Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 20 January 2019

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070.

Fuego (Guatemala): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude or flight level 180 .

Turrialba (Costa Rica): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 12500 ft (3800 m) altitude or flight level 125.

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: EMISSIONS OF STEAM AND PSBL VA

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: WEAK EMISSION OF VA

Nevados de Chillán (Central Chile): (19 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: NO VA EMISSIONS

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 18 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 13000 ft (4000 m) altitude or flight level 130 and is moving at 20 kts in E direction.

Kuchinoerabu-jima (Ryukyu Islands): (17 Jan) Following renewed unrest and a minor eruption beginning last August, earlier today a more significant explosion occurred, sending ash to 20,000ft (6km) and generating a moderate pyroclastic flow which travelled 1.5km (~1 mile) down the southwest flank, though fortunately did not affect adjacent communities. No injuries have been reported and this event was smaller than the powerful explosion in 2015. JMA has kept the alert level at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Kadovar (Northeast of New Guinea): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude or flight level 100 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.

Cleveland (Aleutian Islands, Alaska): (17 Jan) A new lava dome has been observed to be growing in the summit crater following a small explosion on January 9- continuing a pattern of behaviour typical of Cleveland since it began a period of regular activity in 2005. AVO raised Cleveland to ORANGE/WATCH.

Reventador (Ecuador): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT IMAGERY

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 15 Jan 2019

Karymsky (Kamchatka): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190114/2255Z FL150 EXTD E MOV 10KT REPORTED

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 .

Bezymianny (Central Kamchatka Depression): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190115/0606Z FL120 EXTD SE MOV 5KT REPORTED

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 and is moving at 15 kts in SW direction.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: POSS VA 15/0927

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT PUFF EMISSION

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 13 Jan 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200. Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 and is moving at 20 kts in W direction.

Kadovar (Northeast of New Guinea): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT DISCRETE EMISSIONS TO FL080 EST VA DTG:13/0100Z

Ibu (Halmahera, Indonesia): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 .

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL070 EST VA DTG:13/0730Z

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 27000 ft (8200 m) altitude or flight level 270 and is moving at 15 kts in W direction.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – January 10 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 20 kts in W direction. Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 25 kts in W direction.

Ebeko (Paramushir Island): (9 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: ERUPTION AT 20190109/2136Z FL070 EXTD NE REPORTED OBS VA DTG:09/2140Z

Krakatau (Sunda Strait, Indonesia): The northern coast of Rakata Island, facing Anak Krakatau, was hit by massive waves (up to approx 30 m high) during the catastrophic landslide and tsunami on the evening of 22 Dec. The entire beach and the slightly higher, up to 50 m wide forested platform behind it, separating it from the cliff, have been washed away and/or collapsed in landslides following the receding wave.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTIUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL070 EST VA DTG:10/0130Z

Agung (Bali): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude or flight level 180 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA EMS SEEN IN STLT.

Fuego (Guatemala): (10 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DISP.

Reventador (Ecuador): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT.

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 .

Volcanos

Tsunami set off by volcano sweeps Indonesia coast

A tsunami killed at least 168 people and injured hundreds on the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra following an underwater landslide caused by the eruption of Anak Krakatau, officials said on Sunday.

Anak Krakatau is the island that emerged from an area once occupied by Krakatau, which was completely destroyed in the 1883 disaster which killed more than 36,000 people in a series of tsunamis following an eruption of Krakatau. It first appeared in 1927 and has been growing ever since.

Coastal residents reported not seeing or feeling any warning signs, like receding water or an earthquake, before waves of up to two meters washed ashore, according to media.

Hundreds of homes and other buildings, including hotels were “heavily damaged” in the tsunami which struck along the rim of the Sunda Strait 21h27 on Saturday.

Authorities warned residents and tourists in coastal areas around the Sunda Strait to stay away from beaches and a high-tide warning remained in place through till Dec. 25.

With height of 30-90 cm, the event has produced 168 fatalities, 745 injured, 30 missing, 558 houses damaged, 9 hotel units damaged, 60 damaged food stalls, 350 boats damaged.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 12 December – 18 December 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that there were seven events and an additional five explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 10-17 December, with ash plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 700 m. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14 and 16-17 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly SW, S, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 7-14 December that sent ash plumes to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 1445 on 14 December and 1823 on 18 December, producing ash plumes that rose 200 and 300 m above the summit and drifted NE and E, respectively. The event on 14 December lasted 48 seconds and the ash plume was dense and black. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1637 on 18 December an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and then disappeared into a weather cloud. The event ejected material that fell in the crater area, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1 km W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-13 December the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,200 cubic meters per day. By 13 December the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 359,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : In a special notice posted on 13 December INSIVUMEH reported that rumbling at Pacaya was heard within a radius of 8 km, and weak Strombolian explosions at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. Active lava flows were 200-300 m in length and traveled down the NW flank, generating avalanches of blocks that were as large as 1 m in diameter. The report also noted that the cone in the crater continued to grow, filling the crater, and was 75 m above the crater rim. During 15-16 December lava continued to flow NW and Strombolian explosions ejected material 5-25 m high.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 18 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 10-16 December. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km W and SW. MIROVA detected five thermal anomalies, and on 13 December the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,100 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that the eruption at Sangay that began on 8 August ended on 7 December after about four months of activity. The eruption was characterized by the extrusion of lava flows, and ash emissions that rose between 0.5-1.4 km (and occasionally higher than 2 km) and mainly drifted W and NW. Minor amounts of ash fell in Guayaquil on 18 September. Lava flows traveled 1-2 km down the ESE flank, and both block avalanches and possible small pyroclastic flows from the flow fronts traveled additionally as far as 7 km.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 7-8 and 11-13 December. A small explosion, recorded at 1222 on 12 December, generated an ash plume that rose 6.5-6.8 km (21,300-22,300 ft) a.s.l. That same day a gas-and-steam plume, containing a small amount of ash and drifting 150 km NE, was visible in satellite data. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported semi-continuous activity at Turrialba during 11-16 December. Ash emissions rose as high as 500 m above the vent rim and drifted NW and SW during 11-12 December. Ashfall was reported in Guadalupe (32 km WSW) on 13 December. Pulsing ash emissions were visible on 13 December and caused ashfall in areas of Valle Central. During 14-16 December emissions had diffuse amounts of ash and drifted W and SW.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that seismic data indicated that the eruption of lava from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera possibly paused on 6 December. Satellite data acquired on 10 December suggested lava effusion had stopped, though weak explosive activity from the vent possibly still occurred. No eruptive activity was evident in satellite and webcam images on the morning of 13 December. However, beginning in the afternoon intermittent tremor appeared and gradually became continuous. A plume, possibly containing ash, and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite and webcam images. A strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite and webcam data during 14-15 December, and together with an eruption plume, was consistent with lava fountaining at the summit vent. By 16 December a lava flow was erupting from the vent. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 12 December – 18 December 2018

Ambrym | Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that a fissure eruption in the ESE part of the Ambrym summit caldera near the Lewlembwi crater (4 km SE of Marum) began at 0600 on 15 December, heralded by elevated seismicity detected by the seismic network and ash emissions visible in the webcam. A notice issued later that day by VMGD stated that lava flows and lava fountains were visible, and explosions were occurring. John Tasso, a local guide, visited the caldera a few hours after the new activity started and observed lava fountains from a fissure eruption; his video was posted to his website. The lava fountains were about 40 m high; lava flows spread to the E part of the caldera. Although partially obscured by a steam plume directly above the eruption site, infrared imagery from the Sentinel-2 satellite on 15 December showed lava filling much of the 500 x 900 m Lewlembwi crater and a lava flow almost as large a few hundred meters SW of that crater. VMGD raised the Alert Level to 3 and stated that the eruption was characterized as “small scale.” The eruption continued during 16-17 December, though reports on 17 December only described ongoing ash-and-gas emissions.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : A small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. A second small explosion with a higher peak amplitude was detected at 1153 on 12 December, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. No ash cloud was observed, though weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE.

Planchon-Peteroa | Central Chile-Argentina border : Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchón-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curicó (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW).

Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that seismic activity at Soputan rapidly and significantly increased at 1700 on 15 December. An eruption began at 0102 on 16 December though dark and foggy conditions prevented views of emissions. The event lasted for almost 10 minutes, and thunderous sounds were heard at the Soputan Volcano Observation Post located in Silian Raya (about 10 km SW). The conditions improved about two hours later, and a dense ash plume was visible rising 3 km above the summit and drifting SE. Incandescence from the summit was also visible. An event that began at 0540 produced dense gray-to-black ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km above the summit and drifted SE. The event lasted for 6 minutes and 10 seconds based on the seismic network. Ash plumes from events at 0743 and 0857 rose as high as 7.5 km and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 5 December – 11 December 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at least two events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 3-10 December, producing plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 6 December a pilot observed ash from Copahue at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not visible in satellite data and could not be confirmed by unavailable webcams. An ash emission observed by a pilot and identified in satellite images on 7 December rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-11 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W, SW, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 30 November-7 December that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E, causing ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk on 30 November, and 1 and 4 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 3-9 December activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at the cone in NSEC became more frequent on 4 December. In addition, lava effusion became continuous with small overlapping flows traveling about 500 m down the E flank of the cone. Incandescent blocks generated by the lava flows rolled to the base of the cone, and occasional small collapses produced minor ash plumes. Strombolian activity and occasional ash emissions were characteristic of vents in the W part of Bocca Nuova’s (BN-1) crater floor. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater continued from a vent on the E rim of the crater, and Strombolian explosions were evident at NEC.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 11 December an ash plume from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l., according to the Darwin VAAC. Weather clouds prevented views of the plume in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava at Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone was last visible on 4 September, signaling the end of the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruptive phase. Consequently, the end of the LERZ eruption also marks the end of the over-arching, on-going eruption at Kilauea that began at the East Rift Zone (ERZ) in 1983. That determination was made by HVO in part by using the Global Volcanism Program guideline that an eruption should be considered over on the date of the last eruptive activity, and when there has not been renewed activity in the following three months. HVO noted that geophysical data continued to show magma being supplied to Kilauea, including the refilling of the middle ERZ, and reminded the public that Kilauea remains an active volcano. As of 4 December the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 0711 on 7 December, at 1050 on 9 December, and 1413 on 10 December. The event on 9 December generated a dense black ash plume that rose 700 m above the summit and drifted N.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 30 November-6 December the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,200 cubic meters per day. By 6 December the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 344,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 150 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0313 on 7 December an explosion at Nevados de Chillán was recorded by the seismic network, and produced a high-temperature emission of gas and tephra recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 17 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 3-9 December. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km E and SW. MIROVA detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 6 December the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,600 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 30 November, 1 December, and 3-4 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing activity at Turrialba during 5-11 December. A minor emission from the vent was visible on 5 December, and an ash emission drifted S the next day. An event at 0749 on 8 December produced an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted NW. Emissions of ash, steam, and gas rose as high as 1 km on 9 December and caused ashfall in areas of Valle Central. On 10 December diffuse emissions were periodically observed during periods of clear viewing. That same day ash fell in Moravia (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and residents of Heredia (38 km W) noted a sulfur odor.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that on 2 December satellite data revealed that a third lobe of lava from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera had traveled a short distance down the SE flank of the cone. All three lobes produced sometimes voluminous steam plumes due to their interaction with the ice and snow. The eruption of lava continued during 4-5 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam plumes with possible diffuse ash were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. On 6 December seismicity changed from nearly continuous, low-level volcanic tremor to intermittent, small, low-frequency events and short bursts of tremor, possibly indicating that lava effusion had slowed or stopped. Variable seismicity continued through 12 December, though there was no visual confirmation of lava effusion. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 5 December – 11 December 2018

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 December ash plumes from Manam were identified in satellite images rising to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. RVO noted that at 1215 on 8 December seismicity increased and indicated an eruption had begun, according to a news article. The eruption was characterized by forceful ash emissions, explosions that ejected lava fragments above the crater, and rumbling and roaring noises. Around 1300, based on pilot observations, information from RVO, and satellite images, large ash plumes rose as high as 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted E. Island reports noted that ejections of material ceased around 1900; audible noises ended around 1930. Satellite data indicated that ash from the high-altitude plume had begun to dissipate by 2020, and that on-going ash emissions rose to 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. Island residents described heavy ashfall and that the sun was blocked by airborne ash, based on second-hand social media posts. News reports indicated that residents in Bokure and Kolang (NE and ENE flanks, respectively) had evacuated. Seismicity had declined by the end of the day. Dark ash plumes continued to be visible the next day, rising as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E, though were less frequent.

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-11 December white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly WSW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. A four-minute long event recorded by the seismic network began at 1224 on 9 December, and produced a grayish-brown ash plume that drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 28 November – 4 December 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that nine events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 26 November-3 December, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim. Incandescence was periodically visible at night. An explosion at 0218 on 1 December generated a plume that rose 2.5 km and ejected tephra 1.1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : On 1 December the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Bagana were visible in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The report also noted the presence of a strong thermal anomaly, and that ash plumes which previously rose to 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. had dissipated. Steam plumes drifted SE on 2 December.

Chiles-Cerro Negro | Colombia-Ecuador : Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a seismic swarm below Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes began at 0100 on 3 December. The events were classified as volcano-tectonic, with epicenters located up to 6 km from the summit of Chiles volcano, at depths of less than 8 km (4.7 km a.s.l.). The maximum local magnitude was 2.3. From the beginning of the swarm until the time of the report posting (1640) there were about 5,400 recorded events, making the swarm the largest since 2015. The report also noted that seismicity had gradually been increasing in recent weeks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (level 2 of 4).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 2 December a narrow ash plume from Copahue was visible in satellite images drifting ESE.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 23-30 November that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data on 24 November, and ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 27 and 29 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 November ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. On 2 December ash plumes rose to 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW and W.

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that vigorous fumarolic activity on the S side of Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama), on the NW flank of the Karakuni-dake stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 30 November-3 December. Fumarolic plumes rose 100 m above the vent, and hot mud was ejected from the vent. A hot pool of water persisted on the S side of the area. Fumarolic plumes rose 50 m above a vent 500 m W of Iwo-yama. The Alert Level remained at 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 1131 on 1 December, at 1408 on 2 December, and at 0816 on 3 December, each lasting between 46 and 69 seconds. Ash plumes from the events rose 500-700 m and drifted NE and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 28 November-3 December intermittent events at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater generated plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 23-29 November the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,500 cubic meters per day. By 29 November the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 329,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 28 November-3 December there were 16-79 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Periods of volcanic tremor were detected almost daily. Explosions at 0509 and 0922 on 2 December ejected incandescent material onto the upper flanks, and generated ash plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. More explosions at 1543 and 1745 produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a one-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 1054 on 3 December. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 21 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 26 November-2 December. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km N, E, and SE. MIROVA detected eight thermal anomalies, and on 28 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 4,600 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 23 November; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano during 24-30 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that four explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater were recorded during 22-30 November. The highest ash plume rose 2 km, and material was ejected 300 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in an area 4 km SSW on 23 November. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported intermittent pulses of ash and some periods of continuous ash emissions from Turrialba during 28 November-3 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N, NW, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Santo Domingo (36 km WSW) on 2 December.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 28 November – 4 December 2018

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 27 November-4 December white steam plumes rose from Mayon daily, and crater incandescence was visible almost nightly. At 0533 on 27 November a phreatic event generated a grayish-white ash plume that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. A one-minute-long event that began at 0941 on 30 November produced another grayish-white ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption of lava from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera continued during 27 November-3 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M 7 tectonic earthquake near Anchorage on 30 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 21 November – 27 November 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that four events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 19-22 November, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. Material was ejected 500-700 m from the crater. Occasional, very small events occurred during 22-26 November. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 20-21 November, for the first time since 20 September, and continued through 26 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-23 November that sent ash plumes to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE and S. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ibu was identified in satellite images rising to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 0611 on 24 November, at 0810 on 25 November, and at 0900 and 1037 on 26 November, each lasting between 30 and 42 seconds. Ash plumes from the events rose 300-600 m and drifted NE and SW; the ash plumes from the 1037 event were dense and black. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 22-26 November intermittent events at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater generated plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 16-22 November the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,600 cubic meters per day, slower than the previous week. By 21 November the volume of the dome, based on photos taken from the SE, was an estimated 308,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 125 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-27 November Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as three lava flows were active on the NW flanks, advancing towards Cerro Chino. Minor avalanches of material descended the SE flank during 26-27 November.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0237 on 27 November a hydrothermal explosion at Rincón de la Vieja produced a plume of water vapor and gas that rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted SW.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 20 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 19-25 November. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km NW and N. MIROVA detected six thermal anomalies, and on 22 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that since 8 August activity at Sangay was characterized by the extrusion of lava flows on the ESE flank and ash emissions that rose between 500 and 1,500 m and mainly drifted W and NW. Lava flows were 1-2 km long, though block avalanches from the flow fronts traveled additionally as far as 5 km. The seismic network recorded more than 50 signals per day indicating explosions. The activity continued at least through 21 November; the report noted that this phase has lasted longer than any other since 2015.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-27 November explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700-900 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in Monte Claro. Avalanches of material descended the SE and NE flanks of the lava dome.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that no evidence of activity at Semisopochnoi had been detected since an explosion was recorded in infrasound data on 31 October. The satellite link for transmitting seismic data failed on 1 November, though no activity was observed in satellite or infrasound data since then. As a result, the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory (both are the second lowest levels on four-level scales) on 21 November.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 19-20 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0710 on 22 November an event at Turrialba generated an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater rim and drifted W. The next day there were frequent pulses of ash. During 23-25 November occasional Strombolian explosions ejected lava bombs that were deposited near the crater; residents of Cascajal de Coronado reported hearing several booming sounds. Ash plumes rose as high as 500 m. During 26-27 November passive emissions with small quantities of ash were visible. Minor ashfall was reported in San Jose (Cascajal de Coronado and Dulce Nombre), San Pedro Montes de Oca, and neighborhoods of Heredia.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 21 November – 27 November 2018

Fuego | Guatemala : colourOn 23 November INSIVUMEH reported that during the previous few days moderate explosions at Fuego generated shock waves that vibrated structures within 20 km. Ash plumes from the explosions rose 1.3 km above the cone in the summit crater and drifted 20 km W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, causing avalanches, some that traveled long distances in the Las Lajas (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Seca (W) drainages and reached vegetated areas. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1314 on 25 November an eruption at Karangetang produced an ash plume that rose at least 500 m above the crater rim; weather clouds prevented clear views of the plume. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange, though the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 21-26 November white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon rose as high as 750 m and drifted WSW and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 24-27 November. Two phreatic explosions were recorded during 0759 and 0805 on 26 November. The events generated grayish ash plumes that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 16 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater were recorded during 16-22 November. The highest ash plume rose 2 km, and material was ejected 300 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in an area 4 km SSW on 17 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Veniaminof | United States : Ash emissions from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera significantly increased overnight during 20-21 November, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest levels on four-level scales). Ash emissions rose to below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 240 km SE. On 21 November observers and webcam views in Perryville (35 km SE) indicated continuous ash emissions through most of the day; ash plumes drifted SE, extending as far as 400 km by around 1445. A short eruptive pulse was recorded during 1526-1726, and then afterwards ash plumes rose to below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Low-altitude ash emissions on 22 November drifted 100 km S. Minor ashfall was reported in Perryville. AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code and Volcano Alert Level to Orange and Watch, respectively, because of decreased ash emissions. Elevated thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data overnight, and incandescence was visible from a Perryville webcam, suggesting continuing lava effusion which had been obscured by the increased period of ash emissions. Lava effusion was persistent through 27 November.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 14 November – 20 November 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that an explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was recorded at 0043 on 14 November, producing a large ash cloud that rose over 4 km above the crater rim. Incandescent material was ejected more than 1 km from the crater. The report noted that this was the first occurrence of an ash plume rising above 4 km since 16 July 2018. Two events occurred during 16-19 November with the larger plume rising 1.6 km into the clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambrym | Vanuatu : On 15 November the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that the lava lakes in Ambrym’s Benbow and Marum craters continued to be active during October and November, and produced substantial and sustained gas-and-steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 and 19-20 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 9-15 November that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data during 12-13 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that discrete, low-level events at Kadovar regularly occurred on 14 November based on satellite data. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that seven events at Anak Krakatau were recorded between 0840 on 14 November and 0601 on 15 November. Each event lasted for 33-175 seconds, based on the seismic data, and produced ash plumes that rose 0.3-1 km above the crater rim and drifted N, ENE, and E. A 212-second-long event at 0524 on 16 November generated a dense black ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted NE. An event at 0532 lasted 207 seconds and generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that intermittent events at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater had been recorded since 21 October, and crater incandescence began to be periodically visible on 6 November. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim during 12-19 November and, according to the Tokyo VAAC, drifted in multiple directions. During fieldwork on 14 and 15 November observers noted no changes to the thermal areas in the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 9-15 November the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew at a rate of 2,400 cubic meters per day, slower than the previous week. By 14 November the volume of the dome, based on photos from the SE sector, was an estimated 290,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 20 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 12-18 November. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km NW, SW, and S. MIROVA detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 13 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that explosions at Sheveluch on 9 November generated ash plumes that drifted as far as 460 km E. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 9-11 and 15 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that periodic, passive ash emissions at Turrialba continued to be visible in webcam images or during cloudy conditions inferred from the seismic data during 13-19 November.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 14-20 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Relatively continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images; plumes rose as high as 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 November. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 15 November the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that ongoing explosions at Yasur were sometimes strong during October and November, based on visual observations and seismic data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.