tonnes/day on 13 January. By 1300 lava fountaining generated 800-m-tall, dark gray, steam-laden plumes that drifted SW. New ground cracks were observed in Sinisian (18 km SW), Mahabang Dahilig (14 km SW), Dayapan (15 km SW), Palanas (17 km SW), Sangalang (17 km SW), and Poblacion (19 km SW) Lemery; Pansipit (11 km SW), Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5 (all around 17 km SW), Talisay, and Poblacion (11 km SW), San Nicolas. A fissure opened across the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas.

At 0800 on 15 January PHIVOLCS stated that activity was generally weaker; dark gray, steam-laden plumes rose about 1 km and drifted SW. Since 1300 on 12 January the seismic network had recorded a total of 446 volcanic earthquakes, with 156 of those felt with Intensities of I-V. New ground cracking was reported in Sambal Ibaba (17 km SW), and portions of the Pansipit River (SW) had dried up. Satellite images showed that the Main Crater lake was gone and new craters had formed inside Main Crater and on the N flank. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 53,832 people dispersed to 244 evacuation centers by 1800 on 15 January.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 1 January 2020 – 7 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime crater incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 30 December-6 January. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded by the seismic network. An explosion on 6 January produced an ash plume that rose 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.1 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-4 and 6 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 1-2 January that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted N. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome on 1 January and an ash cloud drifted almost 30 km N on 2 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 30 December-5 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 600 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reported that during 3-6 January brown ash plumes rose 200-600 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted S and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 28-30 December and 2 January, and ash plumes drifted 150 km SE during 29-30 December. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity were observed during 29-31 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a relatively high number of deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Merapi during 30 December-5 January. The seismic network recorded a pyroclastic flow that began at 2036 on 4 January and lasted for one minute and 45 seconds. The event was not visually observed due to foggy weather conditions. Minor ashfall was reported in Cepogo (4 km NE) and Boyolali (16 km E). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 27 December-3 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 1-7 January. Seismicity was low during 1-2 January and elevated surface temperatures identified in several satellite images indicated continuing lava effusion. Seismicity began increasing at 0930 on 3 January and within several hours a brief period of sustained ash emissions produced plumes that rose as high as 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 120 km SE. The ash plume produced minor amounts of volcanic lightning. Seismicity declined abruptly after the event. Satellite images acquired the next day showed no noteworthy activity; ash deposits from the day before mantled the upper flanks, lahars on the upper parts of the edifice and on the SW flank were visible, and lava flows on the upper NW and NE flanks were 1-2 km long. During 5-6 January seismicity was low but above background levels and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A photo taken from Cold Bay (93 km NE) on 6 January showed glowing lava flows on the flank. Seismicity increased at around 0500 on 7 January and was followed by observations of an ash plume drifting NE at an altitude of about 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismicity then decreased for a few hours. Another episode of elevated seismicity was accompanied by an increase in the altitude of the ash plume; it rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and seemed to have a denser ash content. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning. Volcanic lighting was detected in the cloud and volcanic infrasound signals were detected at regional stations. Seismcity significantly decreased around 1200 and remained low. Later that day the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that on 28 December a very small eruptive event was recorded at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater. Explosions occurred on 31 December and 3 January; the latter explosion produced a gray ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and entered the weather clouds. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 28 Deecmber-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that during 16-22 December 2019 white vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s Main Crater with some brief periods of no emissions. Occasional emissions rose from the new WSW flank and along the lava flow. A webcam sometimes recoded nighttime incandescence from the area. Seismic activity was low with RSAM values between 100 and 200 units. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 1 January 2020 – 7 January 2020

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : The number of volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group), increased around 1600 on 2 January prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). There were a high number (22) of earthquakes recorded during 2200-2400.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that gray ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit on 31 December and then rose only as high as 500 m through 5 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 6 January GeoNet reported that White Island remained in an elevated state of unrest. Very hot steam and gas emissions continued to rise from the 9 December vents, causing incandescence to be recorded on near infrared cameras. Volcanic tremor decreased to low levels on 14 December 2019 and remained low. Sulfur dioxide emission rates were at normal levels. Continuing movement of the back-crater wall W of the 1914 landslide deposits was detected and will continue to be monitored. Small amounts of ash sometimes rose from the active vent due to wall collapses, as on 23 and 26 December. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow.