Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 29 July 2020 – 4 August 2020

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 August ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was visible on 3 August. Ash plumes became diffuse later on 3 August, rising to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that seismicity at Manam began increasing on 16 July and fluctuated between low and moderate levels through the 29th. A slow steady increase of RSAM values was recorded on 30 July, and RVO stated that an observer had reported that incandescent material had been ejected from the summit. The Darwin VAAC noted that a sustained and intense thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images that same day. During 31 July-1 August ash plumes drifted NW at an altitude of 4.3 (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a lava flow at the summit was visible.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 29 July-3 August ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 3.4-5.8 km (11,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Strong sulfur dioxide signatures continued to be detected in satellite data.

Telica | Nicaragua : SINAPRED reported that 7-10 gas-and-ash explosions at Telica on 29 July generated plumes that rose 30-60 m above the crater rim and drifted N.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : At 0946 on 29 July an eruptive event generated a plume that rose 200-300 m above Turrialba’s crater rim. Several ash eruptions (10) were recorded for a period starting at 2010 on 30 July and ending at 0940 on 31 July. Each event lasted less than 10 minutes and plumes rose no higher than 200 m. An incandescent area was visible on the SW wall of the crater. At 0746 on 1 August a plume rose 500 m and at 0545 on 4 August a plume rose 300 m.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 22 July 2020 – 28 July 2020

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on information from PVMBG and satellite data the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and W during 22-26 and 28 July. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 17-24 July that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images each day; an ash cloud 11×13 km in size drifted 30 km SE on 22 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 22-27 July there were 2-107 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, WSW, and SW. Minor ashfall was reported on 23 and 27 July in areas downwind, including in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Atlatlahucán (30 km WSW), Yecapixtla (20 km W), Yautepec (50 km WSW), and Jiutepec (60 km WSW), in the state of Morelos, as well as in Tlalmanalco (30 km NW), Juchitepec, Tepetlixpa (20 km W), Atlautla (17 km W), Ozumba (18 km W), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW), in the state of Mexico. Incandescent material was ejected a short distance from the crater on 25 July and was followed by minor ashfall in Ecatzingo, Atlautla, Tepetlixpa, and Juchitepec. Incandescent material was again ejected a short distance from the crater during 26-27 July. Explosions were recorded at 1135 on 27 July and 0511 on 28 July. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Tlalmanalco (30 km NW), Ayapango (22 km NW), Temamatla (32 km NW), Ecatepec, Valle de Chalco (44 km NW), Texcoco (60 km NNW), Tezoyuca (68 km NNW), Tepetlaoxtoc, Naucalpan (80 km NW), Atizapán (90 km NW), Huixquilucan (85 km NW), Nicolás Romero (95 km NW), and Tlalnepantla (80 km NW) in the state of México. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : On 23 July IG reported that activity at Reventador remained high. A slight increase in surficial activity during the previous two weeks was characterized by ash emissions along with pyroclastic flows that descended the W, N, and NE flanks. Ash plumes rose 0.7-1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted several kilometers NW, W, and SW. Incandescent blocks preferentially rolled down the N and NE flanks, though sometimes material was ejected onto all of the flanks.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that periodic phreatic explosions at Rincón de la Vieja were recorded by the seismic network and webcams during 22-25 July. Sometimes the events were not visually confirmed due to weather conditions. Small eruptive events were recorded during 0700-0900 on 22 July, and during the first part of the day on 23 July; a minor steam plume was visible at 0536 on 23 July. An eruptive event at 0153 on 25 July produced a plume that rose 1 km above

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray ash plumes from Semeru rose 300-500 m above the summit and drifted S and W during 23-26 and 28 July. Weather conditions prevented visual observations on 22 and 27 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 17-24 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 17-24 July. An explosion at 2247 on 22 July generated a gray plume that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large rocks as far as 300 m from the crater. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-27 July ash plumes rose to 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. (1-1.9 km above the crater rim) and drifted NW, N, NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : ONEMI reported that during 1-15 July activity at Villarrica was characterized by nighttime crater incandescence, gas emission, and sporadic tephra emissions. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period earthquake associated with a moderate explosion in the summit crater was recorded at 1807 on 25 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 22 July 2020 – 28 July 2020

