Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 13 January 2021 – 19 January 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 11-18 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high, reaching 2,100 tons per day on 13 January. Five explosions and three eruptive events were recorded, producing eruption plumes that rose 1.3-2 km above the crater rim and ejecting bombs 500-900 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and WSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 7-10 and 13-14 January; ash plumes rose up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 11-17 January activity at Etna was characterized by intra-crater Strombolian activity at Northeast Crater (NEC), occasional ash emissions from the Voragine (VOR) and Bocca Nuova (BN) craters, and Strombolian activity, lava effusion, and ash emissions at the Southeast Crater (SEC). In general, the activity was similar to the pervious week, though activity at SEC on 18 January was notable. Lava effusion began around 0700 on 17 January but was confined to the SEC summit cone. At around 0740 the lava breached the crater and lava flowed down to the base of the cone. The effusion rate increased by 0819 and an ash emission was possibly visible; the lava flow lengthened and had reached an elevation of 3,000 m by 1000. Weather clouds moved in and prevented visual observations until 1830 on 18 January when the lava flow was visible again; it was no longer being fed and was cooling. Volcanic tremor amplitude increased and Strombolian activity intensified at 2000. A new lava flow emerged at 2015 and traveled towards the Valle del Bove, reaching an elevation of 2,900 m. Low lava fountains were visible at 2130 and an ash plume drifted ESE, causing ashfall on the downwind flank. Lava flows descended the SE, E, and NE flanks of the SEC. Explosive activity significantly decreased at 2200. Two distinct lava flows were visible, with one heading N and the other moving towards the Valle del Bove. Tremor and infrasound signals decreased to pre-episode levels by 2230. The the lava flows were stable and cooling on 19 January.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 8-15 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 8-15 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90 km in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 13-19 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-700 m above the summit daily and rumbling sounds were reported. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-500 m above the summit, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 1.5 km SE from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Ruapehu – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that volcanic tremor at Ruapehu declined to low levels on 29 December 2020, and remained low; volcanic gas emissions returned to background levels by the next day. Water chemistry had only slightly changed compared to data collected a few weeks prior. Although the temperature of the crater lake water remained high (40 degrees Celsius), the period of heightened unrest was over; the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green on 11 January.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 29 explosions at Sabancaya during 11-17 January. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. One thermal anomaly over the crater was identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-15 January incandescent avalanches of material from the Jonggring Seleko Crater at Semeru sometimes traveled 500-1,000 m down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank. Incandescent material was ejected 10-30 m above the summit and white-and-gray plumes rose 200-300 m and drifted N. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations. A pyroclastic flow was detected at 1451 on 1 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. At 1724 on 16 January incandescent avalanches traveled as far as 1 km down the Kobokan drainage and a pyroclastic flow traveled about 4-4.5 km down the same drainage. A large ash cloud rose along the length of the pyroclastic flow to 2 km above the summit and drifted NE and N. Ashfall was reported in areas to the N. During 18-19 January dense gray-white plumes rose 300-500 m above the summit and drifted N. Rumbling was heard and incandescent material was ejected 30 m high. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 8-15 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin – Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that several outages affected GPS, seismic, and infrasound stations used to monitor Shishaldin. On 15 January AVO changed both the Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Unassigned, reflecting the lack of this data to detect unrest. The volcano continued to be monitored with local webcams, satellite data, and remote infrasound, seismic, and lightning networks.

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 13-19 January, though weather conditions often prevented visual conformation. White-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit during 14-15 January, and avalanches of material traveled 700-1,000 m down the SE flank. Dense white-and-gray ash plumes rose 500 m during 17-18 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Veniaminof – United States : AVO reported that seismic data for Veniaminof had not been received since 8 December 2020 due to a problem with the satellite link at Port Heiden. Both the Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned on 15 January, reflecting the lack of available seismic data to detect unrest.

Yasur – Vanuatu : Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that an ash-and-gas emission rose above Yasur’s crater rim at 1734 on 18 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 13 January 2021 – 19 January 2021

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that low lava fountains from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 13-19 January. The western half of the lake deepened from 198 m to 202 m while the stagnant eastern half remained a few meters lower. The lake was perched 1-2 m above the rim. On 13 January a small portion of the cone collapsed, causing a second vent to open adjacent to the main vent and effuse lava for less than 20 minutes. The islands remained stationary in the E part of the lake; the dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 4,700 tons/day on 14 January.

