Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 3 October – 9 October 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) occurred during 1-5 October; no explosions had been detected since 23 September. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400 tons per day on 1 October, and then increased to 3,400 tons per day on 4 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 28 September-5 October that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 27 and 28 September, and ash plumes drifting about 80 km SW, SE, and E during 27-30 September and 1 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October an ash plume from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported quiet conditions at Kadovar during 1-20 September with only diffuse white plumes rising from the volcano. Activity increased on 21 September and remained elevated at least through 26 September, the date the last visual observation was received by RVO. During the period if increased activity dense dark gray and brown ash plumes rose several hundred meters above the summit crater (700-800 m) and drifted NW. Intense incandescence from Main Crater, the SE coastal vent, and other areas was visible. Minor amounts of ash fell on Blup Blup island. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 900 m (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. An ash plume was visible in satellite images on 3 October drifting W at an altitude of 2.1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 28 September, and a narrow ash plume was visible drifting 135 km E on 30 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 1 September-3 October the Strombolian eruption at Anak Krakatau continued, though foggy conditions often prevented visual observations. Ash plumes mainly rose 200-500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW to SW. On 22 September ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km; ejected incandescent material mostly landed on the flanks (less than 1 km from the crater), and a small amount fell into the sea. Lava flows on the SSE flank also reached the sea. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that on 1 October field observations after an eruption at Manam confirmed lava flows in the NE valley. There were two lava flow lobes, both stopping before inhabited areas; the smaller lobe flowed on the N side of the valley towards Koland Village and the larger flowed on the S side towards Boakure Village. Effects from ash and scoria fallout on the NW and NW sides of the island were minor. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 October an ash plume rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also visible.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 28 September-4 October the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 4 October the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 135,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,000 cubic meters per day (similar to the previous week). White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Reventador | Ecuador : During 3-9 October IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W, NW, N, and NE. Crater incandescence was visible at night, and incandescent blocks sometimes rolled down the flanks.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 24 per day during 1-7 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km SE, S, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Huanca (75 km SSE). The MIROVA system detected five thermal anomalies, and on 1 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 5,027 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 27-28 and 30 September; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 29 September-5 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that intense crater incandescence was visible at Turrialba the night of 3 October. At 0800 on 8 October an event produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted N.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 3-9 October based on periodic incandescence recorded by the FAA web camera in Perryville (35 km S), elevated surface temperatures in thermal satellite data, and elevated tremor levels. Minor steam-and-ash plumes were sometimes visible during clear daytime conditions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

7.3 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

6.8 earthquake hits the Kuril Islands.

6.3 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

6.2 earthquake hits the Bali Sea.

5.9 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

5.6 earthquake hits the Banda Sea.

5.5 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

Two 5.2 earthquakes hit the Kuril Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits off the coast of Costa Rica.

5.1 earthquake hits the Kuril Islands.

5.1 earthquake hits south of Fiji.

5.0 earthquake hits the Kuril Islands.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Gl sst mm

In the Atlantic Ocean: Hurricane Leslie is located about 1005 mi…1615 km sw of the Azores with maximum sustained winds…80 mph…130 km/h. Present movement…ene or 65 degrees at 10 mph…17 km/h.

Tropical Storm Michael is located about 40 mi…65 km wnw of Columbia South Carolina with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…ne or 45 degrees at 21 mph…33 km/h.

Tropical Storm Nadine is located about 595 mi…960 km w of the southernmost Cabo Verde islands with maximum sustained winds…65 mph…100 km/h. Present movement…nw or 325 degrees at 8 mph…13 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm Sergio is located about 600 mi…970 km w of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…65 mph…100 km/h. Present movement…ne or 50 degrees at 17 mph…28 km/h.

In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone 05a (Luban), located approximately 275 nm east- southeast of Salalah, Oman, is tracking westward at 02 knots.

Tropical Cyclone Titli is located approximately 312 nm southwest of Calcutta, India, is tracking west-northwestward at 08 knots.

NewsBytes:

Nigeria – The death toll from floods across much of central and southern Nigeria has reached 199, the national disaster agency said on Wednesday, almost doubling the number of people killed from three weeks earlier. The almost annual floods, exacerbated by poor infrastructure and lack of planning to protect against inundation, are the worst since 2012, when at least 363 people died.

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Majorca – At least 10 people were killed and a child remains missing after heavy rain and flash floods hit the Spanish island of Majorca on Tuesday night, regional authorities said Wednesday. Seven roads in the area were cut off, regional authorities said. Some schools were closed Wednesday because of the floods. Five of the deaths occurred in the Sant Llorenç area, about 35 miles east of the Balearic island’s capital, Palma.

Global Warming

Climate change is plunging Senegal’s herders into poverty

A 46-year-old Fulani pastoralist/herder returned to his village in Senegal’s northern Podor County after 10 months away with just half the number of sheep, cattle, and donkeys he set out with.

Losing half the herd means Saidou lost half his wealth. A year ago, he was not badly off, able to comfortably support his family. Now, because of the toll climate change has taken, coupled with a government ill-equipped to deal with the fallout, he’s bordering on poverty.

Six million people in the Sahel faced severe food shortages in a prolonged lean season between January and August this year; Senegal was one of the three worst affected countries in the region. It may get worse yet, as the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 2.5 million livestock herders, or “pastoralists,” and those who raise both livestock and crops in the Sahel risk losing their income.

As soon as the rainy season ended last September, it became clear that erratic rainfall had led to diminished pasture across the Sahel. This forced northern herders like Saidou, who normally begin travelling south in January or February, to embark on their annual journey up to four months early, and in far greater numbers than usual.

Seasonal migration – which helps over-grazed regions recover by temporarily shifting the burden to areas with more pasture – is common way of life for the Fulani, one of the Sahel’s largest ethnic groups. But as the length of the migration period and the distance herders are forced to travel to find food and water for their livestock increases, their economic well-being and very way of life are at risk.

Life in pastoral communities revolves around their main source of financial capital: the herd. So when animals are placed under stress, the social fabric also suffers.

In the last five years, some areas in Senegal have reported decreases of between 50 and 100 percent in crops and grazing areas. This led to a spike in the demand for manufactured animal feed this year, which sent prices skyrocketing. A 40 kg sack of feed that cost around 7,000 CFA ($12) in October 2017 had risen to 13,000 CFA ($23) by March. Herders had to sell off animals to buy feed to sustain the rest of their herds, leaving a severe dent in their wealth.

In addition, livestock prices plummeted due to desperate herders bringing large numbers of animals to market. Cattle, sheep, and goats fetched half the price they had four months earlier; by March in Ranerou, a sack of feed cost more than a sheep.

Then on 27 June, Senegal’s first rains came, accompanied by an unseasonably cold wind. Tens of thousands of animals died in the space of a day as the long-awaited rains became a killer. Some herders lost everything.

The very real struggle for survival by millions of ordinary, hard-working people across the globe resultant upon climate change effects should be seen against the dismissive, arrogant and impossibly ignorant pronouncements by the US President Trump concerning the issue of climate change. It is incomprehensible for untold millions of people globally that the USA continues to allow its leader to destroy the future of our Earth and its people. Just yesterday President Trump sought to cast doubt on the latest UN Climate Change Report by seeking to cast aspersions upon the more than 91 scientists who compiled the report. It seems remarkable that a man who has been described as a buffoon should have the gall to seek to place his severely limited opinions above those of respected international scientists for no apparent purpose other than to facilitate the financial success of his political supporters.

Disease

Rubella – Japan

Japanese health officials reported an additional 134 rubella cases the last week of September, bringing the total cases this year to 952 according to data reported by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. This total is more than 10 times the total cases reported in 2017 (93). Tokyo alone has accounted for more than 300 cases.

Legionnaires Disease – New York, USA

One person has died of Legionnaires’ disease in a cluster of 16 cases in the Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights, New York City health officials confirmed on Wednesday.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 3 October – 9 October 2018

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) : According to a news article, the Geological Survey of India reported a new eruption at Barren Island. Satellite data on 25 September confirmed ash emissions, and either lava flows or ejected tephra on the N flank.

Cuicocha | Ecuador : IG reported an increase in seismic activity at Cuicocha during 2-3 October, characterized by a total of 60 volcano-tectonic events recorded at the time of the report posting. The largest of these events, a M 2.5 at 1058 on 2 October, was reportedly slightly felt by a resident of Quiroga.

Gamalama | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an explosion from Gamalama at 1152 on 4 October was likely phreatic; it generated an ash plume that rose about 250 m above the summit and drifted NW. Eight volcanic earthquakes were recorded about an hour before the event. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 October ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : On 5 October HVO reported that lava at Kilauea had not been active at the surface for 30 days. Seismicity was low, steady, relatively low rates of deformation across the volcano were recorded, and the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) produced only minor gas emissions. These data indicated that near-term resumption of activity at the summit or at the lower ERZ was unlikely; the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise continued during 2-9 October, though only weak and periodic surficial activity was observed. A lava lake in the cone continued to be active, and very minor amounts of lava were ejected above the cone’s rim. A few minor lava flows broke out from the main tube. The front of the N lava flow was 120 m from the S wall of the Enclos Fouqué.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that during 3-9 October seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, with intermittent bursts of tremor. No volcanic activity was detected in infrasound or satellite data. The Aviation colour Code (ACC) remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) remained at Advisory.

Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : Based on satellite images, information from PVMBG, and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 October ash plumes from Soputan rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, with an additional expansion to 6.5 km in WSW direction due to increased risk from a breach in the crater rim.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : According to the Darwin VACC, a steam-and-ash emission from Ulawun was identified in satellite images and reported by ground observers on 5 October, rising to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting WSW.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.4 earthquake hits eastern New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.

5.4 earthquake hits the southern mid-Atlantic Ridge.

5.3 earthquake hits eastern New Guinea, Papua New Guinea.

5.2 earthquake hits Myanmar.

5.1 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.1 earthquake hits the Indian Ocean triple junction.

5.0 earthquake hits Alaska.

5.0 earthquake hits Fiji.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Gl sst mm

In the Atlantic Ocean: Hurricane Leslie is located about 1105 mi…1780 km wsw of the Azores with maximum sustained winds…75 mph…120 km/h. Present movement…s or 175 degrees at 10 mph…17 km/h.

Hurricane Michael is located about 90 mi…145 km sw of Panama City Florida and about 90 mi…145 km wsw of Apalachicola Florida with maximum sustained winds…145 mph…230 km/h. Present movement…n or 10 degrees at 13 mph…20 km/h.

Tropical Storm Nadine is located about 485 mi…785 km wsw of the southernmost Cabo Verde islands with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…nnw or 330 degrees at 7 mph…11 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm Sergio is located about 990 mi…1590 km wsw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…70 mph…110 km/h. Present movement…ene or 65 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone 05a (Luban), located approximately 324 nm east- southeast of Salalah, Oman, is tracking northwestward at 05 knots.

Tropical Cyclone Titli is located approximately 140 nm east-southeast of Calcutta, India, is tracking north-northwestward at 08 knots.

NewsBytes:

Malaysia – Heavy rains and the high tide phenomenon were the reason for flash floods and pond-like conditions in several parts of Klang here on Tuesday (Oct 9). Besides the rain and high tide phenomenon, clogged drains and bottlenecks in waterways here were another factor for the flooding.

USA – Alabama has been hit by floods ahead of Hurricane Michael which has now passed over Cuba and the Mexican Peninsula.

Global Warming

Dutch appeals court upholds landmark climate change ruling

A court in The Hague has upheld a historic legal order on the Dutch government to accelerate carbon emissions cuts, a day after the world’s climate scientists warned that time was running out to avoid dangerous warming.

Appeal court judges ruled that the severity and scope of the climate crisis demanded greenhouse gas reductions of at least 25% by 2020 – measured against 1990 levels – higher than the 17% drop planned by Mark Rutte’s liberal administration.

The ruling – which was greeted with whoops and cheers in the courtroom – will put wind in the sails of a raft of similar cases being planned around the world, from Norway to New Zealand and from the UK to Uganda.

Disease

Ebola –  DR Congo

Congolese authorities announced a ban on Wednesday on harbouring suspected Ebola patients and promised police protection for health workers at burials, in a bid to fight back against local resistance to efforts to combat the disease.

Residents of eastern Congo have attacked health workers and refused to cooperate with government efforts to combat Ebola there, the country’s second major outbreak of the disease this year, which is believed to have killed 118 people since July.

Ebola has spread to Beni, a city of several hundred thousand people where scores of people have been confirmed infected. The authorities worry that without the cooperation of the local population they will have difficulty containing it.

The Health Ministry has been reporting 1-2 new confirmed cases a day in recent weeks, but reported seven late on Tuesday — six in Beni and one in the town of Masereka, 100 km away. It blamed the faster pace on community resistance to measures to fight the outbreak.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.0 earthquake hits the Kuril Islands.

5.6 earthquake hits the Pacific-Antarctic ridge.

5,1 earthquake hits Minahasa, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

5.1 earthquake hits southern Xinjiang, China.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Gl sst mm

In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Storm Leslie is located about 1035 mi…1665 km wsw of the Azores with maximum sustained winds…65 mph…100 km/h. Present movement…sse or 155 degrees at 13 mph…20 km/h.

Hurricane Michael is located about 395 mi…635 km s of Panama City Florida and about 365 mi…590 km s of Apalachicola Florida with maximum sustained winds…100 mph…155 km/h. Present movement…nnw or 345 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

Tropical Depression Fifteen is located about 475 mi…760 km sw of the southernmost Cabo Verde islands with maximum sustained winds…35 mph…55 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 285 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Hurricane Sergio is located about 1255 mi…2020 km wsw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…85 mph…140 km/h. Present movement…ne or 50 degrees at 6 mph…9 km/h.

In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone 05a (Luban), located approximately 416 nm east- southeast of Salalah, Oman, is tracking west-northwestward at 06 knots.

Tropical Cyclone Six is located approximately 255 nm southeast of Visakhapatnam, India, is tracking north-northwestward at 02 knots.

NewsBytes:

Nicaragua – A major mopping-up operation is under way in Nicaragua following widespread flooding which left thousands homeless. The government has set up shelters for Nicaraguans who lost their homes and are providing them with food and supplies.

Texas, USA – Rescue crews in boats and helicopters were searching Monday for at least four people missing since flooding from heavy rain washed away a recreational vehicle park in a small West Texas city. In all, at least a dozen RVs were washed away by the flooding. Nineteen other people have been rescued, some by boat and some from the air by helicopter crews. A flood warning is in effect for the Llano River from Llano downstream to Kingsland after torrential rainfall early yesterday morning created a major flood on the river in Junction. A couple dozen people were rescued, and others are reported missing.

Global Warming

Global warming changing the ecosystem at top of Mount Fuji

The effects of global warming are enabling seed plants, including an alien species, to take root and spread in the harsh conditions around the summit of Mount Fuji.

Warmer temperatures at the 3,776-meter-high peak have allowed plant roots to survive the coldest months of winter, a long-time observer said, adding that some of the seeds have been carried on the shoes and clothing of hikers.

Previously, only lichens and mosses had been found around the summit of Mount Fuji, and seeds accidentally brought to the peak did not survive and are believed to have died.

Disease

African Swine Fever – China

China’s northeastern province of Liaoning has reported new cases of African swine fever, the agriculture ministry said on Monday. The outbreak was confirmed on pig farms in several villages in Yingkou city, Liaoning province, killing 93 pigs and infecting 334, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said in a statement published on its website.

Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.5 earthquake hits the Kermedec Islands.

5.2 earthquake hits Haiti.

5.1 earthquake hits the Lombok region, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

5.0 earthquake hits Ascension Island.

Haiti

Following the earthquake of magnitude 5.9 that occurred 20km north of Port-de-Paix (North West) Saturday, 6 October at 8:10pm local time, and according to the last updated information from the DPC on September 7 October (10 A.M), the seism has caused the death of 12 people – 8 in Port-de-Paix (North-West department), 3 in Gros Morne (Artibonite department) and 1 in Saint Louis du Nord (North-West department) – and wounded 151 persons.