Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 March – 26 March 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0018 on 21 March an event at Agung was recorded for 1 minute and 47 seconds by the seismic network. Weather conditions prevented visual observations of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 18-22 March there were two events and one explosion recorded at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). Plumes rose at least as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim. Small events occasionally occurred during 22-25 March; crater incandescence was visible at night on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15, 16-19, and 21 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 15-16 and 21 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : On 22 March INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego had increased during the previous few days. There were 15-20 explosions per hour producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted 20-30 km E, SE, S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in communities downwind including La Rochela, Ceylán, San Andrés Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá, and Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa (23 km SW). Shock waves vibrated residential structures within 20 km. The explosions also caused avalanches of material from the crater that traveled down the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. In the evening on 21 March and early morning hours of 22 March lava fountains rose 350 m above the summit. During 23-26 March explosions occurred at a rate of 15-25 per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted 15-20 km W, S, and SE. Explosions sometimes vibrated nearby residences. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that a minor ash plume from Ibu rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted about 17 km NE, and dissipated. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day, and to 2.4 km on 23 March; both plumes drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 17 March. The volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days during 15-22 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that during the previous several months monitoring data at Kilauea showed relatively low rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) (including the area of the 2018 eruption). As a result, HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation colour Code to Green.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that a total of six explosions at Anak Krakatau were recorded on 18 March, with dense white plumes rising as high as 500 m from the summit. During 18-24 March no other plumes were noted although weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Events were recorded at 0301 and 0305 on 24 March, though ash plumes were not visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-22 March ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE based on satellite data and ground-based observations.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 17-24 March. By 21 March the lava dome had grown to an estimated size of 472,000 cubic meters based on analyses of drone footage. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage during 18-19 and 23 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small event at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 1851 on 19 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 15-22 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E during 15-17 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 22 15-22 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 20 March – 26 March 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that after a powerful explosive eruption at Bezymianny recorded on 15 March activity was characterized by growth of the W part of the lava dome, strong fumarolic activity, and dome incandescence. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 21 March.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 19-26 March ash plumes of variable densities and colors ranging from white to black rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The ash plumes drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : On 20 March POVI reported that lava fountains at Villarrica were visible rising almost 50 m above the crater rim. They noted that, despite low seismicity, Strombolian explosions on 24 March ejected material more than 25 m above the crater rim.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 13 March – 19 March 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1827 on 15 March an explosive event at Agung was recorded for one minute and 23 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NNW. Minor ashfall was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. At 0803 on 17 March an event was recorded for 39 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted E. A second event began at 1030 and lasted about one minute and 16 seconds; a dense gray ash plume rose about 600 m and drifted E. At 0736 on 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. Thermal satellite images continue to indicate hot areas in the crater on the previously-erupted lava surface especially near the flow margins. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 11-18 March. There were nine events and four explosions detected during 11-15 March ejecting material as far as 1.3 km. One of the events, recorded at 2323 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.1 km. During 16-18 March there were eight events and two explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images, wind model data, and PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-18 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and SSE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-10 March that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed the ash plume drifting about 30 km ENE. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 9-10 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 11-17 March. The volume of the lava dome had not changed since the last measurement of 470,000 cubic meters estimated on 5 March. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage on 12, 15, and 17 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 18 March an event at Poás produced a plume with minor ash content that rose 200 m above the crater rim.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-19 March there were 43-175 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. A short period of Strombolian activity commenced at 0500 on 13 March and lasted for 15 minutes, ejecting incandescent fragments onto the E and SE flanks. An explosion at 0510 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected incandescent material 1.7 km away and onto the ESE flank. An ash plume from an explosion at 0730 rose 3.5 km and drifted NE. An explosion at 1430 on 14 March generated a dense ash plume that rose 5 km and drifted NNE. During an overflight of the crater on 15 March observers noted that lava dome #82 was gone, and that the inner crater was 300 m wide and 130 m deep. Explosions at 0255 and 0930 on 16 March produced ash plumes that rose 2-2.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions were detected at 2206, 2321, and 2325. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from an event at 2138 on 18 March rose 4 km and drifted E. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5 km onto the flanks and set fire to some grasslands. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 13-19 March periodic seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 500-700 m down the flanks on a few of the days. Inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 8-15 March. Explosions on 9 March generated ash plumes that rose to 11 km (36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 375 km NNW, causing KVERT to temporarily raise the Aviation colour Code to Red. Forceful gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose to 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 10-11 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 8-15 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 13 March – 19 March 2019

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) : Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 12-15 March, and intense gas-end-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. Hot avalanches originating from the top of the lava dome were visible in webcam images at night. Late on 15 March KVERT reported that activity continued to intensify noting that the number of hot avalanches increased and ash plumes from the avalanches drifted about 100 km SE. The temperature of the thermal anomaly also increased. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-colour scale). Seismic data suggested that a powerful explosive eruption began at 0511 on 16 March. At 0530 webcam images recorded explosions generating ash plumes that rose as high as 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km E. Thirty minutes later satellite images indicated continuing ash emissions rising to 15 km a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Ust-Kamchatsk Village (120 km ENE) during 0650-0730. An ash plume, 79 x 65 km in dimension, was also identified drifting ENE. Strong explosions continued to produce ash plumes on 16 March, although they were lower-altitude (5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l.) and had a higher concentration of ash. The plumes drifted E. By 0930 ash plumes were rising to altitudes of 4-4.5 (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted 100 km E. A large ash plume, 120 x 130 km in dimension, continued to drift E at an altitude of 15 km. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). By 1307 on 16 March satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 650 km E. The report noted that ashfall was likely occurring in Nikolskoye (370 km ESE) on Bering Island.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 8-12 March explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 100 km E. A thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 12 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kirishimayama | Kyushu (Japan) : The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded.

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Three phreatic events, recorded at 1510, 1518, and 1534 on 12 March, generated light-brown-to-grayish ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1 January-17 March plumes rising from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone were generally white to gray in colour, had variable densities, and rose no higher than 700 m above the crater rim. Tremor signals increased on 10 March and were accompanied by changes in the colour and height of the emissions. On 16 March a dense gray ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E, causing ashfall in areas both inside and outside the caldera. Two seismic signals indicating explosions were recorded around 1547 on 17 March. Periods of continuous ash emissions were observed during 17-18 March, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifting NE, N, NW, and W. At 1020 on 19 March a black ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that on 17 March sporadic Strombolian explosions at Villarrica ejected incandescent material about 25 m above the summit crater rim.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 6 March – 12 March 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0452 on 4 March an event at Agung was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW) around 0615. No ash plume was visible although foggy conditions prevented views of the summit. An event that began at 0047 on 9 March lasted for 3 minutes and 50 seconds, and produced an ash plume that drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 4-11 March. Occasional small events and three explosions were detected during 8-11 March. Plumes rose as high as 1.9 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images, wind model data, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-9 and 11-12 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, SW, S, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 4-10 March a low rate of lava effusion continued at Karangetang’s Kawah Dua (North Crater) as evident by avalanches in the Malabuhe River drainage on the NW flank. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the rims of the summit craters during 4-12 March. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1850 on 7 March a brown ash emission rose 150 m above the rim of Kerinci summit vent and drifted NE. Ash also drifted down the SE and E flanks. Another brown ash emission was observed at 1209 on 8 March rising 700 m and drifting W. Brown ash emissions at 1607 on 10 March and 0919 on 11 March rose 300 m and 500 m, respectively, and drifted NE. Seismicity was dominated by volcanic tremor during 7-11 March.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 March ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E based on satellite data and ground-based observations. A significant thermal anomaly was also visible in satellite images, and seismicity was elevated.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-12 March white-and-gray emissions of variable density rose as high as 1 km above Merapi’s summit. The volume of the lava dome was 470,000 cubic meters on 5 March, as estimated from drone photographs, and relatively unchanged from the previous weeks. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled 500-1,900 m down the Gendol drainage on 2, 3, and 7. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was recorded at 0845 on 8 March and was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected and deposited material in areas around the crater, mainly to the N, and produced a plume that rose 2.7 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that, although weather conditions often prevented visual observations of Poás during 7-8 and 10 March, gas plumes sometimes containing ash were observed rising as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. A sulfur odor and ashfall were reported in Naranjo and Grecia (16 km SW).

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that an average of 15 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 4-10 March. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and drifted 20 km SW, W, and NW. MIROVA detected four thermal anomalies, and on 3 March the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,360 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 1-8 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 50 km E on 1 March. On 9 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 10-11.2 km (32,800-36,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km NW and N, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation colour Code to Red (the highest level on a four-colour scale). Early on 10 March the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange. Ash plumes continued to rise from the crater, to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l., and drift 375 km N. Later that day gas-and-steam plumes with some ash rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15 km NE. On 11 March an ash plume rose as high as 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km SE.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 1-8 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 9-12 March plumes of gas sometimes containing small amounts of ash rose as high as 1 km above Turrialba’s crater rim

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 6 March – 12 March 2019

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) : Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW, and to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 1-12 March. Strong gas-end-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. Hot avalanches originating from the top of the lava dome were visible at night. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images during 1 and 4-5 March rising as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 90 km E. A thermal anomaly was also visible on those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 6-11 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW, and crater incandescence was visible each night. As many as six volcanic earthquakes and two rockfalls per day were recorded by the seismic network. Phreatic events recorded at 0811 on 7 March and 0627 on 8 March generated grayish ash plumes that rose 500 and 300 m above the crater, respectively, and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : During an overflight between 0700 and 0800 on 6 March tourists observed a new active fissure on the NW flank of Piton de la Fournaise’s Piton Madoré, 150 m upstream of the main vent. The fissure likely opened the day before during 0900 and 1900. The tourist report noted that a small cone had formed, and a lava flow was traveling N. In the morning of 7 March at least six new vents were visible, although weather conditions prevented OVPF volcanologists from confirming if they were along a new fissure. During fieldwork on 8 March volcanologists inspected the 5 March fissure and observed a small cone ejecting material up to 10 m above the rim. Lava from the W side flowed a few tens of meters, and a flow from the N side progressed E. The new vents that opened on 7 March were confirmed to be along an E-W trending fissure. The vents were active, each producing 50-m-high lava fountains. The report also noted that samples from the 5 March and 7 March vents had different compositions, though no other details were noted. Lava flows traveled to around 1,000 m elevation. Satellite images showed sulfur dioxide plumes drifting 450-550 km E on 8 March. Lava flows rapidly progressed during 8-9 March; the lava emission rate was variable, ranging up to 25 cubic meters per second (based on satellite data), although since the new fissures opened the highest values (over 50 cubic meters per second) measured the past few days were approximately 10 times higher than the average values recorded during the 2017-2018 eruptions. By 0800 on 9 March the flow front was at an estimated elevation of 650-700 m. After a phase of intense surficial activity during 9-10 March, with lava fountains rising as high as 100 m, lava-flow emissions ceased around 0628 on 10 March and seismicity significantly decreased.

San Cristobal | Nicaragua : INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristóbal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 10 March an eruption at Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone generated a white, brown, and gray ash plume that, according to a ground observer, rose 600 m and drifted SW. An event at 0600 on 11 March produced a dense gray-to-brown ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 27 February – 5 March 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 25 February-4 March. There were four events and seven explosive events. Plumes rose as high as 2.3 km, and material as ejected as far as 1.1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, ground observations, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 February-5 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 28 February two plumes rising from the crater were visible; a northern plume was identified in satellite images and a southern plume rising to less than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. was reported by a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 February an ash plume from Ibu was identified in satellite images drifting N at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 25 February-5 March a low rate of lava effusion continued at Karangetang’s Kawah Dua (North Crater). White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit crater rims. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 February a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 and 5 March ash plumes from Manam were identified in satellite images rising to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE, ESE, and E.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 22 February-5 March the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater had not changed since the last measurement of 466,000 cubic meters estimated on 21 February. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled 600-1,100 m down the Gendol drainage on 25 and 27 February, and on 2 March as many as 10 traveled as far as 2 km. Incandescent avalanches were visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was recorded at 2323 on 1 March and was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected high-temperature incandescent material deposited in areas around the crater, and likely destroyed part of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-5 March as many as four explosions per hour at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated white plumes with ash that rose 500-700 m above the domes and drifted SE and SW. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of the lava dome. An explosion at 2155 on 4 March was heard in areas as far away as 10 km W, SW, S, and SE. The event ejected incandescent material 100 m high, produced ashfall around the volcano, and generated avalanches that traveled down the E and SE dome flanks reaching the base.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 22 February-1 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions contained variable amounts of ash on 21, 25, and 27 February, and rose 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SW and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 22 February-1 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 1050 on 28 February generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Some additional ash pulses were recorded that day. An event at 0444 on 1 March produced a plume that rose 200 m and drifted NE. A period of continuous emissions rising 200-300 m was recorded during 2-4 March; the plumes contained minor amounts of ash at least during 2-3 March.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 27 February – 5 March 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 28 February-1 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions continued to be visible. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images during 22 and 24-26 February rising as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 216 km E. A thermal anomaly was visible during 24-25 and 27-28 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the fissure that opened 19 February at a site located at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré, E of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater, continued during 27 February-5 March. RSAM measurements showed fluctuating intensities though an overall upwards trend. Based on satellite images, the main flow front progressed slowly during 22-28 February, advancing only 300 m to 1,200 m elevation. A new lava flow emerged from an area near the cone and traveled NE; the more southern branches did not advance during 28 February-1 March. Scientists conducted fieldwork on 5 March and noted that the cone had grown to 100 m wide at the base, 25 m tall, and had a vent opening 50 m wide. High-temperature gas emissions rose from the vent, and Strombolian activity ejected material. White steam rose from the base of the cone, likely from the presence of lava tubes. The northernmost lava flow remained active.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 February – 26 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1631 on 22 February an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 18-25 February. At 0059 on 22 February an event generated a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ejected material 600-900 m from the crater. During 22-25 February there were two events, one of which was explosive. Plumes rose as high as 1.2 km, and material as ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-24 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, SE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-22 February that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : On 25 February AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past month and there was no evidence of explosive activity. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 February ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and ENE. A thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau began at 1525 on 23 February and lasted four minutes and 31 seconds. An ash plume rose to about 610 m above sea level and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-21 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was unchanged from the previous few weeks. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. White emissions rose as high as 375 m above the crater rim. On 18 February multiple block-and-ash flows traveled at most 1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 20 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 18-24 February. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Although weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations, gas-and-ash plumes were seen rising as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km SW. MIROVA detected two thermal anomalies. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 15-22 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued to grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with variable ash content rising 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 15-22 February. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba on 21 February generated a plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. Frequent ash pulses were recorded that day. Ash emissions were frequent during 22-24 February, though of variable intensity and duration. Plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted NW and SW. On 22 February ashfall was reported in Santa Cruz (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and a sulfur odor was evident in Moravia (31 km WSW). Cloudy weather conditions prevented visual observations of the vent during 25-26 February.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 20 February – 26 February 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 27 February KVERT reported increased activity at Bezymianny characterized by nighttime crater incandescence, hot avalanches originating from the lava dome, and occasionally strong fumarolic activity. The report noted that the temperature of the thermal anomaly was gradually increasing. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 20-26 February dense white plumes rose as high as 500 m above the rims of Karangetang’s Main Crater and Kawah Dua (North Crater). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images drifting 200 km E during 16-20 February, and a thermal anomaly was visible during 16 and 18-20 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that activity continued during 20-26 February from the fissure that opened on 19 February; the site is at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré, E of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater. On 21 February scientists mapped the slowly eastward-advancing flows (and also those that had erupted on 18 February). They noted that the cone at the vent was growing, and hosted a lava lake that ejected spatter from bursting gas bubbles. A channelized lava flow traveled 1 km E and descended 200 m elevation before splitting into two flows near Guyanin Crater. The more northern of the two flows was 50 m wide and had progressed as far as 1,320 m elevation. The second more southerly flow was 200 m wide and itself split into two flows about 300 m SE of Guyanin Crater; one branch went to about 1,350 m elevation and the other to 1,300 m. Overall the longest part of the lava flow had traveled 1.9 km from the vent. During 22-26 February the lava emission rate was variable up to 16 cubic meters per second (based on satellite data), though webcam images from 24 February indicated that the flow had not significantly advanced.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 23-26 February seismicity at Poás was dominated by low-frequency events. Robust gas emissions rose from four fumarolic vents in the area previously covered by a lake, though the most vigorous emissions originated from vent A (Boca Roja). Minor incandescence from vent A was sometimes visible at night. A sulfur odor was reported in areas downwind including Naranjo, Zarcero, and Grecia (16 km SW). Particles of molten sulfur were included in ash deposits collected in Naranjo. Ashfall was reported in Canoas de Alajuela on 26 February.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 February an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 13 February – 19 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an explosive event at Agung was recorded at 0434 on 14 February, causing ashfall in Bugbug village, 20 km SE. Crater incandescence was recorded at night by webcams in Karangasem City (16 km SE). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that 12-18 February incandescence was visible from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), and two events and two explosions were recorded. One of the explosions occurred at 0624 on 14 February, producing a plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejecting material 500-700 m from the crater. An explosion on 17 February generated a plume that rose 2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1-1.3 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-15 February that sent ash plumes to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 11 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : On 19 February INGV summarized Etna’s fissure eruption that occurred high on the SE flank during 24-27 December 2018, noting that 3-4 million cubic meters of lava erupted and covered an area of 1 square kilometer. After the event seismicity gradually decreased. The last significant event was a ML 4.1 recorded on 8 January 2019; afterwards seismicity was characterized as frequent events with modest magnitudes. Since the beginning of January ash emissions intermittently rose mainly from Northeast Crater (NEC) and more sporadically from Bocca Nuova. News sources noted that the Catania Airport (Aeroporto di Catania – Sicilia) was closed during 26-27 January. Preliminary assessments of some of the ash deposits showed they contained no juvenile material. During 11-17 February ash emissions of variable intensity rose from NEC and were notable on 14 and 18 February. Volcanic tremor amplitude did not significantly vary compared to the previous week, having average values overall. The Catania Airport announced the partial closure of airspace and flight delays during 17-18 February due to ash emissions.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 February ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1309 on 13 February an observer noted a brownish-white ash plume rising 400 m above Kerinci’s crater rim and drifting NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that a brief explosive event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 0026 on 14 February, though weather conditions prevented clear views of the event. During 15-17 February diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the summit. At 1402 on 18 February another short-lived event produced an ash plume that rose about 500 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 February an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 8-17 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was about the same as the previous week, and there were no apparent morphological changes. Most of the extruded lava did not add to the dome volume but instead fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage and the SE flank. Incandescent avalanches traveling down the SE flank were visible at night. At 0858 on 11 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 400 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 February growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was very slow (10.8 cubic meters per hour). White water vapor emissions, occasionally grayish from included tephra, rose as high as 1.7 km and drifted SE and NE. Crater incandescence was recorded by a webcam each day. At 0109 on 15 February an explosive event partially destroyed the lava dome and ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-19 February there were 20-140 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. Seismicity began to increase at 2100 on 14 February coincident with the onset of Strombolian activity. Incandescent material was ejected 1.5 km onto the flanks, and gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the carter rim and drifted SW. The phase lasted for about seven hours. Explosions were recorded at 1528, 1602, 1824, and 1935 on 14 February and at 0409 on 15 February. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Zacualpan (31 km SW), Jonacatepec (43 km SW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), and in Tochimilco (16 km SSE).

During 0044-0606 on 16 February Strombolian activity ejected incandescent material that fell back into the crater. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted SE. A period of harmonic tremor began at 1600, accompanied by emissions of water vapor and gas that rose 1.5 km. By 1830 ejected incandescent fragments were visible and fell onto flanks 400 m from the crater. Plumes rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Seismicity decreased by 2100 and material was no longer being ejected above the crater rim, though crater incandescence remained visible. There were at least 14 explosions detected on 17 February; the more significant events were recorded at 0438, 0457, 0719, 0821, and 0956, generating plumes that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Tlaxco (85 km NE) and Xalostoc, Nativitas (40 km NE), Hueyotlipan (57 km NNE), Amaxac de Guerrero (60 km NE), Tepetitla de Lardizábal (37 km NE), Texoloc, and Tlaxcala (51 km NE). An explosion at 0704 on 18 February produced a plume that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. An explosion was detected at 0613 on 19 February. On 20 February CENAPRED noted growth of lava dome #82. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 8-15 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued to grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with variable ash content rising to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 13-15 February a period of almost continuous gas emissions with minor ash content rose 200-300 m above the rim of Turrialba’s active vent. The plumes drifted NW, W, and SW. An event at 1330 on 15 February produced a plume that rose 1 km and drifted W. During the morning of 18 February a plume with low ash content rose from the vent. An event at 1310 generated a plume that rose 500 m and drifted W.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 13 February – 19 February 2019

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 13-19 February sometimes-dense white plumes rose as high as 400 m above the rim of Karangetang’s Main Crater. White emissions that were occasionally bluish rose mostly 50-150 m above Kawah Dua’s (North Crater) crater rim, though on 18 February the plumes were grayish and rose 200-300 m. Roaring sounds from the volcano were occasionally noted at an observation post. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that at 1427 on 16 February a satellite image captured an ash plume from Karymsky drifting 55 km SE at altitudes of 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). According to the Tokyo VAAC a possible ash plume on 17 February rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A weak ash plume drifting 117 km ESE was visible in satellite images on 18 February.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis began at Piton de la Fournaise at 1521 on 16 February accompanied by rapid deformation. The number of earthquakes sharply decreased at 1618 and deformation stopped at 1630. A second seismic crisis began at 0916 on 18 February, again accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor commenced at 0948, coincident with at least eruptive fissures opening on the E flank of Dolomieu crater. Weather conditions prevented good views of the eruption site. Lava fountains rose less than 30 m above the vents, and after about an hour the longest lava flow reached 1,900 m elevation. Lava effusion ceased at 2200 on 18 February. A seismic crisis began at 1500 on 19 February, and tremor began to be recorded at 1700. Gas emissions were recorded by webcams for about an hour. During an overflight on 20 February the OVPF team observed a new eruption site located at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré. One fissure opened and at 0620 only one lava fountain was active. The front of a lava flow reached 1,300 m elevation.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that since 8 February almost continuous emissions of gas has been recorded at Poás, with plumes rising as high as 1 km and drifting mainly SW. During 13-14 February the emissions contained ash; gas-and-ash plumes drifted SW, impacting areas downwind including Naranjo, Zarcero, and Grecia (16 km SW). Gas-and-ash emissions rose from the crater on 15 February, and gas emissions were recorded on 18 February.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 18 February an eruption at Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone generated a dense white-and-brown ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted WSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 6 February – 12 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a 97-second-long explosive event at Agung began at 0012 on 8 February. A plume was not visible, though webcams recorded crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 4-12 February. At 1919 on 7 February an event generated a plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.3-1.7 km from the crater. During 8-12 February there were four events, three of which were explosive. Plumes rose as high as 1.9 km, and boulders were ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : On 6 February OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Copahue to Green, the lowest level on a four-colour scale, noting the return of the crater lake and infrequent surficial activity. In addition, data from the geodetic monitoring network showed only slight deformation during the previous three months. ONEMI lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a three-colour scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 12 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-8 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 4 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater (NEC); inclement weather prevented observations during 4-5 February. From the beginning of the afternoon on 6 February discrete ash emissions rose from NEC. The ash emissions were continuous from about 2215 on 7 February to 1015 on 8 February, producing relatively diffuse ash plumes that drifted S and then SE. Ash fell in Nicolosi (14 km S) and Pedara (15 km SSE). A diffuse ash plume drifted SW on 9 February.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-12 February dense white-to-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E, S, and W. Foggy conditions occasionally prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : According to Brad Scott of GeoNet, the Royal New Zealand Air Force released photos of a plume rising from Kadovar at 1640 on 10 February.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-11 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was about the same as the previous week’s estimate of 461,000 cubic meters, and there were no apparent morphological changes. Most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage and the SE flank. On 7 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 February growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was very slow (0.003-0.004 cubic meters per second). White water vapor emissions, occasionally grayish from included tephra, rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was recorded by a webcam each day. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows traveled 10-250 m down the NW flank, advancing towards Cerro Chino, and on the E flank. Minor avalanches of material from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported possible events at Rincón de la Vieja at 1906 and 1950 on 5 February and at 0120 on 6 February. An event at 0000 on 6 February was also recorded; the report noted that poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 26 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 4-10 February. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Although weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations, gas-and-ash plumes were seen rising as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the NE, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 2-8 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E and W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 1-8 February. Were small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a period of sporadic ash emissions from Turrialba began at 0540 on 8 February and lasted more than one hour. The activity produced ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the vent rim. A very small ash emission was visible on 11 February.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 6 February – 12 February 2019

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : On 8 February PVMBG reported that lava from Karangetang’s Kawah Dua (North Crater) continued to advance over 3.5 km down the Malebuhe River drainage on the NW flank into the ocean. Levees had formed at the margins channeling the lava down the middle of the flow. Avalanches from the edges of the flow generated brown and gray plumes. A lava delta was building out into the ocean and generating a dense steam plume. Drone footage acquired on 9 February showed that the flow was about 160 m wide where it crossed a road (about 210 m from the coast) and about 140 m wide at the coast. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and not enter within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic and infrasound data indicated multiple events at Poás during 7-8 February. On 8 February events were centered at vent A (Boca Roja) and produced plumes that rose no higher than 200 m and drifted SW. A sulfur dioxide odor was reported in areas downwind including San Jose de Naranjo, Grecia (16 km SW), Poás, Sarchá, Naranjo, and Atenas (32 km SW). Incandescence in the crater began to be visible at 0151 on 11 February. Passive ash emissions rose 200 m and drifted SW.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 30 January-5 February 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 28 January-1 February. An explosion at 1400 on 1 February produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. During a field survey that same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000 tons/day, an increase from the previous measurement of 1,800 tons/day recorded on 22 January. An explosion at 0228 on 3 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and ejected tephra 800-1,100 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 January an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 3-5 February ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 January-1 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 27 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 1713-1915 on 29 January an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted E, and a pyroclastic flow. Ash fell in parts of Yakushima. During 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 27 January observers noted that the inner crater was 150 m deep and had an unchanged diameter of 300 m. There was no visible lava dome at the bottom of the crater. Each day during 28 January-5 February there were 81-207 steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : During 28 January-5 February IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 600-800 m down the flanks on most days.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 25 January-1 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 415 km E and W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor, sporadic ash emissions that rose to low heights above Turrialba’s active crater were recorded on most days during 28 January-4 February. An event at 0640 on 1 February produced a taller plume which rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. OVSICORI-UNA noted that activity had been slowly decreasing in 2019. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes had been recorded, and tremors were decreasing in both energy and duration. The number of low-frequency, volcanic earthquakes (LPs) remained stable, although they had decreasing amplitudes. No explosions had been recorded, and emissions were weak, had short durations, and very dilute ash contents.