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN and SEGEMAR reported that elevated seismicity (continuous tremor) at Copahue was recorded on 16 July and accompanied by ash emissions observed by local residents. Sulfur dioxide emissions were anomalous on 4, 6, and 20 July; values were 2,100 and 1,713 tons per day on 2 and 4 July, respectively, on the high end of normal values. On 20 July residents of La Araucanía described an odor indicating hydrogen sulfide gas emissions. On 23 July the Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale). ONEMI raised a Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for residents of the Alto Biobío municipality and access to an area within 1 km of El Agrio Crater was restricted to the public.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-28 July ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.4-5.2 km (8,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 22-23 July white steam plumes from Turrialba contained a minor amount of ash on one occasion.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 15 July 2020 – 21 July 2020

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the last eruption at Agung was recorded at 0138 on 13 June 2019. Over the past year seismicity had generally decreased; volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded but at a low occurrence rate. Deformation data indicated a deflationary pattern which had stabilized in recent months. A thermal anomaly was last visible in satellite data in October 2019 and did not reappear. White plumes were visible rising 20-150 m above the summit during 1 January-16 July. PVMBG lowered the Alert Level at Agung to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 16 July, stating that the public should not enter an exclusion zone set at a 2-km radius.

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that an ash plume from Copahue was visible on 16 July. The Alert Level remained at Green (the lowest level on a four-colour scale) and the public was reminded to stay 500 m away from El Agrio crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on information from PVMBG and satellite data the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W during 15-21 July. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-16 July that sent ash plumes up to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE, causing ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 15 July. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-20 July white and gray plumes with variable densities rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted in multiple directions; weather conditions prevented visual observations on 17 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported minor eruptive activity at Kadovar during 1-15 July consisting of occasional light gray ash plumes of variable densities rising a few hundred meters above the summit crater. Fluctuating summit incandescence was visible at night. Activity intensified on 5 July as emissions became dark gray and dense. Explosions at 1652 and 1815 generated dense dark gray ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted W. Loud rumbling accompanied the explosion. Activity subsided later that day but was again more intense during 8-10 July. Explosions recorded at 2045 on 8 July, 1145 and 1400 on 9 July, and at 0950 and 1125 on 10 July produced ash plumes that rose 1 km above the summit.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 13 and 15 July. A gas-and-steam plume containing some ash drifted 26 km SW on 14 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that ash plumes from Semeru rose 500 m above the summit and drifted N during 16-17 July. Weather conditions prevented visual observations during 15 and 18-21 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 10-17 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 13-19 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and four vents in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Explosions at the N1 vent in Area N sometimes ejected tephra 200 m high, and ejected lapilli and bombs radially. Low-intensity explosions at vent N2 ejected tephra 80 m high. Explosions at the S1 and S2 vents in Area C-S ejected tephra. A vent between S2 and C (Area C-S) was noted on 18 July and produced occasional explosions. A sequence of high-energy explosions began at 0500 on 19 July and ended at 0504. The first explosion originated at the central vent in Area C-S but within a few seconds involved all Area C-S vents. An ash plume rose as high as 1 km. Tephra was ejected radially; some material was deposited along the Sciara del Fuoco and reached the coast within about 40 seconds after the beginning of the event. Tephra fell in the towns of Liscione and Roccette. The event damaged the infrared camera at Pizzo (400 m elevation).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 10-17 July. Occasional eruptive events were recorded along with three explosions. One of them, recorded at 1630 on 12 July, generated a gray-white plume that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and entered a weather cloud. An explosion at 2006 on 15 July ejected large rocks as far as 300 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Yasur  | Vanuatu : Based on webcam images and satellite data the Wellington VAAC reported that on 19 July ash plumes from Yasur rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Diffuse ash plumes rose to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 15 July 2020 – 21 July 2020

Makushin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that small earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin’s summit and at a depth of about 8 km continued to be detected during 15-21 July. Since the onset of seismicity on 15 June, the earthquakes had generally decreased in both size and rate. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from the summit crater lake. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 July. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Nishinoshima | Japan : JMA scientists observed Nishinoshima from a ship on 11 July. They reported that a large amount of ash was emitted from the summit crater; plumes rose about 1.7 km and drifted W, dropping ash into the sea. Deposits of large blocks at the foot of the cone were visible. Lava fountains that rose 200 m above the crater were observable at night, along with lightning in the ash plumes. The cone had grown to about 200 m, about 40 m higher than an estimate on 1 December 2019. The report stated that ships should stay at least 2.5 km away from the cone. Based on satellite data and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-21 July ash plumes rose to 3.7-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Satellite data showed a sulfur dioxide plume reaching the western USA on 18 July, after traveling over 9,000 km from Nishinoshima.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-21 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim. Lava-flow effusion ceased during 14-19 July, though flows may have continued to advance or be active on the SW, NW, N, and NE flanks. On 20 July lava emerged from a fissure or vents at the NW base of the cone, near Cerro Chino, and traveled SE.

Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1 January-15 July white plumes at Raung rose as high as 50 m above the summit. Seismicity increased on 13 July and then again on 16 July. At 1052 on 16 July observers noted that the color of the emissions had become brownish white and rose higher. A VONA stated that at 1353 an ash plume rose 100 m above the summit and drifted N. At 1356 the color of the emissions changed to white and gray, and plumes rose to 100 m above the summit. During the rest of the day gray and reddish-colored plumes rose 50-200 m. There were 60 emissions recorded in total. During 0000-0600 on 17 July there were a total of 26 emissions characterized by brownish ash plumes rising 50-200 m. PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 2-km radius.

Telica | Nicaragua : SINAPRED stated that at 1659 on 20 July small explosions at Telica produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim as reported by INETER. RSAM values increased from 57 to 153 units at the time of the explosions, and remained elevated at 144 units afterwards. SINAPRED recommended that the public stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions of variable densities were visible at Turrialba almost daily during 16-20 July. Ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim each day during 16-18 July.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 8 July 2020 – 14 July 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 6-10 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on information from PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W during 8 and 11-14 July. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 3-7 July that sent ash plumes up to 4.4 km (14,400 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted N and E, causing ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 3 and 6 July. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 4 and 6-7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 6-12 July Strombolian activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater ejected incandescent material that was deposited near the crater rim. Gas emissions rose from the vent in the pit crater at the bottom of Bocca Nuova. Sporadic explosive activity at Voragine Crater ejected lithics and produced ash emissions. Gas emissions rose from Northeast Crater and were audible from the crater’s edge.

Irazu | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 2138 on 12 July the seismic network at Irazú recorded a significant landslide, possibly in the N part of the crater. The event could not be confirmed because of weather conditions. Another landslide event was recorded at 1538 on 13 July, which again could not be visually confirmed.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 July an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a bright thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 5-6 and 8 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the temperature of the thermal anomaly at Klyuchevskoy sharply decreased on 3 July, possibly signaling the end of the current Strombolian phase. During 4-14 July the anomaly continued to decline and only weak fumarolic activity was visible. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 14 July.

Momotombo | Nicaragua : SINAPRED reported that a seismic swarm at Momotombo began at 0657 on 6 July and by the next day a total of 51 earthquakes had been recorded. The largest event was an M 2.6 located 9 km SE of the volcano, beneath Lake Managua, at a depth of 3 km. INETER noted that the earthquakes were located along a fault and not directly related to the volcano.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-14 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim. Lava flows traveled as far as 1.2 km on the N and NE flanks. Lava flows also headed SW, W, and NW during 13-14 July.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 July there were 40-109 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Minor crater incandescence was visible most nights. An explosion at 2320 on 8 July ejected incandescent material a short distance. An eruptive event at 0112 on 11 July ejected incandescent material within the crater and onto the crater rim. Incandescent material ejected within the crater was again visible at 0204 and 0454 on 12 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 8-12 July seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, harmonic tremor, and long-period earthquakes; there was no available seismic data during 13-14 July. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed daily with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted NW, W, and E. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 600 m down mainly the S and SE flanks during 8-9 and 12-14 July. Crater incandescence was visible almost nightly.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 17 explosions at Sabancaya during 6-12 July. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted SE, E, and NE. There were six thermal anomalies over the crater identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that dense white-gray ash plumes from Semeru were occasionally visible during 6-12 July rising no higher than 400 m above the summit. Ash plumes drifted SW on 11 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 3-10 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 6-12 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Moderate explosions from both areas ejected lapilli, bombs, and ash with decreasing frequency and intensity through the week.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 3-10 July. An eruptive event on 5 July generated a grayish white plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and ejected material 300 m from the crater. The Tokyo VAAC noted that an ash plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE on 12 July based on satellite images and JMA information. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 8 July 2020 – 14 July 2020

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite data and pilot observations (on 8 July), the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-14 July ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 3.7-6.1 km (12,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and E.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible at Turrialba during 9-10 July.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 1 July 2020 – 7 July 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 29 June-3 July; inclement weather prevented visual observations during 4-6 July. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tons per day on 2 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that conditions at Copahue had returned to normal levels and seismicity was low. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 7 July.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on information from PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC dense white-and-gray ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW almost daily during 1-7 July. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26 June-3 July that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,123 ft) a.s.l. which drifted S and E. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 26-28 and 30 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a bright thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 26-30 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 26 June-3 July along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Avalanches of material on the S side of the lava flow were sometimes visible. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava began breaching the rim of Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater around 27 June and had flowed 40 m down the N flank by 1 July. An explosion at 0837 on 6 July generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that as of 16 June the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-7 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim; explosions were audible as far away as 5 km during 4-5 July. Lava flows 150-500 m long were active on the N, NW, and SW flanks.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that drone footage acquired at Sabancaya on 20 June showed that the lava dome in the main crater had been destroyed, leaving blocks on the crater floor. Explosions at fractured areas generated gas-and-ash plumes. During 23-24 June explosions produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the summit and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in the districts of Chivay, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, and Coporaque, and in the area of Sallali. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 20 explosions during 29 June-5 July. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km above the summit and drifted S, SE, NE, and N. There were seven thermal anomalies over the crater identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : On 2 July IG presented additional results from the Sangay overflight that was conducted on 24 June with the purpose of performing maintenance on a gas and seismic station, taking visual and infrared photos of the surficial activity, and measuring volcanic gases. Three thermal anomalies were identified: the first was in the summit crater and associated with explosions, the second was near the SE rim of the summit crater and possibly highlighted a small lava flow, and the third corresponded to the accumulation of hot deposits of pyroclastic flows at the lower part of the SE drainage. Ash from summit explosions and pyroclastic flows that descended the SE flank dispersed mainly S and W. Notable morphological changes to the summit areas were evident when comparing photographs from 17 May 2019 to 24 June 2020. The maximum width of the SE flank drainage was an estimated 397 m. Due to a large amount of airborne ash in the N, E, and S parts of the volcano, the SAGA station on the SW flank could not be reached and repaired. Winds caused ashfall in populated areas. Gas emission data could also not be obtained due to the amount of airborne ash.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0633 on 7 July an ash plume from Semeru rose 400 m above the summit and drifted W. Weather clouds had prevented visual observations of the volcano during the previous six days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general restricted area 1 km from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 26 June-3 July. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 140 km E on 28 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 26 June-3 July. An eruptive event on 2 July generated a grayish white plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 1 July 2020 – 7 July 2020

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic network at Bulusan recorded 53 volcanic earthquakes during 3-6 July, including 43 low-frequency events associated with weak shallow hydrothermal or magmatic gas movement. Despite visible degassing or steaming from the active vent in 2020, increased seismicity may still be followed by phreatic activity at the summit or from flank vents. Additionally, GPS data indicated short-term inflation since late February. On 6 July the Alert Level was raised to 1, indicating abnormal conditions, and the public was reminded of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). There were 19 volcanic earthquakes recorded during 6-7 July, and diffuse white steam plumes rose from the lower SE vent.

Laguna del Maule | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although the number and magnitude of earthquakes had decreased during 20-30 June, seismicity at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex continued to remain anomalously elevated at east through 7 July. The location of the activity remained within an area about 5 km in diameter, near the intersection of two faults near Las Nieblas, and corresponded to elevated levels of carbon dioxide emissions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest colour on a four-colour scale; ONEMI recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the emission center.

Nishinoshima | Japan : JMA reported that the eruption at Nishinoshima had been particularly vigorous since mid-June, producing a large amount of ash. Based on satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-3 and 5-7 July ash plumes rose to 2.7-4.9 km (9,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW, and sometimes SW. On 4 July, ash plumes rose to 8.3 km above the summit (or to 24,000-28,000 ft. a.s.l.), the highest recorded plume since the volcano became active in 2013.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that small ash emissions rose to low heights above the active crater at Turrialba almost daily during 1-7 July; no emissions were recorded on 3 July. A plume of gas and ash rose hundreds of meters at 0900 on 6 July, causing local ashfall.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 24 June 2020 – 30 June 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 22-26 June two eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1,300 m above the crater rim. An explosion at 1807 on 28 June ejected material 1,000-1,300 m away from the crater and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 and 26-30 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19-26 June that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted in various directions, though during 21-25 June they drifted 50 km WSW. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 21-25 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kanlaon | Philippines : PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic network recorded 6-44 volcano-tectonic earthquakes per day at Kanloan during 23-30 June and 1-4 volcanic earthquakes during 27-29 June. Steam plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted NE, NW, and SW. A M 3.6 earthquake was recorded at 1900 on 23 June and was felt at Intensity III in La Carlota City and at Intensity II in Bago City, Negros Occidental. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 438, 237, and 116 tonnes per day on 13, 24, and 27 June, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a bright thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 19-26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 19-26 June along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Avalanches of material on the S side of the lava flow were sometimes visible. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 19-25 June sometimes dense white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 600 m above the summit. The report noted that the lava-dome volume was an estimated 200,000 cubic meters on 13 June based on analyses of drone images. The morphology of the summit crater area had slightly changed after the 21 June eruption. Based on photos taken from the Ngepos Post about 19,000 cubic meters had been removed from the SW part of the summit, likely near or part of the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in the rate of inflation in the vicinity of Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater beginning on 20 June. The lava dome in the crater that was visible in satellite images on 11 June (but described in previous reports) had increased in volume based on analysis of 23 June images, and lengthened on the E side. The estimated growth rate of 0.1-0.3 cubic meters per second is two orders of magnitude greater than growth of the Gil-Cruz dome measured during December 2018-early 2019 and one order of magnitude greater that dome growth during August-December 2019. Occasional explosions continued to be recorded, with emissions rising to low heights, and nighttime crater incandescence was visible. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.

Nishinoshima | Japan : During an overflight of Nishinoshima on 29 June Japan Coast Guard observers noted black ash plumes vigorously rising from the central crater to more than 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. A possible collapse of the SW part of the main crater was evident in photographs taken during the overflight. Strombolian explosions ejected lava above the cone and lava traveled SW, reaching the ocean and producing steam plumes. Discoloured yellow-green water was visible as far as 1 km offshore. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-30 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 200 m above the crater rim and were sometimes audible as far away as 5 km. Lava flows on the SW flank were mostly 100-600 m long but advanced to 2 km by 30 June. Lava advanced to 100 m on the S flank during 25-26 June and to 200 m on the NW flank during 27-29 June.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 27 May-2 June seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed almost daily with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 500 m down mainly the S and E flanks. Nighttime crater incandescence was often visible.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a daily average of 12 explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 22-28 June. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 4 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE; on 27 June ashfall was reported in several areas NE possibly including the districts of Madrigal, Lari, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, and Coporaque. There were 10 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that during an overflight of Sangay on 24 June scientists observed a small explosion followed by a dense ash plume that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted W. Additionally a pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank. The overflight was conducted in partnership with Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) and the Army with the purpose of conducting maintenance on a gas and seismic station, taking visual and infrared photos of the surficial activity, and measuring volcanic gases.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-29 June explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km S, SW, W, and N. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. Avalanches of blocks descended the SE, S, and SW flanks of Caliente cone and sometimes reached the base of the complex. Local ashfall around the volcano was sometimes reported.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 24-30 June dense white-gray ash plumes from Semeru rose 200-500 m above the summit and drifted SW and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 19-26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : On 24 June AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased to background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava in the crater area, typical surface temperatures, and minor steaming. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 19-26 June. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded with plumes rising as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 25 June the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that seismic data and recent visual observations at Yasur confirmed ongoing explosions and gas-and-ash emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 24 June 2020 – 30 June 2020

Asamayama | Honshu (Japan) : On 25 June JMA raised the Alert Level for Asamayama to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that inflation on the W flank had been recorded since 20 June. The number of shallow (just below the summit, or 1-2 km a.s.l.) volcanic earthquakes had also increased; two volcanic tremors were detected on 20 June. Emissions form the summit crater had not changed and continued to be white in color and rise no more than 200 m above the crater rim.

Makushin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported continuing numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin’s summit at a depth of about 8 km during 24-30 June; the frequency and magnitude had been declining since 15 June but the rate became variable on 24 June. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit crater lake. Earthquakes with a M 3 and M 3.8 were recorded at 1653 and 1802 on 28 June, with the larger event strongly felt in Unalaska (14 km E). The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that occasional small ash emissions rose no higher than 100 m above the active crater at Turrialba each day during 23-29 June; no emissions were recorded on 27 June. A series of ash emissions were recorded at 1348, 1739, and 2303 on 28 June and at 0107, 0232, 0306, 0412, and 0818 on 28 June. At least two of those events (0107 and 0412) were accompanied by ballistics that were ejected onto the N wall of the active crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 17 June 2020 – 23 June 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events were recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 19-22 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that no additional volcanic activity was detected at Cleveland after the short-lived explosion recorded on 1 June. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow.

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : On 17 June OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported increased activity at Copahue during the previous days, characterized by low-altitude gas emissions containing particulate matter. A period of increased seismicity was recorded in the afternoon on 16 June accompanied by crater incandescence and emissions visible in webcam images. The report noted that very-long-period earthquakes had been recorded in previous months, and a series of volcano-related seismic events were detected in an area SSW of the volcano on 20 March. Additionally, satellite images showed a reduction in the size of the crater lake. These recent changes coupled with increased seismicity prompted SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (second lowest level on a four-colour scale) and restrict access to an area within 1 km of El Agrio Crater. ONEMI raised a Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for residents of the Alto Biobío municipality.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-23 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 14, 16, and 18 June. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 17 June that sent ash plumes up to 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 June ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kanlaon | Philippines : PHIVOLCS reported that ground deformation data from continuous GPS measurements at Kanlaon indicated slight deflation of the lower and middle flanks since January. Tilt data from instruments on the SE flank recorded continuing deflation on the lower flanks and inflation of the mid-flank since April 2020. White steam plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit and drifted NW and SW. The seismic network recorded as many as 10 volcanic earthquakes per day during 17-21 June. A series of earthquakes beneath the lower W flank began at 1603 on 21 June, and by 0800 the next morning there were a total of 136 events recorded. Five of the earthquakes (recorded at 0101, 0104, 0134, 0206, and 0507 on 22 June) were M 3-4.7, and were felt at Intensities II to IV in La Carlota City and Bago City, Negros Occidental, and Canlaon City, Negros Oriental. During 22-23 June there were a total of 104 volcano-tectonic earthquakes beneath the W flank. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Kick ’em Jenny | North of Grenada : The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that a period of elevated seismicity at Kick ’em Jenny was recorded over a seven-day period in June. According to a news article, only 29 earthquakes were recorded during April-May all with magnitudes of 1.6-2. During 5-12 June there were 1,384 recorded earthquakes with magnitudes as high as 1.8. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) and the maritime exclusion zone did not change from the radius of 1.5 km.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 12-19 June along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Avalanches of material on the S side of the lava flow were sometimes visible. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nishinoshima  | Japan : The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that two explosions at Merapi were recorded at 0913 and 0927 on 21 June; the first lasted under six minutes and the second lasted under two minutes. A dense ash plume rose around 6 km above the summit and drifted W, causing ashfall in areas downwind including in the districts of Magelang and Kulonprogo, and as far as the Girimulyo District (45 km). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nishinoshima | Japan : The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-19 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim and continued to build a cone in the crater. Active lava flows were 250 m long on the N flank and 200 m long on the S flank by 19 June. In a special report INSIVUMEH noted that increased on 20 June accompanying active lava flows that traveled 650 m SW and 200 m NW by the next day. During 20-23 June Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 200 m above the summit and produced ash plumes that rose 100 m. The explosions were heard in areas up to 5 km away.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that periodic phreatic explosions at Rincón de la Vieja continued to be recorded by the seismic network and webcams during 16-23 June. Several small eruptive events were recorded during 16-17 June; the largest event occurred at 1635 on 17 June and produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. Eruptive events were detected at 1442 on 19 June and 1046 on 23 June, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation.

Sangay | Ecuador : On 16 June the Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) declared a Yellow Alert for the province of Chimborazo due to a recent increase in ashfall from Sangay. IG reported a continuing high level of activity during 16-22 June, though weather clouds often prevented visual observations. According to the IG and Washington VAAC notices ash plumes rose 570-870 m above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent blocks descending the SE flank were seen through breaks in cloud cover overnight during 17-18 June. SNGRE reported that lahars in the Upano River in the morning of 21 June followed heavy rains two days earlier. In Macas (40 km SE) the lahars caused the closure of the E45 Macas-Puyo road, destroying a 27-m section and damaging a 30-m section, and the evacuation of 21 people.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 18-23 June ash plumes from Semeru rose 300-500 m above the summit and drifted SE, S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 12-19 June. A webcam captured an explosion on 13 June that sent ash up to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. The ash cloud drifted 120 km NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 12-19 June. An explosion was recorded on 18 June, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Whakaari/White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that during the previous few months activity levels at Whakaari/White Island had gradually declined based on the volcano monitoring team’s collective interpretation of all the monitoring data. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 on 16 June; the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green on 22 June.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 17 June 2020 – 23 June 2020

Erta Ale | Ethiopia : Satellite data showed a minor thermal anomaly in Erta Ale’s S pit crater on 12 June and a larger anomaly on 17 June at the site of the previous lava lake.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 11-19 June, possibly due to ongoing Strombolian activity. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Laguna del Maule | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN’s Volcanological Observatory of the Southern Andes (OVDAS) of Chile and SEGEMAR’s Argentine Observatory of Volcanic Surveillance (OAVV) reported anomalous activity at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex. Elevated levels of carbon dioxide were detected in an area SW of the caldera lake, along the lower part of the Cabecera de Troncoso River, about 5 km from the lake’s shore. Carbon dioxide emissions were measured in February 2020 and notably elevated relative to March 2019 measurements. An impacted area possibly stretched as far as 500 m from the point representing the highest carbon dioxide emission rate; observers noted areas of discoloured brown and orange soil aonlg with dead or emaciated animals. Three swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes recorded in mid-June were mainly located in the Las Nieblas area, SW of the lake, at depths of 2-8 km. The first began at 0340 on 11 June and totaled at least 400 events. The second swarm began at 2338 on 12 June was characterized by 121 events, located 8.8 km W of the crater. The third swarm began at 2334 on 15 June and was characterized by 190 events located 10.4 km SW of the crater. All of the earthquakes were small magnitudes; the largest event was a local M 2.5. On 18 June the Alert Level was raised to Yellow, the second lowest colour on a four-colour scale; ONEMI recommended restricting access within a radius of 2 km from the emission center. Seismic activity continued to be recorded, though at lesser magnitudes.

Makushin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 12 km SE of Makushin’s summit were recorded after two events greater than M 4 occurred on 15 June. The earthquake activity continued during 16-23 June, though at a declining rate and magnitudes. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit fumaroles was visible. The Aviation colour Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions at Turrialba rose no higher than100 m above the crater rim from events recorded at 1714, 1723, and 1818 on 18 June and at 1023 and 1039 on 19 June. A small ash emission was visible at 1715 on 22 June.

Veniaminof | United States : On 18 June AVO stated that periods of seismic tremor and occasional earthquakes had been recorded at Veniaminof over the past few days. The increase above background levels prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation colour Code to Yellow. Periods of low-amplitude seismic tremor decreased in frequency during 19-20 June, and were not detected at all by 21 June.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 10 June 2020 – 16 June 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were four explosive events and one eruptive event at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 8-12 June. An explosion at 1119 on 10 June produced a plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected large rocks 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained high. No observable activity was recorded during 13-15 June, though inclement weather obscured views. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-15 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-11 June that sent ash plumes up to 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and N, and as far as 85 km N and NW on 11 June. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 11 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 June ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 5-12 June along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash drifted 40 km W and E on during 6-7, 9, and 11 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that a body of lava in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was visible in 11 June satellite images. The structure was oriented in the NNW direction and was about 100 m long and 60 m wide. Adjacent to the lava body was a smaller structure, oriented N. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 300 tons/day on 14 June, which was an average rate. A thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 14 June, and at night incandescent material was sometimes ejected from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.

Nishinoshima | Japan : The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. During an overflight on 15 June the Japan Coast Guard noted continuous activity from the central vent, including a gray-brown to black-brown ash plume rising as high as 2 km. Ejected material landed near the cone’s base. Lava from the NE side of the central vent flowed E. Steam plumes rose along the E coast where lava entered the sea, causing discoloured brownish water offshore. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 10-16 June there were 145-302 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes did not rise more than 1 km above the crater rim. An overflight was conducted on 13 June by the National Guard, Instituto de Geofísica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), and CENAPRED scientists. They noted that the inner crater was 350-380 m in diameter and 100-150 m deep; the crater floor was covered in tephra and the remains of a lava dome which had possibly been seen in May. At 1612 that same day a minor explosion was recorded, though an ash plume was not observed due to weather clouds. Incandescent material was ejected a short distance onto the flanks. Seven minor explosions were recorded on 15 June and again on 16 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reykjanes | Iceland : IMO reported that a third injection of magma since the beginning of the year was occurring beneath the Reykjanes peninsula. Data suggested that the current inflationary period began in mid-May, though earthquake activity did not increase until around 30 May. During 30 May-15 June the seismic network recorded more than 2,000 events, with the largest, an M 3.4, recorded on 13 June. The intrusion was located about 1 km W of Thorbjorn at a depth of 3-4 km, and had an estimated volume of about 1.2 million cubic meters. This third intrusion was similar to the previous two intrusions, characterized as a sill that was a few hundred meters wide and about 6 km long. In total about 12 cm of uplift has been recorded since January. The Svartsengi geothermal plant noted no chemical changes in the geothermal system, though measurements showed increased fluid flow in the rocks within the system, along with the opening of old cracks and the formation of new ones.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 June an ash plume from Sangeang Api rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 10-16 June ash plumes from Semeru rose at most 300 m above the summit and drifted N, SE, S, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 5-12 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 5-12 June. An eruptive event on 5 June produced gray-white plume rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Whakaari/White Island | North Island (New Zealand) :
On 16 June GeoNet reported that during the previous few months activity levels at Whakaari/White Island had gradually progressed on a downward trend based on the volcano monitoring team’s collective interpretation of all the monitoring data. Temperatures at the gas vents remained high (over 450 degrees Celsius) though a slow decline in heat input from depth has been recorded. Although magma remained at a shallow depth, an estimated 1 km below the surface, gas discharge and ground deformation were not increasing. Additionally, seismic activity, specifically the level of volcanic tremor, had been low since February-March. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 10 June 2020 – 16 June 2020

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland likely continued during 10-16 June, though no activity was identified in cloudy satellite images nor detected by regional geophysical networks. AVO noted that local seismic, infrasound, and web camera data are unavailable due to an equipment failure, Cleveland continued to be monitored with regional seismic and infrasound stations on nearby islands, along with lightning and satellite data capabilities. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 10-11 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Makushin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that over a period of several hours on 15 June there were two earthquakes in the vicinity of Makushin that were greater than M 4 and one greater than M 3. The events were located about 11 km SE of the summit at a depth of about 8 km, and felt in Unalaska (14 km E). Numerous smaller earthquakes were recorded, though not felt by Unalaska residents. AVO noted that the earthquakes represented a departure from background levels and were possibly indicative of volcanic unrest; the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were respectively raised to Yellow and Advisory. The report noted that aftershocks were continuing.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that for the past year, activity at Sangay is centered at two summit vents: the Central Crater which produced ash-and-gas emissions and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater) which effused lava. Lava, pyroclastic flows, and collapsed material were channeled down the Volcán River drainage on the SE flank. Activity at Sangay intensified during 8-9 June with lava-flow collapses, pyroclastic flows on the SE flank that reached the Upano River, and significant ash emissions that drifted W. No variation in seismic data was noted prior to a period of increased activity. A comparison of webcam images from 2 September 2019 and 10 June 2020 showed that the drainage had widened, deepened, and lengthened. In recent weeks ash plumes had risen as high as 2.9 km above the crater rim and had been carried farther by strong winds. Ashfall was reported in the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolívar, Guayas, Santa Elena, Los Ríos, and Morona Santiago. Activity slightly increased during 11-12 June, characterized by ash-and-gas plumes rising higher (1.5-2.8 km above the crater rim) and drifting farther (over 600 km W and SW), and an increased number of thermal anomalies on the SE flank from intensified lava effusion. A pulse of increased seismic activity was also detected. Ashfall was additionally reported in the provinces of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi.