Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 August -14 August 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : According to the Darwin VAAC, a webcam recorded an ash emission from Agung rising to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were five events and three explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 6-13 August, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 900 m. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 3-10 August that sent ash plumes as high as 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. An ash cloud identified in satellite data drifted about 65 km E during 7-8 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego’s W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) drainages. Ashfall was reported in Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0259 on 13 August an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 4 August, and an ash cloud drifted 50 km SE on 7 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 8-13 August incandescence emanated from Anak Krakatau at night. According to the Darwin VAAC, satellite data showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W on 11 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-14 August Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A 300-m-long lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater was visible on NW flank.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 23 per day during 6-12 August. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.9 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km SE, E, and NE. The MIROVA system detected five thermal anomalies, and on 9 August the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 2,700 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 6-7 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 3-10 August white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the rim of Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater, and incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that pulsating, passive ash emissions rising from Turrialba and drifting W were visible during periods of clear weather on 10 August. The next day a strong sulfur odor was reported in parts of Heredia (38 km W) and San José (36 km WSW).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 8 August -14 August 2018

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 6-12 August activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. Strombolian explosions continued from vents in Bocca Nuova, and were particularly visible at night. Activity at Northeast Crater (NEC) consisted of frequent ash emissions and Strombolian explosions. Explosions at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) generated gray-brown ash plumes that sometimes rose several hundred meters above Etna’s summit and quickly dissipated.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that a small phreatic explosion at Great Sitkin was recorded by the seismic network at 1105 on 11 August. The event was preceded by small local earthquakes. Cloudy satellite images prevented views of the volcano during 12-14 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and ONEMI reported that at 1212 on 8 August an explosion-type earthquake was recorded by Nevados de Chillán’s seismic network. A grayish ash plume rose 1.5 km above Nicanor Crater and incandescent material was ejected around the vent. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a three-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 1828 on 14 August. Foggy conditions prevented webcam views and an estimate of a plume height.

Sangay | Ecuador : In a special report IG stated that a new phase of activity at Sangay began on 8 August, with surficial activity characterized by low-energy ash emissions rising as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and a possible new lava flow on the SE flank. The Washington VAAC reported that prior to 1500 on 8 August an ash emission rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l., or 500 m above the crater rim, and drifted SW. On 11 August a possible ash plume rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l., or 2.3 km above the crater rim, and drifted WNW. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data on 14 August. That same day a webcam image showed incandescence on the upper part of the SE flank, suggesting a lava flow from the Ñuñurco dome. The report stated that no activity at Sangay had been observed since the last eruption ended in November 2017.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 August – 7 August 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose 100-300 m above Agung’s crater rim during 1 and 2-7 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were eight events and seven explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 30 July-6 August, with ash plumes rising as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 700 m. Crater incandescence was seldom visible at night. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high at 3,200 tons per day on 2 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : According to ONEMI, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-31 July there were 107 volcano-tectonic events recorded at Copahue, and 266 earthquakes indicating fluid movement. Webcams recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from El Agrio crater as high as 1.5 km and nighttime incandescence. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second highest level on a four-colour scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1 and 3-7 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 29-31 July and on 1 August that sent ash plumes as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 27-29 and 31 July, as well as ash plumes drifting 200 km SE, E, and NE during 28-31 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 1-2 August, with lava flowing through the channel and into the ocean producing laze at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. A few spillovers from the channel set vegetation on fire. By 3 August the lava-flow velocity in the channel was low and on 4 August the output at Fissure 8 had waned. Part of the flow field shifted W about 250 m; the westernmost edge was about 70 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park by 5 August. The lava channel was completely crusted over by 6 August, and a lava lake bubbled in the Fissure 8 cone. The laze plumes at the ocean entry were greatly diminished. During 7-8 August the lava lake in Fissure 8 was 5-10 m below the spillway into the channel. A decreasing number of small active ooze outs near the coast were visible. A collapse event at the summit was recorded at 1155 on 2 August. Seismicity increased afterwards as has been typical since early on in the LERZ eruption, but then decreased along with the rate of deformation. By 7 August deformation had almost stopped. The quiet conditions at the summit represented a significant change from the pattern of seismicity and deformation detected over the past several months.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 19 per day during 30 July-5 August. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km SE, E, and NE. On 2 August the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 5,000 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 27-29 July and 1-2 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 2-4 August activity at Turrialba was characterized by sporadic, passive gas-and-ash emissions. Events at 0023 and 0700 on 2 August generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 1 km and 300 m, respectively, and drifted W. An event at 1600 on 4 August produced a diffuse ash plume that rose 300 m.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 1 August – 7 August 2018

Ambae | Vanuatu : According to news articles and the Vanuatu Red Cross, residents of Ambae began to evacuate the island during 1-8 August under the governments orders due to the effects of significant ashfall from the ongoing eruption at Lake Voui. The Red Cross noted that by 8 August over 3,000 people had been moved to Espiritu Santo (W) and Maewo (NE) islands. Video from 3 August showed lahars blocking roads in S Ambae.

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : Based on two field inspections and webcam data, INGV reported that during 30 July-5 August activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters and Strombolian activity. Three vents at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater were active, with gas emissions rising from two vents and sporadic Strombolian activity occurring at a third. Three vents were also active at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC); one produced ash emissions, one steam emissions, and Strombolian explosions at the third ejected incandescent material as high as the crater rim. After several months of quiet conditions, explosive activity resumed at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The activity began at 0608 on 1 August with a brownish-gray ash emission that rose several hundred meters above the summit. The event was followed by more ash emissions and then Strombolian activity in the evening.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 2 August multiple events at Anak Krakatau generated ash plumes that rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted N. A dense, black ash plume from an event at 1757 rose 200 m and drifted N. During 5-7 August dense gray ash plumes rose 200-600 m above the summit, and summit incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and ONEMI reported continuing activity through 6 August associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. Seismicity was at moderate-to-high levels, and consisted of long-period events and tremor. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 25 July – 31 July 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : According to PVMBG a ground-based observer reported that at 0041 on 25 July an event at Agung produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 700 m and drifted E and SE. Seismic data recorded the event for two minutes and 15 seconds. At 1406 on 27 July an event lasting one minute and 32 seconds produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were four events and 11 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 23-30 July, with ash plumes rising as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.3 km. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,100 tons per day on 26 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A thermal anomaly was visible on 29 July.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 25-31 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater on most days, though steaming from the crater was visible in satellite and webcam views during 25-26 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-31 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and S.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 20-21 and 25-26 July that sent ash plumes as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume drifting about 15 km E was identified in satellite images on 20 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego’s SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that an ash cloud from Karymsky was identified in satellite images drifting 100 km SE on 20 July, and thermal anomalies were visible on 25 and 27 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July).

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 23-30 July white fumarolic plumes rose 300-500 m above a vent on the S side of Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama, NW flank of Karakuni-dake), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group. A hot pool of water was visible on the S side, and muddy water flowed down the W side. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that inflation at Piton de la Fournaise resumed after 13 July, the end of the last eruption. A period if increased seismicity was detected on 26 July, with 32 volcano-tectonic events less than 2 km deep being recorded during 0400-1600; 23 of those events were detected during 1200-1300.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 25-31 July there were 24-42 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, and nightly crater incandescence. Explosions were detected almost every day: five on 26 July; nine on 27 July; one on 28 July; three on 30 July. A series of gas-and-ash emissions began at 0307 on 31 July and lasted for 215 minutes. Ejected incandescent tephra landed on the flanks. The gas-and-ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted WSW, causing ashfall in Tetela del Volcán, Yecapixtla, Tlalnepantla, and Totolapan (Morelos state), and in Amecameca, Acuautla, Ecatzingo, Ozumba, and Tepetlixpa (Mexico state). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Rinjani | Lombok Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG and BNPB reported that a M 6.4 earthquake was recorded at 0547 on 29 July, shaking the islands of Lombok, Bali, and Sumbawa, and causing significant damage to buildings (including collapses) and roads, ground cracks, multiple injuries, and the death of 17 people in Lombok. The hypocenter was 24 km deep, and 47 km NE of Mataram City. Aftershocks were numerous and as large as M 5.7. The earthquakes caused remobilization of ash deposits on Rinjani as well as landslides. There were 1,226 visitors to the Mount Rinjani National Park Area at the time, and, according to news articles, about 690 climbers were on the volcano and had to be rescued. One person in the national park died from rockfalls. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 19 per day during 23-29 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km SE and E. On 26 July the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,195 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-30 July explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated white plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the NW, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 19 and 21-22 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 23-31 July activity at Turrialba was characterized by sporadic, passive gas-and-ash emissions detected almost daily. The plumes rose no higher than 300 m above the vent rim, and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in several neighborhoods in the Valle Central, including Coronado, Tibás (35 km WSW), Goicoechea (28 km WSW), and Moravia (31 km WSW) on 24 July, and in Tres Ríos (27 km SW) on 31 July. A sulfur odor was occasionally reported.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 25 July – 31 July 2018

Ambae | Vanuatu : Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that during overflights on 13 and 20 July, observers took photos of explosions at Ambae’s Lake Voui ejecting hot tephra from vents and producing ash plumes. Increased activity prompted VMGD to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) on 21 July, and warn residents to stay at least 3 km away from the active crater. The report noted that current activity was similar to that in March, but with more sustained ash emissions. At about 2100 on 26 July explosions generated an ash cloud that rose as high as 12 km above the vent and spread NE, E, and SE. According to news articles, the event caused darkness in the daytime and prompted an order for an island-wide evacuation of the 10,000 residents. Another explosive event occurred early on 27 July. The Wellington VAAC reported sulfur dioxide emissions, and ash plumes rising to 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE and NW. Pilots reported heavy ashfall over eastern Fiji. Smaller events producing ash-and-gas emissions continued throughout the day. On 1 August VMGD stated that the ashfall has had a significant impact on the island’s food and water supplies, and the health of the island residents.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1852 on 28 July an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 5.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. An event at 1612 on 29 July produced an ash plume that rose 4.8 km and drifted N. Ash plumes later drifted SE. Seismic signals for both events were characterized by explosions and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Krakatau | Indonesia : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 July minor ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and NW. PVMBG noted that inclement weather conditions prevented views of the volcano during 27-30 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small explosion at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 1828 on 28 July, and was followed by tremor.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 July an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that on 24 July the vent in Villarrica’s summit crater was about 10-15 m in diameter and 90-100 m below the crater rim. Minor explosions and weak fumarolic emissions were noted. On 29 July a break in the cloud cover revealed more significant incandescence emanating from the summit than in the previous few days, and the largest thermal anomaly since August 2015 was identified in satellite images on 30 July. Ash and lapilli deposits on the E edge of the crater was also visible on 30 July.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 18 July – 24 July 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that plumes rose 200-500 m above Agung’s crater rim on 18, 20, and 23 July. Gray plumes rose as high as 1.5 km on 22 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1336 on 17 July an event at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced a plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,300 tons per day that same day. Occasional small events were recorded during 20-23 July, and crater incandescence was visible on 22 and 23 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambae | Vanuatu : Based on satellite data, webcam observations, and wind model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 17-24 July ash plumes from the vent at Ambae’s Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 2.1-5.5 km (7,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and SE. According to news articles, activity intensified on 17 July with significant ashfall impacting the N and E parts of the island, causing dark conditions for residents. Rumbling noises were reported at Penama Provincial Headquarters at Saratamata, more than 30 km away. Volcanologists conducting field work in the areas noted widespread damage and disruption to the local population; roads going to the W part of the island had been washed away.

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 July an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 18-23 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 18 and 23-24 July; meteorological cloud cover hindered views of the crater on most of the other days. A small deposit of blocks within the summit crater and just below the E crater rim observed only in satellite data suggested the occurrence of a very small explosion undetectable in seismic and pressure sensor data. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-23 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 13-20 July that sent ash plumes as high as 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-20 and 23-24 July avalanches of material from Fuego’s crater descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). Weak explosions during 23-24 July sent low ash plumes N.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 13-20 July, along with ash plumes that drifted as far as 500 km W and SW during 14-19 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 July an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, often followed by a surge in activity at Fissure 8. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater. Channel overflows on 18 July destroyed structures in the Leilani Subdivision. The channelized ‘a’a flow was incandescent along its entire length as it flowed towards the ocean. It generated plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) at several points along a broad 6-km-wide flow front, though the main entry area was at Ahalanui, a few hundred meters E of the flow edge which was 175 m NE of Isaac Hale Park (by 24 July). HVO noted that the lava delta was unstable as it has been built out as far as 800 m from the original coastline on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-20 and 23-24 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A 200-m-long lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater was visible on NW flank.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 25 per day during 16-22 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low-magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected one thermal anomaly, and on 18 July the sulfur dioxide gas flux was very high at 12,068 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 13-20 July, and a plume of re-suspended ash drifting 62 km SE on 18 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported increased activity at Turrialba during 23-24 July characterized by small sporadic emissions. A very low and diffuse ash plume rose from the crater on 24 July, causing ashfall in Coronado, Tibás (35 km WSW), Goicoechea (28 km WSW), Moravia (31 km WSW), and other areas in the Valle Central.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 18 July – 24 July 2018

Asamayama | Honshu (Japan) : JMA stated that during 16-23 July white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Asamayama’s summit crater. Weak crater incandescence was visible for the first time since 23 December 2017. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 16-22 July gas plumes rose from Etna’s summit crater; low-energy Strombolian activity also occurred from three vents at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC) and from two vents in Bocca Nuova. The activity was mostly confined to the craters, with material falling back into the craters, though occasionally incandescent lava was ejected about 100 m above the crater rim. The activity sometimes generated ash emissions that dissipated near the summit.

Krakatau | Indonesia : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-20 July ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on Japan Coast Guard (JCG) observations, JMA reported that a very small eruption at Nishinoshima occurred at 1124 on 12 July, producing a brownish plume that rose from near the crater. During an aerial survey, JCG noted deposits 400 m from the vent. No thermal anomalies were detected. The report warned people to stay at least 500 m away from the crater.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 July a minor eruption at Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued through 23 July, and continued to vary in intensity. Four fissures had initially opened on 26 June, at the start of the eruption. Fissure 1 is 4 km long and located at the edge of the caldera in the area of Volcán Chico. Lava flows from this fissure traveled 7 km down the flanks, and 1.7 km within the interior of the caldera, covering an area of 16.1 square kilometers. Fissure 2 is about 250 m long, located NW of the caldera, and produced lava flows that traveled 3 km and covered an area of 2.3 square kilometers. Fissure 3, located W of the caldera, is 250 m long and produced lava flows that descended the flanks 2 km, covering an area of 0.3 square kilometers. Fissures 1-3 were active until 27 June. Fissure 4, 250 m long and located on the NW flank, continued to be active. Lava from this fissure reached the ocean between 9 and 10 July, and by 16 July had covered an area of 11.6 square kilometers (30.4 square kilometers was covered by lava from all four fissures).

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that sometime during mid-morning on 18 July webcam images captured two vapor-and-gas emissions with some ash rising from Villarrica. Between 1100 and 1200 that same day a thermal anomaly (the largest since December 2017) was identified in satellite images. Crater incandescence was visible later that day. An earthquake, possibly a volcano-tectonic signal, was detected at about 0627 on 20 July, a few hours after gas-and-steam emissions decreased. Crater incandescence was visible on 23 July.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 11 July – 17 July 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an event at 1409 on 13 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above Agung’s crater rim and drifted W. An event was detected at 0452 on 15 July, though no ash was visible. An ash plume from an event at 0905 rose 1.5 km and drifted W and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was unchanged at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were nine events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 9-17 July generating plumes that rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim. At 1538 on 16 July an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4.6 km, and ejected material as far as 1.7 km E. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 16-17 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambae | Vanuatu : Based on satellite data, webcam and pilot observations, and wind model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 16-17 July ash plumes from the vent at Ambae’s Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 2.3-9.1 km (8,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 11-17 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on 11 July; meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater on the other days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14-17 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NNE, NE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-12 July that sent ash plumes as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data showed ash plumes drifting 37 km W during 10-11 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 8 and 10-12 July a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images, as well as diffuse gas-and-steam plumes with some ash on 10 July. An explosion at 0550 on 17 July generated an ash plume that rose as high as 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 11 km WSW. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 11-17 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater. A few channel overflows occurred. The channelized ‘a’a flow reached the ocean on 12 July, producing a large plume of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles), and covering the Kua O Ka La Charter School and Ahalanui Beach Park. Lava entered the ocean at several points along a broad 6-km-wide flow front, though the main entry area was at Ahalanui (750 m NE of Isaac Hale Park) by 17 July. On 13 July a new island, 6-9 m in diameter, formed a few meters offshore, possibly fed by a submarine tumulus. On 16 July explosions were noted at the main ocean entry, some were strong. Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency noted that an explosion early in the morning ejected tephra that injured 23 people on a nearby tour boat. That same day volcanologists using a RADAR gun measured an average flow velocity of 29 km/hr of lava exiting Fissure 8.

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that at 1509 on 13 July a minor rockfall descended the Mi-isi drainage on Mayon’s S flank, generating a brownish ash cloud. The event was preceded by heavy rainfall on the upper flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,398 tonnes/day. Precise leveling data obtained during 2-14 April indicated inflation relative to data collected in late March; electronic tilt data showed pronounced inflation on the mid-flank beginning on 25 June possibly due to a deep aseismic magma intrusion. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 23 per day during 9-17 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected two thermal anomalies. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 6-13 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 11 July – 17 July 2018

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 10-15 July white-to-gray plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 1722 on 15 July that generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted N. An ash plume from a 44-second-long event recorded at 1651 on 16 July rose 500 m and drifted N; thumping and vibrations were noted at the PGA observation post. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 11-17 July associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. Seismicity consisted of long-period events and tremor associated with explosions. The webcam recorded pulsating white gas emissions, nighttime incandescence, and intermittent ejection of ballistics from explosions. A local M3.7 earthquake recorded at 2055 on 13 July was associated with an explosion, and located 430 m below Nicanor Crater. Another earthquake associated with an explosion was recorded at 1530 on 14 July. The event was a local M3.9 and occurred at a depth of 1.4 km. Weather conditions inhibited visual observations of the crater, though a thermal camera measured increased thermal output with a max temperaturs of 300 degrees Celsius. A third earthquake, a M3.8 located at a depth of 1.8 km, was recorded at 0324 on 15 July. Incandescent material was ejected 340 m high. These three explosions partially destroyed the lava dome, ejecting material onto the N and NE flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Oraefajokull | Iceland : After a series of meetings between the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the University of Iceland, and Iceland Geosurvey, the Iceland Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management stated on 13 July that Öræfajökull has shown clear signs of unrest for at least the past year and a half. The report noted ongoing inflation and increased seismicity, despite a decrease in geothermal activity since December 2017. The volume change since the beginning of the unrest was about 10 million cubic meters, likely from an injection of new magma.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that inflation at Piton de la Fournaise began at the beginning of July. An abrupt seismic increase was detected at 2340 on 12 July, coupled with rapid deformation. Tremor beneath the N flank appeared at about 0330 on 13 July and gradually increased, and webcams recorded the emergence of lava at 0430. The eruption originated from four fissures which had a total length of 500 m, and were located upstream of Chapelle de Rosemont. Tremor intensity peaked at 0600. By 0800 all four fissures were ejecting lava as high as 20 m, and ‘a’a flows had traveled over 200 m. The most upstream fissure was inactive by 1230. After a period of decreasing tremor and pulsating gas emissions the eruption ended at 2200. Strong seismicity continued to be recorded on 14 July, but then decreased over the next two days. The lava flows covered about 400 m of the trail leading to the summit.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 July gas-and-ash plumes from Sierra Negra rose 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km W. Gas plumes on 13 July drifted N, NW, and SW. On 16 July gas plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Incandescence was visible in webcam images.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that webcam images captured a powerful vapor plume rising from Villarrica at 1047 on 16 July. Tephra was deposited on the inner crater walls.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 4 July – 10 July 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were two events and three explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 2-9 July, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 4-10 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Meteorological cloud cover often prevented views of the crater. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 7 and 9-10 July; a small steam cloud was visible on 7 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-10 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 30 June-1 July that sent ash plumes as high as 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data showed ash plumes drifting 57 km SE on 1 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluyá (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleón (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 4-10 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline at multiple ocean entries. Fissure 22 produced spattering 50-80 m above its spatter cone and fed short lava flows that traveled NE on 4 July; weak spattering was visible form the cone the rest of the week.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rarely rose higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel that did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava in the upper part of the channel; overflows further down traveled beyond the flow-field boundary. Small brush fires were ignited from some of the overflows. A thermal map from 6 July showed that lava was not entering the ocean from the main channel and that the open channel ended about 2 km inland. Lava was flowing into the ocean at the N part of the broad flow front. Observations on 9 July indicated that a blockage had formed upstream of Kapoho Crater, and by 10 July a small lobe was moving around the W side of the crater.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. White gas plumes drifted SW. A lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater traveled 500 m down the N flank during 7-8 July, reaching the volcano’s base.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 22 per day during 2-8 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected nine thermal anomalies, and on 3 July the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,715 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted SW and W. Local ashfall was reported. Avalanches of material descended the SE and W flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-5 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 4 July – 10 July 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Agung continued during 4-10 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was 1,400-2,400 tons/day on 3 July and 400-1,500 tons/day on 4 July. Satellite data acquired on 4 July indicated continuing lava effusion in the crater, with 4-5 million cubic meters effused in the past week. At 1220 an ash plume rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W. An event was detected at 2216, though an ash plume was not visible possibly due to poor viewing conditions. At 0047 on 5 July an ash plume rose at least 1 km and drifted W, and an event at 1633 produced an ash plume that rose 2.8 km and drifted E and W. A small event was detected on 6 July. According to BNPB a third Strombolian event occurred at 0522 on 8 July, generating an ash plume that rose 2 km. They noted that 4,415 evacuees were housed in 54 evacuation centers. An ash plume rose from the crater at 1120 on 9 July and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius.

Ambae | Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that the recent eruption at Ambae’s Lake Voui was characterized by three phases of activity: Phase 1, September to late November 2017; Phase 2, late December 2017 to early February 2018; and Phase 3, February to April 2018. A fourth phase, which began on 20 June, consists of gas-and-steam emissions sometimes with ash; an ash plume on 1 July caused ashfall on the NW and W parts of the island and also on the NE part of Santo Island. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5), and the report reminded residents to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images and PVMBG (a ground observer) notices, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 July a diffuse ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four ash-producing events at Anak Krakatau, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. Inclement weather conditions prevented an estimation of the ash-plume height from the event at 0522 on 4 July; ash plumes from events at 1409, 1425, and 1651 on 5 July rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Saunders | South Sandwich Islands (UK) : Satellite data acquired during 1 January-9 July periodically (a few times a month) showed volcanic plumes originating from Michael on Saunders Island. A thermal anomaly was last detected on 3 April 2018.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that a new magmatic intrusion at Sierra Negra was heralded by a M 5.2 earthquake recorded at 1830 on 4 July, and followed by 68 events between M 1.1 and 3.9. Seismic tremor began to be recorded at 1700 on 7 July by a station on the NE edge of the caldera. At the same time satellite data showed an increase in the intensity of the thermal anomaly on NW flank (it had decreased the previous day). Parque Nacional Galápagos staff confirmed strong incandescence in an area near the beach. A weak plume of water vapor and ash rose as high as 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Tremor continued to be registered on 8 July, though the amplitude gradually decreased. Vapor-and-ash plumes reported by the Washington VAAC rose about 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, and the thermal anomaly remained intense. Gas clouds drifted 115 km W. The current eruption at Sierra Negra began on 26 June and, according to news articles, prompted tourist restrictions and the evacuation of 50 residents.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 27 June – 3 July 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that on 29 June a very small eruption occurred at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). An explosion at 2319 on 1 July produced an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and ejected material 500 m away. Crater incandescence was visible at night on 2 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambae | Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that an ash plume from a cone in Ambae’s Lake Voui was visible on 1 July. The report warned residents that ashfall was expected in areas to the NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5), and the report reminded residents to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 22-29 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 27 June-3 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29 June-2 July; the thermal anomaly extended SW downslope in the crater consistent with a lava flow. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 June-3 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26-27 June that sent ash plumes as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 3 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 remained missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 27 June-3 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Fissure 22 produced a few short lava flows during 30 June-3 July.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Explosions from collapse events occurred almost daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes that rose less than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rarely rose higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. Lava entered the ocean on the S side of the flow front mainly through an open channel, but also along a 1-km-long area marked with billowing laze plumes. A thermal map showed that on 29 June the lava channel had crusted over about 0.8 km inland from the ocean entry, with lava moving beneath the crust.

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, an event at 1534 on 27 June generated a plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim. The report stated that since the beginning of May the rate of deformation had slowed, and tiltmeter data showed no change. In addition, sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased from 1,000 tons/day on mid-March to 80 tons/day on 1 June. On 28 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 29 June KVERT reported that activity at Klyuchevskoy had decreased, with the last ash plume visible on 15 June. Gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that white steam plumes from Mayon rose 750 m above the crater rim on 30 June and drifted NE, N, NW, and SW. On 1 July white plumes drifted down the flanks. A short-lived event at 1234 produced a gray gas plume. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 June and 1-3 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. White gas plumes drifted S.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG stated that an explosion at Reventador was detected at 1116 on 2 July, producing an ash plume that was reported by the Washington VAAC to have risen 3 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in the Cayambe (57 km WNW) and in the town of Juan Montalvo.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 24 per day during 25 June-1 July. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 21 June the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 23-29 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 27 June – 3 July 2018

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that seismicity at Agung continued to be dominated by low-frequency events. The number of earthquakes increased from 15/day on 25 June to 69/day on 28 June; harmonic tremor emerged on 27 June, and at 2221 an event generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. Gas-and-ash emissions were continuous during 28-29 June, rising around 2 km and drifting W and SW, and incandescence was reflected in the plume; satellite data confirmed that high-temperature (1,200 degrees Celsius) lava flowed onto the crater floor. The intensity of the thermal anomaly on 29 June was the largest recorded at Agung since the beginning of the eruption on 21 November 2017.

BNPB noted that the ash plumes on 28 June caused some airlines to cancel flights to Bali, and ashfall was reported in several villages on Bangli. The International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport (60 km SW) in Denpasar, the Blimbing Sari Airport (128 km W) in Banyuwangi, and the Noto Hadinegoro Airport (200 km W) in Jember closed for portions of the day on 29 June.

Lava continued to effuse, and by 1 July the estimated volume of new lava was 4-5 million cubic meters making the total volume erupted since 21 November 2017 around 27-28 million cubic meters (50% of the total crater volume). The height difference between the lowest part of the crater rim (SW side) and the highest part of the lava surface (in the center of the crater) was 85-90 m. Satellite data showed that the intensity of the thermal anomaly decreased during 28 June-2 July, though still remained at a high level. At 2104 on 2 July an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 7-9 km above the crater rim, and ejected incandescent lava as far as 2 km onto the flanks. News articles noted that the deposits caused forest fires on the upper flanks, and that the event prompted about 700 people to evacuate. An event at 0413 on 3 July generated an ash plume that rose around 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that after the brief explosion at Great Sitkin on 10 June seismicity gradually declined to background levels. On 27 June AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation colour Code to Green.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 June an ash plume from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes were seen rising as high as 100 m above Anak Krakatau during infrequent periods of clear weather from 27 June to 3 July. Incandescence from the summit was observed at night during 1-2 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.

Sierra Negra | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : Based on video and photos shared by Parque Nacional Galápagos staff, IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra that began at 1340 on 26 June originated from several fissures on the N flank and one within the caldera. The flank flows reached the sea between Elizabeth Bay and Punta Morena. A gas-and-ash plume rose about 10.5 km and drifted W. Seismic and acoustic data indicated a gradual decrease but continuing activity on 27 June. A small seismic event was recorded at 1552 on 1 July, followed by at least four hours of tremor. At 1600 national park staff observed lava flows on the NW flank.

Yasur | Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported some stronger explosions at Yasur during 27-28 June. Based on webcam images the Wellington VAAC reported that on 29 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 June – 26 June 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were four events and one explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 18-25 June, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible at night on 18 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that a satellite image of Cleveland acquired on 25 June showed a small, circular lava flow about 80 m in diameter in the summit crater. The presence of a flow over the active vent increases the chances of an explosion, so AVO raised the Aviation colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch.

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 24 June diffuse steam emissions with possible ash were visible in webcam views rising to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-26 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that on 15 June an ash plume from Ebeko was visible in satellite images drifting 14 km SE. Video data from SVERT and KBGS RAS (Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences) showed ash explosions during 17-18 June that sent ash plumes to 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas).

Explosions continued, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 112, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea’s Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 20-26 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Fissure 16/18 was often incandescent, and lava effusion was visible at Fissure 6 on 21 June. Fissure 22 produced weak lava fountains on 22 June, and weak spattering and small lava flows on 26 June.

Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Steam plumes rose from areas in the crater as well as from circumferential cracks adjacent to the crater. Explosions from collapse events occurred daily, producing gas-and-ash-poor plumes that rose less than 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 24 June HVO noted that since late May these plumes rarely rose higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. where they can cause an aviation hazard; the Aviation colour Code was reduced to Orange.

Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued; lava fountains rose occasionally higher than the 55-m-high spatter cone. Pele’s hair and other volcanic glass from the fountaining fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the fast-moving lava flow that traveled NE, and then SE around Kapoho Crater, and into the ocean. Occasional overflows sent small flows down the sides of the channel. The lava-flow front at the ocean was almost 3.2 km wide by 25 June, with lava entering the ocean on the S side of the flow front mainly through an open channel, but also along a 1-km-long area marked with billowing laze plumes.

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, an explosive eruption at 0909 on 22 June generated an ash plume that rose 2.6 km above the crater rim and drifted E. Tephra was ejected 1.1 km away, and shock waves were felt in the Miyazaki region. Minor amounts of ash fell in Kirishima prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture to the S, Miyakonojo city (Miyazaki prefecture) to the E, and Takahara Town. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 19 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 June ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Mauna Loa | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : On 21 June HVO reported that seismicity and deformation at Mauna Loa had been at near-background levels for at least the previous six months. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. During 2014 through most of 2017 seismicity was variable but elevated, and ground deformation was consistent with an influx of magma in the shallow reservoir.

Nishinoshima | Japan : JMA reported that seismic, thermal, RADAR, and sulfur dioxide data all showed no eruptive activity at Nishinoshima since mid-August 2017. During an overflight on 14 June the Japan Coast Guard noted white fumarolic plumes rising about 20 m from the E side of main cone’s inner wall and from the center of the crater. Ocean water all around the island was discoloured, especially in the N-to-NW quadrant where the yellowish brown water extended 200-300 m from the shore. On 20 June the JMA reduced the warning level for the island, specifying hazards were less severe “around the crater” (encompassing areas within 500 m).

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 29 per day during 18-24 June. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S, SE, and E. The MIROVA system detected 11 thermal anomalies, and on 21 June the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 4,900 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 19 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

Yasur | Vanuatu : Based on webcam images and local visual observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 20-21 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.