Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 8 January 2020 – 14 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime crater incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 6-14 January. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded by the seismic network. Explosions were recorded during 6, 10, and 12-14 January; ash plumes rose 1.8-2.3 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 13 January ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 3, 5, and 9 January that sent ash plumes up to 2.9 km (9,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE and SE, and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 8 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 6-12 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 100-400 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 3-10 January. Strombolian activity was visible all week and Vulcanian explosions were noted on 6 January. Ash plumes drifted 55 km ENE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 January there were 76-268 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash (during 8-9 December). An explosion at 0631 on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. The event also ejected incandescent material onto the flanks as far away as 1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of eight daily low- to medium-intensity explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 6-12 January. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. There were six thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the 282-m-diameter lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite and webcam images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 1-11 January ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was identified in satellite images during 9-10 January.

Semisopochnoi | United States : On 9 January AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting that explosions had not been detected since 19 December 2019. In addition, seismic tremor had last been recorded on 29 December 2019; seismicity subsequently declined but remained above background levels.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 3-10 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO summarized the 7 January eruptive activity at Shishaldin, characterizing the period of activity during 0500-1200 as the most sustained explosive activity of the eruptive sequence so far. Ash plumes drifted over 200 km ENE, were ash rich during 0900-1200, and caused several flight cancellations and minor ashfall in Cold Bay. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images during 7-10 January, indicating lava effusion; seismicity decreased but remained above background levels. Satellite images acquired during 10-14 January showed weak surface temperatures, indicated cooling lava; seismicity remained above background levels.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA recorded 13 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 3-10 January. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 600 m from the crater. Explosion and rumbling sounds, as well as ashfall, were reported in areas 4 km SSW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 15 January GeoNet reported that White Island remained in an elevated state of unrest. Very hot (440 degrees Celsius) and strong steam and gas emissions continued to rise from the 9 December vents. Three short-lived episodes of tremor recorded during 8-10 January were accompanied by minor explosions at the active vents. Sulfur dioxide emission rates were within normal ranges, suggesting no additional magma movement since just after the December eruption. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 8 January 2020 – 14 January 2020

Fernandina | Ecuador : IG reported that a M 4.7 earthquake was recorded at 1642 on 12 January at Fernandina and followed by a swarm of 29 local earthquakes all below M 3.1. A new eruption began just before 1810 from a circumferential fissure located near the E edge of the caldera, at elevations around 1300-1400 m above sea level. Several lava flows descended the E flank; Galapagos National Park rangers witnessed the eruption from the Bolívar Channel station. A gas cloud rose 1.5-2 km above the fissure and drifted WNW. A second peak in seismicity was recorded 30-40 minutes after the eruption onset and then gradually decreased. Gas emissions decreased sometime after 2100 and thermal anomalies began to gradually diminish.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 6-12 January dense white gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the bottom of Anak Krakatau’s crater. An eruptive event on 7 January produced a dense ash plume that rose 200. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : An eruption at Kuchinoerabujima began at 1505 on 11 January and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim, drifted E, and then faded into a weather cloud. Tephra was ejected 300 m from the crater, and ashfall was reported on neighboring Yakushima Island. The eruption continued until 0730 on 12 January, producing ash plumes that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW; afterwards only white plumes were visible rising 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that seismicity at Taal began to increase on 28 March 2019 and fluctuated between moderate and high levels throughout the year and into 2020. A seismic swarm beneath Taal began at 1100 on 12 January and a phreatic eruption commenced at 1300. The initial eruptive activity was characterized by increased steaming from at least five vents in Main Crater and phreatic explosions that generated 100-m-high plumes. PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and reminded the public that the entire Volcano Island (the main cone of Taal) is in a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Booming was heard at 1400 in Talisay, Batangas (4 km NNE, all distances are measured from the center of Main Crater lake). Activity escalated at 1404; volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt locally were accompanied by an eruption plume that rose 1 km. Ash fell in the SSW part of Taal. The Alert Level was raised to 3 and the evacuation of high-risk barangays was recommended. Activity again intensified around 1730, prompting PHIVOLCS to raise the Alert Level to 4 and recommend a total evacuation of the island and high-risk areas within a 14-km radius. The eruption plume of steam, gas, and tephra significantly intensified and rose 10-15 km (32,800-49,200 ft) a.s.l., producing frequent lightning. Wet ash fell in areas downwind, including as far N as Quezon City (75 km). According to news articles schools and government offices were ordered to close and the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (56 km N) in Manila suspended flights. About 6,000 people had been evacuated but the number was expected to rise. Residents described heavy ashfall, low visibility, and fallen trees.

Ashfall was reported in a wide area; in a statement issued at 0320 on 13 January PHIVOLCS noted that ashfall was reported in Tanauan (18 km NE), Batangas; Escala (11 km NW), Tagaytay; Sta. Rosa (32 km NNW), Laguna; Dasmariñas (32 km N), Bacoor (44 km N), and Silang (22 km N), Cavite; Malolos (93 km N), San Jose Del Monte (87 km N), and Meycauayan (80 km N), Bulacan; Antipolo (68 km NNE), Rizal; Muntinlupa (43 km N), Las Piñas (47 km N), Marikina (70 km NNE), Parañaque (51 km N), Pasig (62 km NNE), Quezon City, Mandaluyong (62 km N), San Juan (64 km N), Manila; Makati City (59 km N) and Taguig City (55 km N). Lapilli (2-64 mm in diameter) fell in Tanauan and Talisay; Tagaytay City (12 km N); Nuvali (25 km NNE) and Sta. Rosa, Laguna. Felt earthquakes (Intensities II-V) continued to be recorded in local areas.

The eruption progressed to a magmatic eruption during 0249-0428 on 13 January, characterized by weak lava fountaining accompanied by thunder and flashes of lightning. Activity briefly waned then resumed with sporadic weak fountaining and explosions that generated 2-km-high, dark gray, steam-laden plumes. New lateral vents opened on the N flank, producing 500-m-tall lava fountains. Heavy ashfall impacted areas SW including in Cuenca (15 km SSW), Lemery (16 km SW), Talisay, and Taal (15 km SSW), Batangas. News articles noted that more than 300 domestic and 230 international flights were cancelled as the Manila Ninoy Aquino International Airport was closed during 12-13 January; some flights could depart in the early afternoon of 13 January. Some roads from Talisay to Lemery and Agoncillo were impassible and electricity and water services were intermittent. Ashfall in several provinces caused power outages. Authorities continued to evacuate high-risk areas within a 14-km radius of Taal; by 13 January more than 24,500 people had moved to 75 shelters out of a total number of 460,000 people within 14 km.

In a bulletin posted at 0800 on 14 January PHIVOLCS noted that lava fountaining continued and steam plumes rose form Main Crater. Fissures on the N flank produced 500-m-tall lava fountains. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 5,299 tonnes/day on 13 January. By 1300 lava fountaining generated 800-m-tall, dark gray, steam-laden plumes that drifted SW. New ground cracks were observed in Sinisian (18 km SW), Mahabang Dahilig (14 km SW), Dayapan (15 km SW), Palanas (17 km SW), Sangalang (17 km SW), and Poblacion (19 km SW) Lemery; Pansipit (11 km SW), Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5 (all around 17 km SW), Talisay, and Poblacion (11 km SW), San Nicolas. A fissure opened across the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas.

At 0800 on 15 January PHIVOLCS stated that activity was generally weaker; dark gray, steam-laden plumes rose about 1 km and drifted SW. Since 1300 on 12 January the seismic network had recorded a total of 446 volcanic earthquakes, with 156 of those felt with Intensities of I-V. New ground cracking was reported in Sambal Ibaba (17 km SW), and portions of the Pansipit River (SW) had dried up. Satellite images showed that the Main Crater lake was gone and new craters had formed inside Main Crater and on the N flank. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 53,832 people dispersed to 244 evacuation centers by 1800 on 15 January.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 1 January 2020 – 7 January 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime crater incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 30 December-6 January. Small eruptive events were occasionally recorded by the seismic network. An explosion on 6 January produced an ash plume that rose 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.1 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-4 and 6 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 1-2 January that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted N. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome on 1 January and an ash cloud drifted almost 30 km N on 2 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 30 December-5 January lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 600 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reported that during 3-6 January brown ash plumes rose 200-600 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted S and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 28-30 December and 2 January, and ash plumes drifted 150 km SE during 29-30 December. Strombolian and Vulcanian activity were observed during 29-31 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a relatively high number of deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Merapi during 30 December-5 January. The seismic network recorded a pyroclastic flow that began at 2036 on 4 January and lasted for one minute and 45 seconds. The event was not visually observed due to foggy weather conditions. Minor ashfall was reported in Cepogo (4 km NE) and Boyolali (16 km E). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 27 December-3 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 1-7 January. Seismicity was low during 1-2 January and elevated surface temperatures identified in several satellite images indicated continuing lava effusion. Seismicity began increasing at 0930 on 3 January and within several hours a brief period of sustained ash emissions produced plumes that rose as high as 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 120 km SE. The ash plume produced minor amounts of volcanic lightning. Seismicity declined abruptly after the event. Satellite images acquired the next day showed no noteworthy activity; ash deposits from the day before mantled the upper flanks, lahars on the upper parts of the edifice and on the SW flank were visible, and lava flows on the upper NW and NE flanks were 1-2 km long. During 5-6 January seismicity was low but above background levels and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A photo taken from Cold Bay (93 km NE) on 6 January showed glowing lava flows on the flank. Seismicity increased at around 0500 on 7 January and was followed by observations of an ash plume drifting NE at an altitude of about 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismicity then decreased for a few hours. Another episode of elevated seismicity was accompanied by an increase in the altitude of the ash plume; it rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and seemed to have a denser ash content. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Warning. Volcanic lighting was detected in the cloud and volcanic infrasound signals were detected at regional stations. Seismcity significantly decreased around 1200 and remained low. Later that day the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that on 28 December a very small eruptive event was recorded at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater. Explosions occurred on 31 December and 3 January; the latter explosion produced a gray ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and entered the weather clouds. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 28 Deecmber-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that during 16-22 December 2019 white vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s Main Crater with some brief periods of no emissions. Occasional emissions rose from the new WSW flank and along the lava flow. A webcam sometimes recoded nighttime incandescence from the area. Seismic activity was low with RSAM values between 100 and 200 units. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 1 January 2020 – 7 January 2020

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : The number of volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group), increased around 1600 on 2 January prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). There were a high number (22) of earthquakes recorded during 2200-2400.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that gray ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit on 31 December and then rose only as high as 500 m through 5 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 6 January GeoNet reported that White Island remained in an elevated state of unrest. Very hot steam and gas emissions continued to rise from the 9 December vents, causing incandescence to be recorded on near infrared cameras. Volcanic tremor decreased to low levels on 14 December 2019 and remained low. Sulfur dioxide emission rates were at normal levels. Continuing movement of the back-crater wall W of the 1914 landslide deposits was detected and will continue to be monitored. Small amounts of ash sometimes rose from the active vent due to wall collapses, as on 23 and 26 December. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 25 December 2019 – 31 December 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 23-27 December there were three explosions and one non-explosive eruptive event detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.3 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-900 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night and minor eruptive activity continued during 27-30 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-31 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22-24 December that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater and North East Crater continued during 23-29 December, though had significantly decreased compared to previous weeks. Sporadic ash emissions from Voragine Crater rapidly dispersed into the atmosphere.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 December discrete ash puffs from Ibu were identified in satellite images rising to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy and a weak thermal anomaly identified in satellite images were recorded each day during 17-27 December. A gas-and-steam plume drifted 16 km NE on 22 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a daily average of eight low-to-medium intensity explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 23-29 December. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SW. There were five thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the 280-m-diameter lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-28 December discrete minor ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 17-27 December. Ash plumes drifted E on 22 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 25-31 December. Seismicity was elevated with weak explosions recorded by the network during 26-27 December. The seismicity decreased to relatively low levels on 27 December and remained low through 31 December. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images, indicating continuing lava effusion; images acquired during 25-26 December confirmed a 1.5-km-long lava flow on the NW flank and tephra deposits on the upper flanks. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 23-29 December activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). On 27 December lava began effusing from a vent in Area C-S and traveled a few hundred meters in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco. Variable-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 3-17 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80m to at least 150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled a few hundred meters along the Sciara del Fuoco. Spattering occurred from vents in the S part of Area N. Medium- to- high-intensity explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 6-12 events per hour and ejected coarse material to heights sometimes greater than 150 m above the vents. Material was deposited along the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 20-27 December. Eruptive events generated grayish plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 600 m from the crater; there were nine explosions recorded during 25-26 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 25 December 2019 – 31 December 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 1 January KVERT reported that activity at Bezymianny had significantly declined during the previous week; the temperature of the thermal anomaly identified in satellite images decreased and nighttime lava-dome incandescence was no longer visible. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 29 December an eruption at Anak Krakatau recorded by the webcam generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the vent and drifted N. According to Simon Carn, satellite images of the volcano acquired by Planet Labs on 30 December suggested that the crater lake was almost gone, replaced by tephra deposits and a growing cone. PVMBG noted that during 30-31 December seismicity increased, minor inflation was recorded, and eruption plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit (about 157 m a.s.l.). An eruption at 0651 on 31 December produced a dense gray-to-black ash plume that rose around 1 km above the vent and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Pavlof | United States : On 28 December AVO announced that the Volcano Alert Level for Pavlof was raised to Advisory and the Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow because seismicity was elevated above background levels during the previous few days. AVO noted that an eruption was not likely or imminent; however, past eruptions at Pavlof occurred with minor or no warning. Elevated seismicity continued through 31 December.

Saunders | South Sandwich Islands (UK) : Three distinct thermal anomalies in the summit crater of Michael on Saunders Island were identified in a satellite image acquired on 24 December. Satellite images from 29 November and 2 December showed similar anomalies.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity

Stromboli (Eolian Islands, Italy): The activity of the volcano has been fluctuating between high and medium levels. It is characterized by strombolian explosions from multiple vents in the crater terrace with averages of 22 events per hour during the past day. Tremor and degassing values are at stable, medium levels.  A visitor to the island during the past week and on 26 observed a short-lived small viscous lava flow in the upper Sciara del Fuoco: after a stronger explosion from the western vent, two effusive vents opened in the outer flank of the crater and continuously fed a viscous lava flow, which reached about 50 m length and generated abundant incandescent rockfalls on the steep slope.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): (31 Dec) Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240.

Reventador (Ecuador): (1 Jan) Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 27000 ft (8200 m) altitude or flight level 270.

Etna volcano (Italy): Activity at the volcano has increased during the past 24 hours. Mild to moderate strombolian activity resumed at the New SE crater’s summit vent and has been intensifying. The activity at the New SE crater began yesterday at about 16:00 UTC (17:00 local time), ejecting plenty of incandescent lava bombs onto the outer flanks of the cone. At the same time, the mild strombolian activity from vents inside the Bocca Nuova and Voragine summit craters continues at similar intensity as during the previous weeks. An intracrater lava flow produced by this activity was seen active on some photos published on social media. Tremor has increased a bit, but shows no significant variations at the time of this update.

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 .

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 18 December-24 December 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 16-23 December. There were 16 explosions and nine non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 0.5-1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-24 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-17 December that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E, causing ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 16-17 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 18-24 December, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-205 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Incandescent material traveled about 300 m down the Seca drainage during 23-24 December.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 16-22 December lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 150 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, only lasted during 17-18 November. The number of volcanic earthquakes was low after that and no other data indicated increased activity. Scientists noted no changes to geothermal areas on the crater floor and below cracks on the W flank during a field survey on 12 December. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 20 December.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 12-15 and 17 December, and Strombolian activity was visible during 13-15 and 17 December. Gas-and-steam plumes rose to 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE on 14 and 19 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-19 December discrete minor ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 13-20 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 18-24 December. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though clouds sometimes prevented views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by ongoing tremor and periodic weak explosions. Satellite imagery indicated that the active summit cone had grown after collapsing the week before. Minor ash emissions drifted S on 19 December and E at 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 18 December-24 December 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : Activity at Bezymianny remained elevated during 13-20 December; nighttime crater incandescence, strong fumarolic emissions, and a lava flow on the W flank of the lava dome were visible. The temperature of a thermal anomaly had continued to increase. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that ash plumes below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. from Semisopochnoi were identified in satellite images on 14 and 17 December; ash plumes on 17 December drifted about 15 km SE. During 17-20 December seismicity was characterized by tremor bursts and small explosions, though cloudy weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Elevated seismicity was recorded on 21 December. Nothing significant was detected during 22-24 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that during 18-23 December the level of volcanic tremor at White Island remained low and gas-and-steam plumes were strongly emitted from the new vent area. The highest-temperature emissions were more than 650 degrees Celsius measured during an overflight on 19 December. Volcanologists also measured about 1,300 tons/day of sulfur dioxide, slightly lower than 12 December measurements of about 1,730 tons/day. A small part of the SW slope of the 1914 landslide (inside the crater rim and opposite the former viewing area) had collapsed into the crater lake and active vent area, leaving a scarp 12 m high. The area had been unstable prior to the 9 December eruption. According to the New Zealand Police the death toll from the 9 December eruption had reached 17. Two people remained missing; the search was suspended on 24 December.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity

Bezymianny (Central Kamchatka Depression): KVERT reported that activity at volcano remained elevated during 13-20 December. Nighttime crater incandescence, strong fumarolic emissions, and a lava flow on the W flank of the lava dome were visible. The temperature of a thermal anomaly had continued to increase.

Aso (central Kyushu, Japan): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: ACTIVITY CONT. VA AT 20191227/0000Z FL060 EXTD SE OBS VA DTG:26/2350Z

Sakurajima (Kyushu, Japan): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 6000 ft (1800 m) altitude or flight level 060 and is moving at 30 kts in SE direction.

Sangeang Api (Indonesia): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude or flight level 100 and is moving at 10 kts in SW direction. The full report is as follows: INTERMITTENT DISCRETE EMISSIONS TO FL100 OBS VA DTG:27/0040Z to 10000 ft (3000 m)

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 and is moving at 10 kts in SE direction.

Novarupta (United States, Alaska Peninsula): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Anchorage warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 6000 ft (1800 m) altitude or flight level 060 .

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DISP

Reventador (Ecuador): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 and is moving at 10-15 kts in W direction. The full report is as follows: CONT VA EMS to 16000 ft (4900 m)

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: UNABLE TO DETECT

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 11 December – 17 December 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 9-16 December. There were 15 explosions and 10 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose 2.4 km above the crater rim, although explosions at 0115 and 2109 on 10 December generated ash plumes that rose 3 km above the crater rim. Blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 16 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 3,000-3,300 tons per day on 11 and 16 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 6-13 December that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E, causing ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 10-12 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 9-15 December lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 500 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 5, 7, and 11-12 December, and Strombolian activity was visible during 11-12 December. An ash plume rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sangay | Ecuador : Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 10-17 December ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.8-7.3 km (19,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible on 17 December.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 17 December discrete ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. A thermal anomaly was visible on 27 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 6-13 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin remained elevated during 10-11 December; low-level tremor was detected along with three small explosions. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images and a steam plume drifting from the summit was visible in webcam images. A short-lived explosion began at 0710 on 12 December and lasted about three minutes, coincident with a three-minute long period of elevated tremor. The event generated an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted almost 85 km/hour WNW, and then dissipated a few hours later. Three lightning strokes were detected between 0715 and 0717. The explosion may have collapsed the summit spatter cone. Highly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images during 12-13 December, and the webcam showed nighttime incandescence and a robust steam plume emanating from the summit. Seismicity remained elevated through 16 December and elevated surface temperatures continued to be detected. A plume appearing to contain ash drifted from the summit on 14 December. A lava flow was reported by a pilot on 16 December; the next day satellite images showed a 2-km-long flow on the NW flank. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 11 December – 17 December 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : Activity at Bezymianny began to increase at the beginning of December, characterized by nighttime crater incandescence, strong fumarolic emissions, a lava flow, and gradually increasing temperatures of a satellite-detected thermal anomaly. KVERT increased the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) on 13 December.

Nishinoshima | Japan : The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 15 December surveyors observed that explosions were occurring from the main crater of the pyroclastic cone every second to several seconds. Blocks were ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim; red hot blocks were scattered at the base of the cone. Gray plumes rose from the crater, and lava continued flowing E into the sea. A new crater had opened on the N flank of the cone and effused lava that flowed NW down to the sea. JMA expanded the marine exclusion zone around the island to 2.5 km the next day.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that during 10-17 December activity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, with bursts of tremor and small explosions detected in both seismic and infrasound data. An 80-km-long gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash was visible in satellite images during 11-12 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that the deadly 9 December eruption at White island modified the active crater area. The basin previously containing a hot acidic lake was mostly filled by debris with numerous, isolated ponds after the event. During overflights observers identified three main vents within a 100-square-meter area. Volcanic tremor significantly increased at around 0400 on 11 December and was accompanied by vigorous steaming and localized mud jetting from the active vent area. By the early evening tremor was at the highest level recorded since the 2016 eruption. On 12 December the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 2 (since no more eruptions had occurred since 9 December), though the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange. Later that day tremor levels decreased but remained very high compared to normal levels. Energetic steam-and-mud bursts continued from the active vent area. Gas emissions had increased compared to 10 December measurements. Tremor levels continued to decline during 12-13 December and then significantly dropped later on 13 December. During an overflight on 13 December observers noted small-scale gas jetting and steam bursts from the active vents. High heat flow was confirmed by a glow emanating from the vent area in overnight webcam images during 12-15 December; high-temperature (more than 200 degrees Celsius) volcanic gas was being emitted at a high rate when observed during an overflight on 15 December. GeoNet noted that data from various measurements suggested a magma source not far below the surface, possibly as shallow as tens of meters deep. According to the New Zealand Police the death toll from the 9 December eruption was 15, with two people still missing.

Volcanos

White Island – New Zealand

The death toll from New Zealand’s White Island volcano eruption rose to 18 on Sunday, including two people whose bodies have not been recovered, police said.

A land search early Sunday failed to find any sign of the missing pair and divers returned to the sea in the afternoon amid increasing speculation both could be in the water.

