Volcanos

Five dead, many injured after New Zealand volcano eruption

Five people were killed, 18 were injured and several more were left stranded after an island volcano popular with tourists erupted unexpectedly in New Zealand on Monday.

Police said some 50 people were visiting White Island when it exploded suddenly in the early afternoon — hurling ash and rock high into the air.

Two dozen people made it off the island, five of whom have since died. The rest are being treated for injuries, including severe burns.

Nothing is yet known about a group – now estimated to number in the double digits – who are still trapped on the island.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 27 November – 03 December 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 25 November-2 December. There were 16 explosions and three non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km away. One of the explosions, recorded at 2010 on 28 November, produced an eruption plume that rose 3.3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 November-3 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22-23 and 28 November that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE and E, and produced ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 23 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 21 and 26-27 November, and a weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 21-25 and 28 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0543 on 27 October an eruptive event at Anak Krakatau ejected a white-and-black plume 150 m above the active vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 26 November-3 December white-to-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1.7 km above the rim and drifted SE, NE, and NNW. Occasional explosions ejecting incandescent material onto the flank were visible at night. The report noted that the newest lava flow (L4) traveled down the NNE flank adjacent to three previous flows (L1, L2, and L3). The point of emission of L4 was about 60 m SSE of the emission point for the previous three lava flows. L4 had two lobes and was about 90 m long, measured from the rim of Nicanor Crater, on 27 November. By 29 November it had lengthened to 165 m. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 17 daily low-to-medium intensity explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 25 November-1 December. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 4 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and S. There were five thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the 240-m-diameter lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 November-3 December discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.3 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. A thermal anomaly was visible on 27 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 22-29 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismic levels at Shishaldin were variable but elevated during 26 November-3 December. Weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite image views and mostly prevented webcam views, though elevated surface temperatures were still visible in multiple satellite images. An active 1.5-km-long lava flow on the NW flank was visible in satellite images on 1 December. Continuous tremor transitioned to episodic bursts during the morning of 2 December, but by 3 December a decrease in seismic activity and surface temperatures suggested another pause in lava effusion. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 25 November-1 December activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). Low-to-medium-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 7-11 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled a few hundred meters along the Sciara del Fuoco. Medium-intensity explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 4-8 events per hour and ejected coarse material to heights less than150 m above the vents. Material was deposited along the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 27 November – 03 December 2019

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 3 December GeoNet reported that unrest at White Island had continued during the previous week. Explosive gas-and-steam-driven fountaining occurred from the active vent area on the W side of the 1978/90 Crater Complex, near the 2012 lava dome, at the back of the crater lake. Mud and debris were ejected 20-30 m above the vent. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 November – 26 November 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 18-25 November. There were 17 explosions and four non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,800 tons/day on 21 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-26 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.3 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-17 and 20 November that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 and 23-25 November ash plumes from Ibu rose 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 21 November.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 18-24 November lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 300 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images on 14 November. Strombolian activity and a series of ash explosions were visible on 20 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that no eruptive events at Merapi were recorded during 18-24 November, though a significant increase in the number of low-frequency earthquakes and increased carbon dioxide emissions were detected on 19 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-26 November Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. Lava flows traveled as far as 400 m down NW flank and produced block avalanches from the flow fronts.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-26 November discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that on most days during 20-26 November there were 1-3 explosions per hour detected at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 600-900 m above the complex and drifted SW and W. Avalanches of material descended the E, S, and SW flanks. Ash sometimes fell locally, and likely in finca El Faro, Santa Maria, and Viejo Palmar during 20-21 and 24-25 November.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 15-22 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 15-22 November. Eruptive events generated grayish white plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima Village (4 km SSW) during 19-20 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 20 November – 26 November 2019

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that increased seismicity and higher surface temperatures at Shishaldin during 19-20 November indicated elevated eruptive activity. Seismicity abruptly dropped at 0340 on 20 November and remained low, heralding another pause in activity. Tremor and surface temperatures remained low through 23 November. Seismicity again increased during 24-25 November and small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound stations. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were observed in multiple satellite images. A partial collapse of the summit cone sometime around 1430 on 24 November produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 3 km down the NW flank. A new lava flow on the NW flank was several hundred meters long. Seismicity decreased but remained elevated during 25-26 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in multiple satellite images, and incandescence from the summit was occasionally visible in web camera images overnight. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that gas emissions at White Island were at moderate-to-high levels during 18-25 November and tremor was at moderate levels. Gas-driven fountaining from active vents on the W side of the crater floor ejected mud a few meters in the air. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 13 November – 19 November 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 11-18 November. There were 27 explosions and 29 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected 600-900 m away. An explosion at 0200 on 13 November generated an ash plume that rose 3.6 km and ejected large blocks that fell 1.7 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 18 November. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-18 November ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 18 November JMA confirmed ashfall in downwind areas.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 11-12 and 14 November that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,00 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 11-17 November lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 400 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 8 and 10-13 November. Strong crater incandescence was visible at night during 10-11 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that sometimes during 11-17 November dense white plumes rose as high as 150 m above Anak Krakatau’s active vent. The seismic network detected one eruptive event; dense gray-to-black plumes rose as high as 300 m above the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that after the eruption at Merapi on 9 November seismicity increased and remained elevated. At 1046 on 17 November an eruption was recorded by the seismic network for two minutes and 35 seconds. An ash plume rose around 1 km above the crater rim and a pyroclastic flow traveled less than 1 km SE down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 12-19 November white-to-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose 450-900 m above the rim and drifted SE and NE. Occasional explosions ejecting incandescent material onto the flank were visible at night. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 50 explosions of low-to-medium intensity per day occurred at Sabancaya during 11-17 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted SE and S. There were seven thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 November discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. Thermal anomalies were recorded at least during 18-19 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 8-15 November. An ash plume rose to 9-10 km (29,500-32,800 ft) a.s.l. on 11 November; ash plumes drifted as far as 1,300 km ESE during 11-12 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 8-15 November. Occasional eruptive events during 13-15 November generated grayish white plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima Village (4 km SSW) on 14 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 13 November – 19 November 2019

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Advisory and the Aviation colour Code to Yellow on 15 November, noting that new satellite data and reanalysis of previous data over the past week showed that lava effusion likely had not begun on 8 November. Regional seismic and infrasound data showed no evidence of eruptive activity during 8-19 November; weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images and steam plumes were sometimes visible in webcam images.

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : The number of volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased around 1900 on 17 November and continued to increase through the next day. JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 18 November. Bad weather conditions prevented visual webcam observations.

Lateiki | Tonga Islands : Satellite images showed that the mid-October eruption at Lateiki (Metis Shoal) had formed a new and larger island, but by 14 November it had eroded to a size similar to the pre-eruptive size.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued at variable levels during 13-19 November. Seismicity increased during 13-14 November, and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite and webcam data. Minor ash emissions were visible and likely resulting from spatter cone collapses. Lava and debris flows had not advanced since 8 November; lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km and a large branched network of debris flows extended at least 5.5 km NE. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a steam plume drifting more than 100 km SE were visible on 15 November. An incandescent lava flow on the NE flank was recorded in webcam images. Activity during 17-18 November was characterized by low seismic tremor and weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures, consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity and surface temperatures again increased during 18-19 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that minor increases in sulfur dioxide emission had been detected at White Island over the past several weeks, and the level of volcanic tremor increased from weak to moderate levels during the previous few weeks. The report noted that the changes are not uncommon and could be related to a variety of processes, though the elevated activity was above the expected range for minor volcanic unrest and associated hazards; GeoNet raised the Volcanic Alert Level for White Island to 2 and the Aviation colour Code to Yellow on 15 November.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 6 November – 12 November 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 5-11 November. There were 13 explosions and 25 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km away. Explosions at 1557 and 1615 on 7 November generated ash plumes that rose 3.8 and 3.5 km above the crater rim, respectively. An explosion at 1724 on 8 November generated an ash plume that rose 5.5 km above the crater rim and drifted E, and ejected large blocks that fell 500-800 m away. The last time plumes rose over 5 km from the active vents was on 26 July 2016 at Showa Crater and on 7 October 2000 at Minamidake Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asamayama | Honshu (Japan) : On 6 November JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no eruptions had occurred since 26 August, volcanic tremor had not been recorded since early September, and volcanic gas emissions had been generally low.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-6 November that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,00 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted N, E, and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 4-10 November lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S) and travel down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Incandescent blocks from the flows reached a distance of 1.8 km from the crater. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 250 m above the summit craters. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 4-10 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 200 m above Anak Krakatau’s active vent. The seismic network detected 30 eruptive events; dense gray-to-black plumes rose as high as 300 m above the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0621 on 9 November an eruption was detected by the seismic network at Merapi and lasted two minutes and 40 seconds. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage on the SE flank and an ash plume rose around 1.5 km above the summit. Minor ashfall was reported in areas to the W as far as 15 km away, including Wonolelo, Sawangan, Magelang, and Tlogolele. The event did not notably impact the morphology of the lava dome and the drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 November discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Thermal anomalies were visible during 6-8 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-8 November. Ash plumes drifted as far as 640 km NW on 3 and 5 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 1-8 November. Very small eruptive events on 5 and 7 November generated grayish white plumes that rose 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 6 November – 12 November 2019

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : Highly elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite data indicated that slow lava effusion in Cleveland’s summit crater may have begun during 7-8 November. AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation colour Code to Orange. Robust steaming was visible in satellite and webcam images on 7 November.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images on 6 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that at 1330 on 2 November a single large explosion at Manam generated a dense dark ash plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted NW. A shock wave was felt at the Bogia Government station (about 40 km SE) about 1 minute later. RSAM values on 6 November fluctuated between 250 and 360 units but began to increase around 1430 and triggered alerts around 1445. Values continued to increase and reached 400-500 units, heralding an eruption which began during 1600-1630. A gray ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NW. Incandescent material ejecting from the vent was visible at the start of the eruption and became more visible as the evening grew darker. The eruption peaked in intensity around 1930, then declined and ceased during 2100-2200.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : During an overflight of Popocatépetl on 5 November CENAPRED scientists, researchers from Instituto de Geofísica de UNAM, and members of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil observed lava dome number 85 in the bottom of the inner summit crater. The dome was 210 m in diameter, 80 m thick, and had an irregular surface. The inner crater remained 350 m in diameter and was 90 m deep. CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-12 November there were 58-148 steam-and-gas emissions, some of which contained ash. Explosions at 0300 and 0501 on 6 November and at 0023 and 0655 on 7 November ejected incandescent tephra onto the upper flanks. Five more explosions were detected on 6 November. Eruptive events at 0858 and 0941 on 9 November generated ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted NW; between those two ash emissions explosions were recorded at 0923 and 2055. Explosions on 10 November were recorded at 0648 and 1636. An explosion at 2203 on 11 November ejected incandescent tephra as far down the E flank as 1.5 km and generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued at variable levels during 5-12 November. Periods of high-amplitude tremor during 5-6 November were likely related to increased lava effusion and fountaining, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. Intermittent advancement of active lava flows and lahars on the N flank were confirmed in RADAR data, and by 7 November the lava flow was 1.3 km long and the debris flow runout was 5 km. Seismic tremor was low during 8-9 November suggesting lava effusion was less likely; weather cloud cover continued to obscure views, though elevated surface temperatures were sometimes detected during brief periods of clear weather. Activity significantly increased during 10-11 November with lava fountaining visible in webcam views throughout the evening and night. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit and along the flanks were visible in satellite data. Ash emissions reported by pilots and visible on webcam images rose as high as 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Activity decreased during 11-12 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity decreased during the evening of 11 November and remained low. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 30 October – 5 November 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 28 October-5 November. There were 32 explosions and 16 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 October-5 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25-26 and 29-30 October that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and NE. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 29 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-5 November white-and-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-5 November lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0614 on 30 October a brownish-white ash emission from Kerinci rose around 800 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. Brownish ash emissions rose 800 m and drifted WSW at 1721 on 30 October and to 500 m and drifted ESE at 0543 on 1 November. An eruptive event at 0553 on 2 November generated a brown ash emission that rose 500 m and drifted ESE. During 3-5 November brown ash plumes rose 100-500 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 28 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 28 October-3 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. There were nine thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October and 3-4 November discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose 2.7-3.5 km (9,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Thermal anomalies were visible on 3 and 5 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 October an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 October-1 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 30 October-5 November activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions originated at a rate of 2-13 per hour from vents in Area N (north crater area) and at a rate of 7-16 per hour from vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). Explosions from Area N ejected lapilli and bombs no more than 175 m high, while explosions at Area C-S ejected tephra to heights under 250 m.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1225 on 19 October a very small eruptive event at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater generated a gray plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim. A small amount of ash fell in Toshima, 4 km SW. Very small eruptions during 29-30 October generated grayish-white plumes that rose 800 m. Ashfall was reported in Toshima on 29 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 31 October the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that recent observations and data from Yasur’s seismic network confirmed ongoing sometimes strong explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 30 October – 5 November 2019

Kikai | Japan : An eruption at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, was detected at 1735 on 2 November, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). A grayish-white plume rose 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. The report noted that the number of volcanic earthquakes has been low, with no variations before or after the event. The next day during an overflight conducted by the Coast Guard and the Japan Meteorological Agency Mobile Survey Team (JMA-MOT) observers noted no changes to the geothermal field and no new deposits from the event the day before. Views of the crater were obscured by white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes and steam-and-gas plumes with some ash drifted 130 km SW on 25 October according to video and satellite data. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 26-27 and 30 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Metis Shoal | Tonga Islands : GeoNet reported that by 1 November the eruption at Metis Shoal (Lateiki) had formed an elongated island, with no visible evidence of the old 1995 dome. According to a news article the new island is about 100 m wide and 400 m long, and had emerged at a location 120 m away from the former island. The article noted that the eruption had ceased.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that by 28 October two stalled lava flows extended as far as 1.8 km down Shishaldin’s NW flank, lahars had traveled at least 4 km down the NW flank, and trace ash deposits on the N flank were identified in satellite images. Activity paused during 29-30 October but resumed on 31 October. Numerous small explosions were detected by the local seismic network during 31 October-1 November and incandescence was visible in webcam images. There was no evidence of active lava flows outside of the summit crater. During 1-2 November seismicity remained elevated characterized by periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded in seismic and infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images and incandescence was observed in webcam images overnight. A pilot observed a lava flow in the morning of 2 November. Sporadic incandescence recorded by the webcam overnight during 2-3 November suggested minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. On 3 November lava overflowed the summit crater and traveled at least 400 m down the NW flank and 300 m down the SE flank. By 4 November the flow on the NW flank had branched and lengthened to 1 km. Lahars were as long as 2 km on the N and S flanks. Spatter deposits from explosions or fountaining were visible on the summit cone. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 23 October – 29 October 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that two eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) recorded during 25-28 October generated plumes that rose 1.2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 18, 20-21, and 23 October that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted N, E, and SE. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 20 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kanlaon | Philippines : On 25 October PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Kanlaon to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) noting that volcanic activity had declined to baseline levels in June and had continued to be low.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 21-27 October lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 21-27 October diffuse white plumes rose as high as 100 m above Anak Krakatau’s active vent. As many as three eruptive events per day during 25-27 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 200 m above the vent. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 22-24 October white-to-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1.3 km above the rim and drifted SE. Explosions ejecting incandescent material onto the flank were visible at night. A new lava flow from the crater had begun to effuse on 16 October and continued to very slowly advance on the NE flank. Diffuse white plumes rose from the crater on 25 and 29 October; cloudy weather obscured views in between those dates. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that inflation began to be detected at Piton de la Fournaise on 11 October and a seismic crisis was recorded on 21 October. A second seismic crisis began at 0415 on 25 October accompanied by rapid deformation. Volcanic tremor began at 1440, signaling the arrival of magma to the surface; the eruption area was not visible in webcam views. Field observers first saw two active fissures at the S part of l’Enclos Fouqué at an elevation of 1,400 m. Several lava flows were identified, with the front of the longest flow reaching an area 2 km upstream from National Road RN2 by 1700. Tremor intensity began to decline around three hours after the start of the eruption and continued to decline through the morning of 26 October. That same morning there was one active vent producing 10-20-m-high lava fountains. Downstream of piton Tremblet the flow forked and by 1700 on 26 October the leading toe was about 250 m from RN2. On 27 October tremor intensity fluctuated concurrently with the variable intensity of cone formation. The cone had grown to 10 m high and lava was ejected 20 m above the cone rim. Only one lava flow was active and was 200 m long; the flow near RN2 had not progressed. The eruption ceased at 1630.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 48 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 21-27 October. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. There were 15 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The report noted that the lava dome in the summit crater had been slowing extruding since February and filling in the N part of the crater, though the rate of the extrusion had increased in recent months. On 26 October Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) conducted a drone overflight and captured video of the lava dome. The estimated volume of the lava dome was 4.6 million cubic meters based on the footage. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-28 October multiple discrete ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated rapidly to the NW, WNW, and W. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 26 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 18-25 October. Resuspended ash drifted 110 km SE during 19-20 October. Explosions recorded on 21 October generated ash plume that rose to 10-11 km (32,800-36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,300 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that sulfur dioxide emissions and the level of volcanic tremor both increased at White Island over the past several months, and were at the highest levels since 2016. The report noted that the changes could be related to a variety of processes, including an increased level of unrest, though the level of hazards on the island remained unchanged; the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (the second lowest level on a 0-5 scale) and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green. The crater lake level continued to rise and impact surface activity around vents, creating small-scale geysering, on the W side of the crater floor.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 23 October – 29 October 2019

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : A small amount of ash began to be visible in gas-and-steam emissions at Klyuchevskoy beginning at 1020 on 24 October, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation colour Code to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale). Later that day video images showed an ash plume rising as high as 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 40 km NE. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange. KVERT and the Tokyo VAAC noted that during 25-28 October ash plumes rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.sl. and drifted 15-20 km SE, E, and NW. A weak thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified on 18 and 24 October.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : A large shallow earthquake at Kuchinoerabujima was recorded at 2133 on 27 October, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5) within a few hours. The report also stated that the number of volcanic earthquakes had increased on 18 October. A large earthquake was also detected on 18 October but had occurred at a slightly deeper location (below the W part of Shindake Crater) than the 27 October event.

Pavlof | United States : AVO reported that after a small explosion at Pavlof was recorded on 19 October and before 25 October clear satellite and webcam views did not show any deposits associated with the event. Weakly elevated surface temperatures and a small steam plume were occasionally visible. No other activity was detected during 26-29 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : Pilot and local observations as well as webcam views all indicated that the incandescence at Shishaldin’s summit crater was from low-level Strombolian activity during 21-22 October. Seismicity and infrasound signals were consistent with low-level eruptive activity, and a steam plume was persistent. By 23 October lava had filled the crater and during 23-24 October overflowed the N crater rim. A 200-m-long lava flow on the N flank melted snow and caused a lahar which traveled 2.9 km and stopped at about 1,230 m elevation. A smaller lava flows caused a 1-km-long lahar to descend the NE flank. Spatter accumulated around the crater rim and melted snow. On 25 October AVO noted that trace ash deposits had extended at least 8.5 km SE. Low-level eruptive activity continued during 26-29 October. Seismicity remained elevated, with periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded during 27-28 October. A satellite image from 28 October showed a 850-m-long SWIR anomaly on the NW flank from a lava flow. A central spatter cone was visible. Spatter deposits on the snow at the upper flanks was evident, and tephra deposits extended about 2.5 km N. The lahar on the NW flank branched extensively at lower elevations and was at least 5 km long. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 16 October – 22 October 2019

Masaya | Nicaragua : According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW.

Metis Shoal | Tonga Islands : The Wellington VAAC reported that on 22 October pilots observed intermittent white plumes rising from Metis Shoal (Lateiki) to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. There was no ash signature in the plumes.

Pavlof | United States : On 19 October small explosion signals at Pavlof were detected by the infrasound network located at Sand Point and on the local seismic network, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Clouds obscured satellite views of the volcano around the time of the event; slightly elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images during 19-20 October.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 9 October – 15 October 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 7-15 October. There were 13 explosions detected by the seismic network and nine non-explosive eruptive events. Eruption plumes rose 2.3-2.7 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,100 tons/day, on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambrym | Vanuatu : Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that data and observations during February-October indicated that conditions at Ambrym had become stable after the eruption in December 2018 that focused on the summit caldera and East Rift Zone. On 10 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) indicating minor unrest. VMGD warned the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius from Marum Crater, and additionally to stay away from the ground cracks resulting from the December 2019 eruption (a 500-m-radius around the major cracks at Paamal village).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim, causing ashfall in areas downwind including periodically at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,000 tons per day on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-15 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash from Ebeko was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, during 4-5 October. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions during 7-8 and 10 October that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0707 on 15 October an ash plume from Ibu rose at least 400 m above the summit and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-15 October lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1010 and 1226 on 12 October, 1026 on 13 October, and 1228 on 14 October the webcam at Anak Krakatau recorded dense gray-black ash plumes rising about 200 m above the bottom of the crater and drifting N. The 14 October event was recorded by the seismic network for three minutes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 8-15 October seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising sometimes higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling down the flanks on 10 and 14 October.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 36 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 7-13 October. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km above the summit and drifted SE and SW. There were 15 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 September ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-11 October. Explosions seen in video and satellite images on 6 and 9 October produced ash plumes that rose 6.5-11 km (21,300-36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,100 km E. Resuspended ash drifted 170 km E on 4 and 8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).