Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 15 May – 21 May 2019

Azumayama | Honshu (Japan) : The number of volcanic earthquakes at Azumayama increased on 5 May and data from a tiltmeter about 1 km SE of Ohana Crater showed inflation on 9 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Field observations on 7 and 10 May indicated no changes in the fumarolic and thermal areas around Ohana. Seismicity began to decrease on 10 May, though continued to fluctuate through 20 May. Deformation continued but at a slower rate.

Hakoneyama | Honshu (Japan) : JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased during 18-19 May, with epicenters centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data showed changes in deformation beginning in mid-March. On 19 May JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued to be recorded through 21 May.

Pavlof | United States : AVO reported that low-frequency tremor was detected at Pavlof during 14-15 May and a vigorous steam plume rising from the summit was visible in webcam images on 15 May. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory primarily because of increased seismicity. Steam plumes recorded by the webcam, low levels of seismic tremor, and warm surface temperatures identified in satellite data continued during 16-19 May; AVO noted that steam emissions and warm surface temperatures are common at Pavlof.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that a new eruption at Sangay began on 7 May and was continuing as of 21 May. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers; the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Explosive activity at Central Crater produced ash plumes that rose an average of 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Ejected blocks rolled as far as 2.5 km down the SE flank. The Ñuñurcu dome produced a lava flow that had a maximum width of 175 m and traveled about 470 m down the SE flank. Collapses of the lava-flow front generated small pyroclastic flows and numerous block flows; one of the pyroclastic flows traveled 340 m.

Sarychev Peak | Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was visible in satellite images on 10, 12, and 17 May. At 0830 on 16 May satellite images showed an ash plume drifting 50 km SE at an altitude as high as 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow on 16 May.

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 700 m above Sinabung’s crater rim during 13-21 May. On 20 May the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector. PVMBG noted that the seismic activity surrounding the recent ash emissions during 7 and 11-12 May were not indicative of renewed activity.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 May – 14 May 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruptive event at Agung was recorded by the seismic network at 2229 on 12 May, accompanied by a loud bang audible at the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW). Dense fog prevented height estimates of the ash plume. A photo posted along with the report showed that incandescent material was deposited on the flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 7-13 May. Explosions on 7 and 13 May generated plumes that rose 1.6 and 2.9 km above the crater rim, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 May an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE based on satellite data. PVMBG noted that at 1821 on 9 May an ash plume rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted S. Seismic activity was characterized by explosions, tremor, and signals indicating rock avalanches. According to the VAAC an ash plume drifted ESE at an altitude of 1.8 (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 May. A 14 May VONA stated that at 1846 an ash plume rose 800 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 6-8 May. A gas-and-steam plume containing ash was also visible drifting 105 km SE and SW during 6-7 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1804 on 10 May a brown ash emission from Kerinci rose 700 m and drifted ESE. Seismic activity was characterized by continuous volcanic tremor and gas emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) with a 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 6 and 8-9 May. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network detected eruptive events at 1254 and 1446 on 10 May, 0555 on 11 May, 1003 and 1220 on 12 May, and 0021 on 14 May. An observer estimated that an ash plume rose 150 m above the summit and drifted NE at 1446 on 10 May, but noted that visibility was difficult. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 May an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on satellite data and weather models. A sulfur dioxide plume and a thermal anomaly were also identified. The next day diffuse plumes drifted NE and E at an altitude of 2.4 (8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was recorded at 2003 on 12 May associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion partially destroyed the lava dome, ejecting incandescent material onto the N flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption at Rincón de la Vieja recorded at 0720 on 11 May produced a white gas-and-steam plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 3-10 May. Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash was visible drifting 50 km SE and SW. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 3-10 May. A very small eruption on 5 May generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 May – 7 May 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an event at Agung was recorded by the seismic network at 1859 on 3 May. An ash plume was not visible from the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW), although the Darwin VAAC report a growing thermal anomaly and possible ash near the summit. About 30 minutes later the VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; a thermal anomaly continued to be visible. On 6 May at 2255 a gray ash plume rose to around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 29 April-7 May. Five explosions generated plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. The Tokyo VAAC noted that plumes drifted E, SE, and SW during 1-2, 4, and 6 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-7 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26 April-3 May that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 22-28 April ash emissions rose from Etna’s Bocca Nuova Crater, Northeast Crater (NEC), and from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Pulsating incandescence from NSEC’s E vent was recorded at night by webcams. A new vent on the inner wall of Voragine Crater was noted on 30 April. Strombolian activity from the BN-1 crater deep within the Bocca Nuova Crater was visible on 28 April and continued through 5 May; field inspections on 30 April revealed that two vents in BN-1 were active and producing explosions at a rate of one every 2-3 seconds. Bombs and lapilli were ejected above the crater rim but deposits remained mostly within the confines of the crater or near the rim. Strombolian activity was visible at NSEC during 29 April-5 May. On 2 May, beginning at 0131, discontinuous explosions at the E vent produced emissions of fine tephra that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and quickly dissipated. During 5-6 May the frequency of explosions increased for brief periods in conjunction with a slight increases in volcanic tremor amplitude.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 May an ash plume from Ibu was visible in satellite data rising to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 27 and 30 April and 1 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : In a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) PVMBG noted that local residents reported ashfall from Kerinci in areas 7 km S and NE. According to a news article at least five villages were affected late on 2 May, including Tanjung Bungo, Sangir, Sangir Tengah, Sungai Rumpun, and Bendung Air. A brown ash emission was observed at 1836 on 3 May rising 800 m above the crater rim and drifting ESE. Seismicity was dominated by continuous volcanic tremor and signals indicating gas emissions. The next day at 1708 a brown ash emission rose 300 m and drifted SE. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash emission was observed by a pilot at 0610 on 5 May drifting NE at an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an event at 0519 on 6 May was recorded by Anak Krakatau’s seismic network, although no emission was visually observed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 22-28 April the lava dome at Merapi continued to grow slowly, with any extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. White emissions rose 70 m. Five block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1.2 km in the Gendol drainage on 24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nyamuragira | DR Congo : The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Beginning on 12 April seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. MIROVA data showed that the thermal radiative power was at moderate levels the first half of the month then declined to low levels during the second half.

Nyiragongo | DR Congo : The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-28 April Nyiragongo’s lava lake continued to be active, extending the episode of ongoing activity to almost 17 years. A secondary cone which had formed on 29 February 2016 was also active, as well as three other vents surrounding it. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a high of at least 5,000 tonnes per day, greater than March highs of 2,900 tonnes per day, but still below the alert threshold.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Poás during 30 April-1 May with plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. Ash emissions were visible for a few hours on 30 April, and incandescence was visible at night.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 26 April-3 May. Plumes of re-suspended ash were visible drifting 200 km SE during 30 April-2 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 1 May – 7 May 2019

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater continued to be very high at 3,200 tons per day on 2 May. At night during 2-3 May webcams recorded weak incandescence from the crater. At 1540 on 3 May a very small eruption produced an off-white plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Later that day, at 1948, an ash plume rose 2 km and, according to the Tokyo VAAC, drifted S. Emissions from eruptive events continued until 0620 on 5 May, rising to 500 m. Afterwards white plumes rose as high as 1.1 km, at least through 7 May. Crater incandescence continued to be visible. During a field survey on 4 May ashfall was confirmed in areas downwind including parts of Takamori (7 km SSE), Minamiaso village (8 km SW), and Yamato (24 km SSW). Sulfur dioxide emissions were 4,000 tons per day on 4 May, and 3,100 tons per day on 6 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 26 April-3 May. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung at 0641 on 7 May generated a dense ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, causing the sky to turn dark in some areas. The eruption lasted 42 minutes and 49 seconds according to the seismic data. Ashfall was reported on farms in many villages in the Simpang Empat (7 km SE), Namanteran, Kabanjahe, and Berastadi districts. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 24 April – 30 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0534 on 30 April a dense gray ash plume from Agung rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-27 and 29-30 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 21-22 and 24 April that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 18-21 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that there were 19 events during 22-28 April recorded by Anak Krakatau’s seismic network; no emissions from the events were visually observed, even though the visibility was a mix of clear and foggy conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.54°S, 110.446°E | Elevation 2910 m

PVMBG reported that during 22-28 April the lava dome at Merapi continued to grow slowly, with any extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. White emissions rose 70 m. Five block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1.2 km in the Gendol drainage on 24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater continued a cycle of slow growth and partial destruction from explosions during 23-30 April. The pulsating, generally white, emissions were sometimes gray and rose no higher than 900 m above the crater rim and drifted NW, S, and SE. Nighttime webcam data showed incandescent ejecta around the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 24 April a very diffuse ash emission rose from Poás. Incandescence from vent A (Boca Roja) was sometimes visible during 24 and 27-28 April.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 23-30 April periodic seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 500-800 m down the flanks. Inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations.

Ruapehu | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that the period of high water temperatures at Ruapehu’s summit Crater Lake along with elevated tremor levels was over. Tremor levels began to decline on 16 April and by 29 April was described as weak. The lake water reached a peak temperature of 44 degrees Celsius on 19 April and then began cooling; the temperature was 39 degrees Celsius by 29 April. The report noted that the probability of an eruption during a heating cycle had decreased with the decreasing activity. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 18-26 April. Ash plumes were visible drifting 300 km NE during 22-23 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a diffuse ash emission rose from Turrialba on 24 April, and an emission with low ash content drifted N on 26 April. At 0722 on 27 April a small, short-duration eruption generated an ash plume that rose less than 100 m above the crater rim.

Veniaminof | United States : On 30 April AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code for Veniaminof to Green and the Volcano Alert Level to Normal, noting that signs of unrest had continued to decline over the previous four months since the eruption ended in early January. Low-level tremor, slightly elevated surface temperatures, and minor steam emissions continued and considered typical activity for a post-eruptive period.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 24 April – 30 April 2019

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 24-29 April white plumes from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater rose 200-800 m above the crater rim. Many low-amplitude tremors and volcanic earthquakes were recorded. Sulfur dioxide emissions were generally high but on 25 April the gas emissions were very high at 4,000 tons/day, a value not exceeded since 12 March. Emissions were 3,300 tons/day on 25 April. Weak incandescence from Nakadake Crater was visible at night during 27-28 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 21-22 April a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images along with gas-and-steam plumes containing ash drifting 160 km E. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-26 April white plumes of variable density rose 300-500 m above Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. White-to-black emissions rose 500 m above the cone on 27 April, and white-to-gray emissions rose 600 m above the cone on 29 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 17 April – 23 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported two explosive eruptions at Agung on 21 April. The first was recorded at 0321 and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (12 km NW), Klungkung (~40 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (51 km WSW), and the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport (60 km SW) in Denpasar. The second event was recorded at 1856 and generated a dense ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted S. Minor ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). The eruptions were accompanied by a boom heard at both the Rendang and Batulompeh observation posts. Ejected incandescent material from the two events fell on the flanks in all directions within a radius of 4 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was somewhat high on 16 April at 1,600 tons/day. An explosion on 17 April generated a plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 900 m. During 19-22 April plumes from two events rose as high as 1.4 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ambrym | Vanuatu : On 24 April the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported ongoing seismic activity at Ambrym and steam emissions. The lava lakes in Benbow and Marum craters had ceased to be active on 16 December 2018, one day after a fissure eruption began in the ESE part of the summit caldera near the Lewlembwi crater, and continued to be inactive. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius from Marum Crater. An additional Danger Zone was defined as a 1-km radius around the December 2018 fissures.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-23 April ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12-15 April that sent ash plumes up to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 13 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego’s Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluyá (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume from Ibu was identified in satellite images drifting E at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 13-14 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that there were four eruptive events during 15-22 April and multiple events on 23 April recorded by Anak Krakatau’s seismic network, though no emissions were visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-21 April the lava dome at Merapi continued to grow slowly, with any extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. White emissions rose 70 m. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1.5 km in the Gendol drainage on 21 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 April an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 12-18 April. Ash plumes were visible on 13 and 15 April drifting 83 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 15-21 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace, though activity intensified on 19 April. Explosions originated at a rate of 3-16 per hour mainly from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and at least four vents (including C, S1, and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs mixed with ash no more than 150 m high. Low-intensity explosions at the N2 vent ejected tephra to heights under 80 m. Vent C produced gas emissions. Incandescent material from S1 jetted as high as 150 m above the crater. Explosions from two vents at S2 ejected tephra more than 150 m high.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 17 April – 23 April 2019

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, based on webcam images and satellite data. On 21 April BNPB stated that ash emissions had been observed almost daily, and that tremor was recorded continuously. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that at 0921 and 1155 on 22 April ash plumes from Klyuchevskoy rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130-140 km E, based on satellite and webcam data. KVERT noted that the ash content in the plumes had significantly increased compared to emissions first observed on 9 April. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 17-19 April white plumes from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater rose 1 km above the crater rim. A very small eruption was recorded at 0824 on 19 April, producing a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted S. During an overflight that same day scientists observed a pool of hot water on part of the crater floor and a weak volcanic gas odor. According to the Tokyo VAAC a plume rose 500 m and drifted E at 1842. A weak volcanic gas odor was also evident. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 10 April – 16 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1847 on 11 April an explosion at Agung produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 12-15 April. Two events and one explosion generated plumes that rose a maximum of 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 700 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 and 15-16 April ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 9 April that sent ash plumes up to 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds obscured views on the other days during 5-12 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 8-14 April gas emissions of variable intensity rose from Etna’s summit craters. During each night webcams recorded pulsating flashes from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC) which became more intense towards the end of the week. A minor ash emission from Bocca Nuova Crater was visible at 0520 on 8 April.

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 10-11 April steaming lahars descended Fuego’s Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages, carrying blocks up to 3 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. On 11 April lahars were 3 m deep and 20 m wide. During 11-15 April there were 12-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost 1.1 km and drifted10-15 km N, NE, E, and W. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), La Réunion, Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), and Panimache (8 km SW). Shock waves sometimes vibrated residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 400-500 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 April ash plumes from Ibu were identified in satellite images drifting N at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. During 15-16 April ash plumes drifted N and NE at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 April an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April an ash emission from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1559 on 13 April and 0629 on 14 April brownish ash plumes rose 400 m above Kerinci’s crater rim and drifted E and NE, respectively, as noted by a ground-based observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Anak Krakatau was recorded by the seismic network at 0932 on14 April. An ash plume drifted NE. An event was recorded at 2358 on 15 April, though no ash plume was visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-11 April the lava dome at Merapi continued to grow slowly, with extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption at Rincón de la Vieja recorded at 0617 on 10 April produced a gas-and-steam plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. At 0643 on 12 April a plume rose 500 m. Another event was detected at 0700 on 13 April, although poor weather conditions prevented visual observations. On 14 April OVSICORI-UNA noted that aerial photographs taken during an overflight showed a milky-gray acid lake at a relatively low water level with convection cells of several tens meters of diameter in the center and Eastern parts of the lake.

Ruapehu | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that, at least for the last 10 years of continuous lake-temperature monitoring, heating cycles at Ruapehu’s summit Crater Lake have occurred over periods of about 12 months with temperatures ranging from 15 to 45 degrees Celsius. However, the temperature remained elevated at 30 degrees for a period of six months starting in September 2018. GeoNet noted that during the previous two weeks the lake temperature increased further, at a rate of around a half of a degree per day, to 42 degrees on 9 April. Tremor levels also increased. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 6-12 April. Explosions on 10 April generated ash plumes that rose to 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 1,300 km SSE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 10 April – 16 April 2019

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported an increase in the amplitude of volcanic tremor at Asosan on 14 April, increasing the possibility of an eruption at Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Tremor amplitude further increased on 15 April. A very small eruption was recorded at 1828 on 16 April, producing a plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted NW.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 and 15-16 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions, based on webcam images and satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that during 14-15 April lava fountains at Villarrica were visible rising as high as 70 m above the crater rim. Seismicity was low.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 3 April – 9 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1331 on 4 April an explosion at Agung ejected incandescent material out of the crater and onto the flanks within a 2-3 km radius, mainly on the S flank. A dense gray ash plume rose 2 km above the crater rim and, based on satellite data, drifted W and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Telungbuana, Badeg, Besakih (7 km SW), Pempatan (8 km W), Teges, and Puregai. Roaring was heard at the observation post in Rendang (12 km NW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 1-8 April. Two explosions on 7 April generated plumes that rose a maximum of 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.7 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : On 5 April OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue increased during 1-31 March, characterized by abundant volcano-tectonic earthquakes and increases in long-period and very-long-period earthquakes. In addition, the level of the lake water in El Agrio crater had dropped compared to previous months. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-colour scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 April ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 29-31 March, 1 April, and 4 April that sent ash plumes up to 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 31 March, the same day a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 March multiple ash plumes from Ibu were identified in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 April an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 April a minor ash emission from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that an ash plume from Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 31 March drifting about 17 km S. Weather clouds obscured views during 1-6 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1637 on 3 April a brownish ash plume rose 4.3 km above Kerinci’s crater rim and drifted NE, as noted by a ground-based observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 1-7 April there were six explosions at Anak Krakatau detected by the seismic network. Foggy weather conditions prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that by 21 March the lava dome at Merapi had grown to an estimated volume of 472,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. It remained relatively unchanged during 1-7 April, as most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. Two block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN noted that on 5 April the pulsating, generally white, emissions from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater were sometimes gray. Explosions was recorded at 0403 on 8 April and 0457 on 9 April, and were associated with long-period earthquake signals. A video posted on social media from the 9 April event showed incandescent material showering the flanks of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that continuous emissions at Rincón de la Vieja were visible during 3-4 April rising 200 m above the crater rim. A small eruption was recorded at 1437.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 29 March-6 April. Explosions on 5 April generated ash plumes that rose to 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 550 km NW during 5-6 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor ash emissions rose from Turrialba on 8 April.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 3 April – 9 April 2019

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that at 1030 on 9 April a small ash plume from Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images rising to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 20 km SW. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0718 on 6 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose 900 m above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E, based on webcam images, satellite data, and ground-based observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported an increase in the frequency of Strombolian explosions at Villarrica, with incandescent material ejected to 50 m above the crater rim during 7-8 April.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 27 March – 2 April 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : At 1825 on 28 March an ash plume from Agung rose above the crater to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW according to PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data. Ashfall was reported in nearby villages. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 25 March-1 April five events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 March-2 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22, 24-25, and 27-28 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 24-25 and 27 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 March there were 14-20 explosion per hour recorded at Fuego, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifting 15-25 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves vibrated nearby structures. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down the the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. A special bulletin issued on 29 March stated that activity has increased with ash plumes from explosions rising as high as 1.3 km and drifting 30 km in multiple directions. Avalanches of material traveled down the Las Lajas, Honda and Seca drainages. A special bulletin was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 March multiple ash plumes from Ibu were identified in satellite images drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were visible in satellite images during 26-27 March drifting 190 km E at altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1051, 1456, and 1511 on 30 March brownish or grayish ash plumes from Kerinci rose 500-600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1325 on 30 March an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose 1 km a.s.l. and drifted NE. Three events were detected on 31 March (at 0035, 1219, and 1745), although no ash plumes were visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and N based on satellite data and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that by 21 March Merapi’s lava dome had grown to an estimated volume of 472,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage, and remained relatively unchanged during 22-28 March; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. As many as eight block-and-ash flows traveled up to 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. A lava flow traveled down the N flank, producing minor avalanches of material from the lava-flow front.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a two-minute-long phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 0802 on 1 April and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The report noted that a previous event had occurred at 2043 on 29 March. Intermittent tremor was recorded in between the two events.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that an average of 43 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 25-31 March. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, SE, S, and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly, and on 31 March the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 3,000 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported renewed activity at Sangay on 26 March based on satellite data and a Washington VAAC notice of ash. According to the VAAC a small ash plume rose less than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. Seismicity had decreased to an average of three events per day after the last eruption ended on 7 December 2018, and then to 1 event per day during the past month. There was no seismic record of the 26 March event due to technical difficulties.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the E, SE, and S flanks of the lava dome.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 22-28 March. An ash plume rose to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 80 km S on 25 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 27 March – 2 April 2019

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 26 March-2 April there were 27-200 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. An explosion at 1923 on 26 March produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent fragments 2 km onto the flanks setting fire to pastures on the N and NE flanks. Ashfall was reported in municipalities of Puebla including Santa Cruz, Atlixco (23 km SE), San Pedro, San Andrés Cholula (35 km E), Santa Isabel (45 km ESE), and San Pedro Benito Juárez (10-12 km SE), and in municipalities of Morelos including Hueyapan (17 km SSW) and Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW). An explosion at 0650 on 28 March generated an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SE, and ejected fragments 1 km onto the flanks. Continuous gas-and-ash emissions were visible between 0538 and 0748. CENAPRED raised the Alert Level to Yellow, Phase Three (middle level on a three-color scale). An ash plume from an explosion at 1948 rose 3 km and drifted SE. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2 km onto the flanks. After that event gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater until 2010. A period of Strombolian activity began at 0247 on 30 March and lasted for 14 minutes, generating ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SE. Incandescent ejecta fell onto the flanks 300 m below the crater rim. During an overflight scientists observed that the diameter of the inner crater had increased to 350 m, and that the crater floor was 250-300 m deep.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, N, and NE, based on webcam images, satellite data, and notices from PVMBG. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 March – 26 March 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0018 on 21 March an event at Agung was recorded for 1 minute and 47 seconds by the seismic network. Weather conditions prevented visual observations of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 18-22 March there were two events and one explosion recorded at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). Plumes rose at least as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim. Small events occasionally occurred during 22-25 March; crater incandescence was visible at night on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15, 16-19, and 21 March that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 15-16 and 21 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : On 22 March INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego had increased during the previous few days. There were 15-20 explosions per hour producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted 20-30 km E, SE, S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in communities downwind including La Rochela, Ceylán, San Andrés Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá, and Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa (23 km SW). Shock waves vibrated residential structures within 20 km. The explosions also caused avalanches of material from the crater that traveled down the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. In the evening on 21 March and early morning hours of 22 March lava fountains rose 350 m above the summit. During 23-26 March explosions occurred at a rate of 15-25 per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted 15-20 km W, S, and SE. Explosions sometimes vibrated nearby residences. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I (8 km SW), Morelia (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SE), La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that a minor ash plume from Ibu rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted about 17 km NE, and dissipated. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day, and to 2.4 km on 23 March; both plumes drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 17 March. The volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days during 15-22 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that during the previous several months monitoring data at Kilauea showed relatively low rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ) (including the area of the 2018 eruption). As a result, HVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation colour Code to Green.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that a total of six explosions at Anak Krakatau were recorded on 18 March, with dense white plumes rising as high as 500 m from the summit. During 18-24 March no other plumes were noted although weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Events were recorded at 0301 and 0305 on 24 March, though ash plumes were not visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-22 March ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE based on satellite data and ground-based observations.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 17-24 March. By 21 March the lava dome had grown to an estimated size of 472,000 cubic meters based on analyses of drone footage. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage during 18-19 and 23 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small event at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 1851 on 19 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 15-22 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E during 15-17 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 22 15-22 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March.