Another 26 survivors remain in New Zealand and Australian hospitals, of which at least 18 are listed as “critical” and fighting for their lives after the eruption on the desolate island, which is the country’s most active volcano.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 4 December – 10 December 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 2-9 December. There were 15 explosions and four non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose 2.3-2.6 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 2-9 December. There were 15 explosions and four non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose 2.3-2.6 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-9 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 30 November and 1-2 and 5 December that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 2-8 December lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 200 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible on 29 November and 1 December, the same days a weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 8-15 October seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash, gas, and steam plumes were visible rising sometimes higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting N, NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks rolled 500-700 m down the flanks in multiple directions during 7-10 December.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that the eruption at Sangay that began on 7 May was continuing as of 4 December without a notable increase or decrease in activity levels. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers: the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Sporadic explosions at Central Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted mainly NE during the previous month. Minor ashfall was recorded in the towns of Alao (20 km NW), Cebadas (35 km WNW), and Guaguallá (Chimborazo province), in Macas (42 km SSE, Morona-Santiago province), and in the Azuay province. Almost continuous lava effusion from the Ñuñurcu dome fed lava flows that traveled down the SE flank. Collapses along the margins of the lava flows generated small pyroclastic flows and small rockfalls that reached the upper channel of the Río Volcán. These deposits created dams which were remobilized by rainfall into lahars, which in turn partially dammed parts of the river at the confluence of the Río Upano. Parque Nacional Sangay and IG-EPN staff measured deposits at the confluence that were more than 2 m thick on 27 November; similar deposits were observed along a 16-km stretch upsteam. Sulfur dioxide emissions up to 640 tons/day were detected by satellite in recent weeks, and a strong sulfur odor was noted around 1 km above the crater rim during a 3 December overflight.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7-9 December discrete ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. A thermal anomaly was visible on 27 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 29 November-6 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures at Shishaldin were identified in satellite images during 3-4 December consistent with lava effusion, and a pilot confirmed active lava flows on the flank. Continuous tremor was recorded by the seismic network during 4-5 December. Seismicity, including Strombolian explosion signals, continued to increase until 2100 on 5 December and then afterwards was characterized by episodic tremor bursts and occasional Strombolian activity. Intermittent, very minor, and low-level ash or steam emissions near the summit and along the N flank were visible in clear webcam views on 5 December. A new lava flow had traveled 1.4 km down the NW flank. The eruption either slowed or paused during 6-7 December as evidenced by decreased seismicity and slightly elevated surface temperatures in satellite data. Temperatures again increased and were slightly elevated during 7-9 December, likely signifying renewed lava effusion. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 4 December – 10 December 2019

Nishinoshima | Japan : A thermal anomaly at Nishinoshima was identified in satellite images on 5 December, prompting JMA to expand the marine exclusion zone around the island to 1.5 km. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) conducted an overflight the next day and observed Strombolian explosions ejecting blocks as high as 200 m above a crater on the E side of the central pyroclastic cone. Lava flows had traveled to within 200 m of the coastline. Light gray eruption plumes drifted E. During an overflight on 7 December observers confirmed continuing Strombolian activity and saw lava entering the sea.

Semisopochnoi | United States : Strong tremor at Semisopochnoi was recorded by local seismic and regional infrasound networks beginning at 0026 on 7 December, heralding the start of an eruption and prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The meteorological cloud deck over the volcano was at around 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; no ash signals were detected above this altitude. A period of intermittent explosions was detected, and afterwards seismicity remained elevated at least through 9 December.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : A deadly and short-lived (1-2 minutes) eruption at White Island began around 1411 on 9 December, prompting GeoNet to raise the Alert Level to 4 and the Aviation colour Code to Orange. The eruption originated from the crater floor and generated an ash plume that rose 3.7 km (12,000 ft) above the vent. Ashfall was confined to the island and covered the crater floor based on webcam views. Activity waned after the event and within a few hours the Alert Level was lowered to 3. An exclusion zone extending just under 10 km around the island was emplaced for all (non-police) vessels.

The New Zealand Police stated that 47 local and international people in a tour group were on the island at the time of the eruption. A majority of the people in the group were seriously injured and taken to area hospitals; six were confirmed dead. On 10 December the police concluded that there likely were no additional survivors after several reconnaissance flights conducted post-eruption; nine people remained missing and assumed to be on the island.

On 10 December GeoNet reported that although seismic activity had dropped to low levels after the eruption, localized steaming and mud jetting continued from the active vents. Tremor significantly increased starting around 0400 on 11 December. Results from an overflight to collect gas emission data, along with other monitoring data collected over time, suggested that a shallow magma source was driving the tremor, gas emissions, and jetting activity.