Langila – New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 January an ash plume from Langila produced an ash plume that rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the “2021 lava dome” continued to emerge just below Merapi’s SW rim during 8-14 January, producing a total of 128 incandescent lava avalanches that traveled as far as 900 m down the Krasak River drainage on the SW flank. A comparison of photos taken on 7 and 14 January showed that the morphological changes in the summit area were attributed to the emergence of new lava domes. The 2021 dome volume was an estimated 46,766 cubic meters on 14 January, with a growth rate of about 8,500 cubic meters per day. Deformation continued, though at a lower rate; Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 6 cm per day. Seismic activity significantly decreased compared to the previous week. At around 0400 on 16 January a pyroclastic flow descended 1.5 km down the Krasak drainage and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. A pyroclastic flow was visible in webcam images around 1700 on 16 January, though somewhat obscured due to weather clouds, and traveled an estimated 1 km. From 1800 on 16 January to 0600 on 17 January there were a total of 56 incandescent lava avalanches that went a maximum distance of 1.5 km SW. During the first six hours of 18 January six incandescent avalanches descended 600 m SW. At 0543 a pyroclastic flow traveled about 1 km down the Krasak drainage and produced an ash plume that rose 50 m above the summit and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Pelee – Martinique (France) : L’Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée remained at significant levels during 8-15 January, though had slightly decreased compared to the previous week. The seismic network recorded at least 22 high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than 1, located at shallow depths between 600 and 1,000 m above sea level. Two low-frequency, long-period earthquakes were also noted. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was identified during 7-10 and 12-13 January. A gas-and-steam plume drifted 40 km NE on 12 January. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 10 January.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to grow during 13-19 January. Observations on 14 January revealed that the dome was growing taller as well as expanding to the E and W. During an overflight on 15 January scientists saw extensive vegetation damage on the E, S, and W inner crater walls; damage previously noted along the upper part of the SW crater rim had expanded downslope. The dome dimensions were estimated to be 340 m long, 160 m wide, and 90 m high. Scientists visited the dome on 16 January and collected rock samples from the W part of the dome. They recorded temperatures around 590 degrees Celsius from the expanding dome front. Gas emissions were most notable from a small circular depression at the top of the dome. At night during 15-17 January residents to the W saw incandescence emanating from the crater, a phenomenon likely to be more frequent as the dome grows higher. Gas emissions were visible in the afternoon of 17 January rising from the top of the dome as well as from areas of contact between the new and old domes. An area of burnt vegetation extended from the dome along the W part of the crater floor. By the end of the week both new seismic and continuous GPS monitoring stations had been installed and were transmitting data, bring the total number of dedicated seismic stations to five. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 11-15 January. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away from the crater. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a 5-level scale) on 14 January; JMA noted that no large bombs were ejected more than 1 km from the crater beginning on 29 December 2020.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 6 January 2021 – 12 January 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 4-11 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high and reached extremely high levels of 5,000 tons per day on 6 January. An explosion at 1642 on 4 January produced an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim and merged into weather clouds. An explosion at 1133 on 11 January generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 31 December and 6-7 January; ash plumes rose up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1058 on 7 January an ash plume from Ibu rose 500 m above the summit and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 January ash plumes from Kadovar rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 1-4 and 6-7 January. Explosions on 2 January produced ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 130 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 1-8 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 6-12 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-700 m above the summit and rumbling and banging sounds were reported. Incandescent material was ejected as far as 700 m SE from the crater during 6-8 January. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-200 m above the summit crater on 7 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that the lava flow that began on 2 January from a vent on the SW flank, 200 m below Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater, formed 3-4 branches and was 400 m long by 6 January. Avalanches of material descended the W, SW, and S flanks. Strombolian explosions produced ash plumes that rose 100-150 m above the cone and drifted 10 km S and SW. Explosions on 7 January produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater and ejected ballistics 300 m away from the crater. Explosions rattled structures in nearby villages. Two new lava flows emerged on the N flank at 0740; one traveled 50 m and the other 200 m. Active lava flows on the W and SW flanks were 550 m long. Overnight during 7-8 January a new lava flow on the SW flank descended 425 m. During 9-12 January Strombolian explosions continued to ejected material up to 300 m above the cone. The lava flow on the SW flank reached a length of 1.2 km on 9 January and 1.5 km by 10 January; it remained active through 12 January. Ash plumes drifted 10 km W during 10-11 January, and avalanches form the crater area descended the SW and S flanks.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-12 January there were 11-31 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl. Minor ashfall was reported in several municipalities in Puebla including San Salvador el Verde (30 km NNE), Atlixco (23 km SE), San Andrés Cholula (35 km E), San Nicolás de los Ranchos (15 km ENE), and Domingo Arenas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-8 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 5 January gray ash plumes rose 800 m above Sinabung’s summit and drifted E and SE. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,000 m down the E and SE flanks. Eruptive events were recorded during 7 and 9-10 January though weather clouds mostly obscured visual confirmation of ash clouds; an ash plume rose 1 km above the summit late on 9 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 6 January 2021 – 12 January 2021

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava effusion from vents on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing perched lava lake during 6-12 January. Lava flowed through a crusted channel into the lake during most of the week. A dome fountain of upwelled lava at the partially submerged inlet was 5 m tall early on 6 January. Dome fountaining had weakened early on 7 January, giving way to spattering at the top of the vent and the formation of a second cone. Dome fountaining was possibly visible again on 8 January. The lake was perched at least 1-2 m above its narrow edges, though late on 10 January the stagnant, eastern part of the lake had subsided and was 3-4 m shallower. Overall the lake had deepened just 2 m by 11 January, reaching 196 m, and the lake volume was estimated at more than 27 million cubic meters. An island of cooler, solidified lava and the 11 smaller islands were relatively stationary in the E part of the lake. The dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged (250 m long and 135 m wide), though on 8 January the W end was 9 m above the lake’s surface and the high point was 23 m above the lake, suggesting that the island was rising. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,700 and 2,300 tonnes/day on 7 and 10 January, respectively.

Langila – New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 January a short-lived eruption at Langila produced an ash plume that rose 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that a new lava dome, first observed on 4 January, continued to emerge just below Merapi’s SW rim during 5-12 January. Incandescent avalanches were observed 19 times during 4-7 January with material traveling as far as 800 m down the Krasak River drainage on the SW flank. At 0802 on 7 January a block-and-ash flow traveled down the upper part of the Krasak; the total distance was not observable due to weather clouds, though the seismic data suggested it was small and was not more than 1 km in length. The event also produced a 200-m-high ash plume. Similar events were recorded that same day at 1250, 1315, and 1402. Deformation continued; electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 15 cm per day. On 7 January BNPB noted that 1,342 residents were housed in evacuation centers. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Martinique (France) – L’Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity related to volcanism has typically remained low at Pelée since 1980, when monitoring instrumentation was first installed, with a few dozen earthquakes recorded per year. Swarms were recorded in 1980, 1985-1986, 2007, and 2014, though the latter two swarms were associated with tectonic events. Volcanic seismicity appeared in April 2019 centered 4-5 km below the summit and deeper (more than 10 km below sea level). In addition, tremor-type signals were recorded during 8-9 November 2020, possibly signifying a reactivation of the hydrothermal system. The seismic data recorded since April 2019 represented an increase above baseline levels recorded during 1 January 2015 to April 2019. As a result of this activity OVSM raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 4 December 2020. Seismicity remained above background levels during 18 December 2020-1 January 2021, with at least 14 volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected with magnitudes less than or equal to 1. Scientists did not observe fumarolic activity during an overflight on 29 December 2020. The number of high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes (M 1 or less) totaled 65 during 1-8 January. A significant number (249) of long-period earthquakes in a volcanic tremor-type signal were distributed over two periods, 0000-0200 on 3 January and between 2100 on 3 January and 0200 on 4 January. Two isolated, low-frequency, long-period signals were also recorded. The data suggested ongoing perturbation of the hydrothermal system.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) for Sarychev Peak on 10 January, noting that the temperature of a thermal anomaly was 79.8 degrees Celsius above background temperatures, possibly indicating lava in the crater.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater that first formed on 27 December continued to grow during 6-12 January. Observations were made during a field visit on 5 January, during a helicopter overflight on 6 January, and based on 9 January drone video. During that time the dome grew and expanded to the W, produced small, hot rockfalls, had a blocky appearance, and continued to emit gasses and steam. Gas-and-steam plumes were also visible from Belmont Observatory. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 4-11 January. Two explosions on 5 January produced ash plumes that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away from the crater. Two explosions during 9-10 January generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and again ejected bombs 400 m away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 30 December 2020 – 5 January 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 28 December-4 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Four explosions were recorded during 28 December-1 January; an explosion at 1614 on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejecting bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 2-4 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 and 30-31 December; ash plumes rose up to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW).

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 January two ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 24-28 December. Explosions on 26 and 30 December produced ash plumes that rose 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70 km NW. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 25 December-1 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 250 km in multiple directions. Kamchatka Volcanological Station observers reported that at about 1720 on 2 January a landslide descended the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank, producing a cloud of ash that rose about 1 km and quickly drifted SE. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 30 December-5 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1 km above the summit. Rumbling and banging sounds were reported almost daily, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km SE from the crater during 30-31 December and 4-5 January. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-200 m above the summit crater during 1-5 January. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 29 December-5 January. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 300 m above the vent and away from the crater. Lava flows on the SW and W flanks were active and varied in length between 400 and 650 m; the lava flow on the SW flank had numerous branches. Activity was most notable on 1 January; gas-and-ash plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted 10 km NW, and explosions that were sometimes strong rattled nearby houses.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 December-5 January explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the complex. Plumes sometimes drifted about 1 km SW. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, W, SW, and E flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ashfall on the flanks was noted almost daily, though during 1-2 January ashfall was also reported in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW).

Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that incandescent material ejected 50 m above Semeru’s summit was visible most nights during 30 December-5 January. Cloudy weather often obscured visual observations during the daytime. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank on 31 December. Incandescent material from the ends of lava flows descended 300-1,000 m, reaching a maximum distance of 550-1,250 m from the crater during 1-3 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector. According to BNPB, observers at the Gunungsawur Observatory, 12 km SE of Semeru, recorded heavy rain around the volcano on 30 December, resulting in multiple lahars. At 0939 a lahar in the Koboan River drainage on the SE flank was seen and also recorded by the post’s seismic station. A lahar detected at 0950 was followed by an increase in water flow in the Curah Koboan, Rejali Bondeli, and Regoyo watersheds. At 1111 the seismic station recorded a lahar and accompanying pyroclastic flow that traveled 3.5 km down the Curah Koboan drainage. At 1130 lahars in Curah Koboan drainage damaged bamboo stalls owned by a local resident in Sumberwuluh Village (15 km SE).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 December-1 January. A strong explosion on 29 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 250 km W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes generally rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit during 30 December-5 January. Avalanches of material traveled 500-1,200 m down the E and SE flanks each day. Three eruptive events recorded on 4 January (at 0854, 1150, and 1412) produced dense gray ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NW, and W. Three eruptive events were detected the next day as well. The first, at 0825, generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the summit. Ash emissions were not visible from the second and third events, recorded at 2027 and 2108. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Ubinas – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that at 1659 on 31 December and at 1746 on 1 January low-volume lahars descended the Volcánmayo drainage on Ubinas’s SE flank and damaged parts of the highway linking Arequipa, Querapi, Ubinas, and Huarina. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Villarrica – Chile : POVI reported that during an overflight of Villarrica on 2 January scientists observed an incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater that had a solidified lava bridge connecting across a partially crusted-over top. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 30 December 2020 – 5 January 2021

Hawaiian Islands (USA) – HVO reported that lava effusion from a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing lava lake during 30 December-5 January. A cone had formed over the remaining active vent, which was one of three that had opened at the beginning of the eruption. Lava sometimes spattered from vents at the top of a cone and flowed down into the lake through a crusted-over channel; during 2-5 January a dome fountain was visible near the lake’s margin, formed by upwelling of lava as in entered the lake at a partially submerged inlet. The lake deepened from 181 m on 30 December to 191 m by 4 January, and the lake volume was an estimated 26 million cubic meters by 4 January. An island of cooler, solidified lava continued to float around on the lava lake’s surface, and by 4 January the island’s surface was 1-2 m above the surface of the lava lake. Over the week the island was joined by less than a dozen other small islands of cooled and solidified material that also moved around, though they mostly remained in the eastern part of the lake. The lava lake was also becoming perched as overflows of lava onto the narrow edge formed around the lake’s margins continued to build a levee; by 3 January the lake was perched about 1 m above the margin. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 3,000 and 6,500 tonnes/day. Seismicity remained elevated but stable.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 25-31 December rock avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km down Merapi’s NW flank in the Senowo drainage. A comparison of photos taken on 24 and 30 December showed minor morphological changes in the summit area. Seismic activity was more intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 14 cm per day. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 31 December, possibly signifying the emergence of lava. At 1952 on 4 January avalanches on the SW flank were recorded by webcams and heard at the Merapi Babadan observation post, and were coincident with the appearance of another incandescent area. That same day BNPB noted that 1,115 residents remained in evacuation centers. Descending incandescent material was visible on the upper SW flank during 1847-1911 on 5 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : The Seismic Research Centre at the University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) of St. Vincent and the Grenadines reported that during an overflight at 1600 on 31 December scientists confirmed that the new lava dome on the WSW edge of Soufrière St. Vincent’s 1979 lava dome continued to grow. Steam from the dome was visible from Belmont Observatory through 4 January. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that two explosions, on 29 and 30 December, were recorded at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 1-4 January, and eruption plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 23 December 2020 – 29 December 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 21-28 December incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high, with 2,900 tons measured on 21 December. Six explosions were recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 0.6-1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that on most days during 23-29 December ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-600 m above the summit. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 18-21 and 24 December; ash plumes rose up to 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 18-19 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible during 19-20 and 24 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 18-25 December and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. Lava first flowed down the S flank on 8 December. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 340 km mainly E. The Kamchatka Volcanological Station field team visited the area on 24 December to do work on field stations. They observed explosions that ejected incandescent material 300 m above the crater rim. A growing cinder cone in the summit crater was about 75 m higher than part of the crater rim. The lava flow ended at about 3,700 m elevation and spalled off incandescent material, descending an additional 350 m. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 12-17 December white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 150 m above the summit. A comparison of photos taken on 11 and 15 December showed some slight morphological changes in the summit area; drone footage from 14 December revealed no new lava dome material in the summit crater. Rock avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Senowo drainage on the NW flank on 14 December. Seismic activity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 9 cm per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 18-25 December. Two strong explosive events on 22 and 24 December generated large ash clouds that rose as high as 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 625 km E. The Aviation colour Code was briefly raised to Red (the highest level on a four-colour scale) on 22 December, but then was lowered back to Orange.

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose 100-500 m above Sinabung’s summit during 23-29 December. At 1751 on 28 December an ash plume rose 500 m above the summit and drifted S. At 1227 on 29 December an ash plume drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Villarrica – Chile : POVI reported that increased seismicity, more intense crater incandescence, and a notable sulfur odor was noted at Villarrica during 18-19 December. Minor ash emissions rose to low heights above the crater rim on 22 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that beginning around 1500 on 29 December a series of small steam explosions at Whakaari/White Island were recorded for about 30 minutes by local seismic and acoustic instruments. Vigorous steam plumes rising from the main vents were observed in webcam images. Ash was not evident in satellite images though ash may have been present in the plumes near the vent. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 23 December 2020 – 29 December 2020

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the eruption from N and W fissure vents on the inner walls of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to feed a growing lava lake during 23-29 December. Lava erupted from the N and W vents during 23-26 December with lava fountains that were sometimes 10 m high. The lake level rose above the N vent by 0300 on 26 December; later that day, volcanologists noted that the lake was slowly draining at that location. The W vent continued to feed the lake during 27-29 December. An island of cooler, solidified lava (250 m by 135 m in dimension on 28 December) slowly floated around on the lava lake’s surface. The island’s surface was about 6 m above the surface of the lava lake and was covered in tephra, possibly remnants of explosive activity generated when lava first reached the water lake. The depth of the lava lake increased from 155 m to 169 m during 23-24 December. It continued to rise and was 176 m deep by 1400 on 25 December, though a new, narrow, black rim along the N edge suggested that the lake had briefly been 1-2 m deeper, and then drained back. The lake remained 176-177 m deep through 28 December, but by 29 December had deepened to 180 m. The lake volume was an estimated 22 million cubic meters, and was 770 by 490 m in dimension by 29 December. Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased over the week, from around 30,000-40,000 tonnes/day on 23 December, to 20,000 tonnes/day on 25 December, 5,000-5,500 tonnes/day during 26-27, and finally dropping to 3,000 tonnes/day during 28-29 December. The emission plume carried Pele’s Hair and Pele’s Tears SW, depositing the tephra in areas downwind, including on HVO monitoring equipment and solar panels.

Kirishimayama – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) began to increase on 18 December and remained elevated. A total of 300 earthquakes were located beneath the summit crater during 16-25 December. No changes were detected in deformation and emission data. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 25 December, and the public was warned to exercise caution within a 2-km radius of the crater.

Ruapehu – North Island (New Zealand) : On 28 December GeoNet reported that during the previous week the temperature of Ruapehu’s crater lake water slightly decreased from 43 to 41 degrees Celsius. Moderate-to-strong levels of volcanic tremor were recorded along with a small number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The largest volcanic earthquake was an M 2.2 (on 26 December) which was uncommonly large, and combined with elevated tremor indicated ongoing unrest. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : A new effusive eruption had built a lava dome in the summit crater of Soufrière St. Vincent when observed on 29 December by personnel from the National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the Alert Level was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). The observers noted that the small black-coloured dome had grown on the WSW edge of the 1979 lava dome. The University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) stated in a press briefing that seismicity at the volcano began to increase in early November and changes in the water lake and fumarolic area were noted on 16 December. A persistent thermal anomaly had been identified in satellite data over the previous couple of days, which is what prompted the NEMO field visit.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater increased on 21 December with more frequent explosions; a total of 423 explosions were recorded during 21-28 December. At 0248 on 28 December a large eruptive event ejected large bombs 1.3 km SE of the crater and produced a plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and entered weather clouds. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Tengger Caldera – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 26-27 December white-and-gray plumes rose 50-700 m above the summit of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. At 0550 on 28 December a gas-and-ash emission rose at least 500 m above the summit according to an observer. Ashfall was reported in the Ngadirejo area, about 5 km NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 16 December 2020 – 22 December 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nightly incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 14-21 December and that the sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Four explosions were recorded during 16-18 December. One of the explosions, at 1959 on 17 December, generated a plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. Another explosion, at 0439 on 18 December, produced a plume that rose 1.8 km and ejected bombs 1-1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-19 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 11-12 and 15-17 December that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that strong activity at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) included fountaining and lava flows on 21 December. Tremor amplitude had gradually increased on 20 December but weather conditions prevented visual observations. During the morning of the 21st Strombolian activity occurred at three vents. By 0800 tremor amplitude suddenly increased, and by 1000 lava fountaining from at least two vents was observed in thermal camera images, along with an eruption plume to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A lava flow emerged from the SW part of the cone, which had collapsed on 13 December, and traveled SW before branching W and E. A second flow from the NE side of the cone traveled E into the Valle del Bove. Lava fountaining ended around noon, with a simultaneous decrease in tremor amplitude. During the morning of 22 December a few small phreatic explosions were visible in webcam images, likely generated from the interaction of snow and lava. The front of the active SW flow reached 2,500 m elevation. By 1741 both flows were cooling down and no longer advancing.

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1826 on 19 December an ash plume from Ibu rose 400 m above the summit and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible during 11-12 and 17 December. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 11-18 December and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. A steam-and-gas plume with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km NE on 13 December. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Nishinoshima – Japan : JMA reduced the exclusion zone for Nishinoshima from a radius of 2.5 to 1.5 km around the summit crater on 18 December; eruptive activity ended in August. Fumarolic and high-temperature areas remained visible.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 16-22 December there were 112-231 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. A gas, steam, and ash plume drifted SE on 22 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador – Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 16-22 December; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual conformation. Seismicity was characterized by 40-109 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed sometimes multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW and W. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling 600 m down the NE and S flanks were observed nightly. The 450-m-long lava flow on the NE flank remained active but did not advance.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 16-22 December. Seismicity was characterized by 20-127 daily explosions, occasional harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but the Washington VAAC and IG webcams recorded daily ash plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Seismic signals signifying lahars were recorded during 16-18 December.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 11-18 December. On 22 December residents of Ust-Kamchatsk Village, 85 km SE, observed ash plumes rising to 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 42 km NE. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-colour scale). Just over an hour later ash plumes rose 6.5-7.5 km (21,300-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km E; the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Orange.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 11-18 December. A total of five explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 500 m away from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica – Chile : POVI reported that four ash emissions at Villarrica were visible in webcam images on 16 December. SERNAGEOMIN stated that two ash pulses were associated with long-period (LP) events at 1146 and 1156 that same day; the first ash emission rose 160 m above the crater rim and drifted NW while the second rose 280 m and drifted 500 m NE. At 1716 on 17 December an ash emission associated with an LP event rose 720 m and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 16 December 2020 – 22 December 2020

Cerro Hudson – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that a notable change in seismicity at Cerro Hudson was characterized by an increase in the frequency and magnitude of volcano-tectonic (VT), hybrid (HB), and long-period (LP) signals during 1-15 December. Two swarms of VT earthquakes were recorded during 10-11 December, with the largest event, a local M 2.9, located 4.7 km ESE of the caldera’s center at a depth of 4.6 km. The largest of five HB signals was a local M 3.1, located 4 km ESE at a depth of 4.3 km. The earthquake locations suggested a relatively shallow source SE of the caldera. No deformation or surficial changes were observed. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-colour scale) on 22 December, based on the increased seismicity. ONEMI warned the communities of Aysén and Río Ibáñez, declaring a status of “Preventive Early Warning”, a level in between Green and Yellow.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that a new eruption at Kilauea began on 20 December, after almost a month of pre-eruptive activity that included a dike intrusion. An earthquake swarm on 30 November centered in the middle of the caldera was recorded followed by periods of increased seismicity in the upper East Rift Zone. Spikes in seismicity began on 2 December; at 1745 earthquakes intensified beneath the S part of the caldera; tiltmeters simultaneously recorded accelerated deformation, resulting in about 8 cm of caldera floor uplift. The data suggested that a small intrusion had a volume equivalent to the amount of lava erupted in just 1-2 hours from Fissure 8 during the 2018 eruption. On 3 December seismcity and deformation decreased to pre-intrusion levels.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 16-22 December. Gray-and-white ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 800 m above the summit. Strombolian explosions were visible most nights ejecting material 100-200 m above the summit crater. Rumbling was heard most days. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 12-17 December white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 150 m above the summit. Rock avalanches traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Senowo drainage on the NW flank on 14 December. A comparison of photos taken on 11 and 15 December showed minor morphological changes in the summit area; drone video from 14 December revealed no new lava dome material in the summit crater. Seismic activity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 9 cm per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Ruapehu – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported a warming trend of the crater lake water at Ruapehu, with a high temperature of 43 degrees Celsius. During an overflight to measure gas emissions the previous week, scientists observed that the lake was a uniform gray colour (suggesting it is well mixed) and some water overflow at the lake’s outlet. Gas output had increased in response to the heating cycle; the amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur gases (SO2 and H2S) in the plume were the largest measured in the past two decades. Short-lived pulses of volcanic tremor were coincident with gas emissions. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 and the Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow on 21 December.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 9 December 2020 – 15 December 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-14 December incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly and the sulfur dioxide emission rate remained high. Three explosions during 7-11 December produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. An eruptive event at 0514 on 14 December produced a plume that rose 1.8 km and blended into weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 December ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-9 December that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 7-12 December activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by intra-crater Strombolian activity at Northeast Crater (NEC), and Strombolian activity, lava effusion, and pyroclastic flows at the Southeast Crater (SEC). Additionally, infrequent ash emissions at the Bocca Nuova (BN) craters and some explosions and minor ash emissions at the Voragine (VOR) were also recorded. Webcam views of activity was limited due to weather conditions; a field visit was made on 14 December. Strombolian activity originated from the E and central vents at SEC ejected lava onto the inner crater walls. Occasional ash emissions dispersed quickly near the summit. Activity intensified at 2020 on 13 December and lava fountains formed around 2300. Collapses of the SW part of the SEC cone spurred a series of pyroclastic flows. At 2315 a small pyroclastic flow traveled down the SSW flank. A second pyroclastic flow began at 2316 and traveled 2 km down the SSW flank and covered Monte Frumento Supino cone (SSW). At 2330 a third and minor pyroclastic flow traveled SSW. Around the same time as the generation of the first two pyroclastic flows, two fissures opened on the SW flank of the SEC and produced lava flows to the S and SW until about 2350. A period of lava fountaining was visible during 0050-0110 and 0210-0223 on 14 December. During a field inspection on 14 December scientists confirmed the partial cone collapses and noted that the two lava flows (S and SW) were cooling. The S lava flow had widened at the near the base of SEC and formed four lobes. One of the lobes continued on and stopped just NW of cones that had formed in 2002-2003. The SW flow traveled SSW, branched, curved around the W part of Monte Frumento Supino, and then stopped. Explosive activity from central SEC vent continued, with roaring and sporadic ash emissions. An explosion at 1352 formed an ash plume that rose about 4 km and drifted S. Strombolian explosions deposited material outside of the crater.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 8-15 December at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 20 km of the summit. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Incandescent material was occasionally ejected 100-200 m. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).

Kirishimayama – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA noted that no eruption had occurred at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) since 28 June 2018. Volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake had increased around 17 November 2019, fluctuated afterwards, and then began a decreasing trend in mid-October 2020. Sulfur dioxide levels were generally low, deformation data showed no changes, and both fumarolic and geothermal area activity remained stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 11 December.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 4-7 December and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NW and NE. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 December a new lava flow emerged from a vent S of Cerro Chino, NNW of Pacaya’s summit, and traveled as far as 250 m WSW. The branched lava flow which had opened in October on the WSW flank was active, with lengths between 400 and 600 m. Avalanches of material from the new flow and the SW-flank lava flows descended 100 m. Strombolian explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater were visible on most days during 9-15 December and ejected material as high as 150 m above the vent. Gray ash plumes were occasionally visible drifting S, SW, and W at generally low altitudes. On 12 December strong winds picked up ash deposits and created ash curtains that drifted 1.5 km away and dispersed. Lava flows on the SW flank varied in length between 500 m and 1,000 m. The NW-flank lava flow ceased effusing by 13 December.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 54 explosions at Sabancaya during 7-13 December. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. Eight thermal anomalies over the crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. INGEMMET stated that ashfall was noted in the towns of Cabanaconde (22 km NW), Pinchollo (20 km N), and Madrigal (20 km NE) during 9-10 December. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-15 December explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the complex. The extrusion of blocky lava at the WSW part of Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, WSW, SW, and E flanks often reaching the base of the complex. The activity increased at 0430 on 11 December with notable avalanches of material and block-and-ash flows lava dome traveling down the W and SW flanks. Ash plumes drifted 15 km SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Finca Montebello, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Activity remained elevated at least through 13 December; ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km W, SW, and S, and pyroclastic flows descended the flanks.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 9-15 December. Incandescent material was ejected 50-100 m above the summit on 9 December and rock avalanches descended the Kobokan drainage 500 m on the SE flank. Explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 10-12 December but they could not be visually confirmed due to weather conditions. On 13 December a pyroclastic flow originating from the end of a lava flow traveled 1.5 km down the Kembar drainage (S flank), reaching a maximum distance of 3.5 km from the crater. The next day a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the Kobokan drainage. Rock avalanches from the end of a lava flow traveled 300-1,500 m down both drainages during 14-15 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-11 December. The lava block, named “Dolphin,” which had emerged in the E part of the summit lava dome, was absent in an 8 December photo of the volcano. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 4-11 December. A total of 20 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 500 m away from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica – Chile : POVI reported that during an over-flight of Villarrica on 9 December scientists observed a small lava lake, 10-15 m in diameter, partially covered by floating black solidified lava. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 9 December 2020 – 15 December 2020

Barren Island – Andaman Islands (India) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 December an ash plume from Barren Island rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : At 2045 on 9 December explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km NW, prompting KVERT to raise the Alert Level to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). Explosions continued the next day; ash plumes drifted 220 km NW, W, and SW. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 4, 8, and 10 December.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 9-15 December. Black, gray, and brown ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1 km above the summit. Strombolian explosions were visible most nights ejecting material above the summit crater. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that during 4-10 December white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 400 m above the summit. Rock avalanches traveled around 200 m down the Lamat drainage on the W flank. A comparison of photos taken on 29 November and 8 December showed some morphological changes in the summit area; drone footage from 5 December revealed no new lava dome material in the summit crater. Seismic activity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 9 cm per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Telica – Nicaragua : INETER reported that there were two small ash-and-gas explosions at Telica recorded during 8-9 December, making a total of 1,315 small explosions recorded since the latest activity began 30 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 2 December 2020 – 8 December 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 30 November-7 December incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. An explosion on 2 December produced an eruption plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and blended into weather clouds. Volcanic bombs were ejected 1-1.3 km away from the crater. That same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,500 tons per day. During 4-7 December two eruption plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 28-30 November and 3 December that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 28 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 2-8 December gray-and-white ash plume from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted N and E. There were 70-81 eruptive events per day recorded during 2-4 and 6-8 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that strong explosions at Karymsky were last observed on 8 November 2019 and a thermal anomaly was last visible in satellite images on 19 November 2019. Gas-and-steam emissions persist. Since activity had significantly decreased, the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 3 December.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 27 November-4 December and lava advanced down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large, bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. During 20-21 and 23-26 November steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 300 km NW and E. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Korovin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : Seismic activity at Korovin had decreased, and satellite images showed no signs of unrest over the previous several weeks. AVO lowered the Alert Level to Green and the Aviation colour Code to Normal on 3 December.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 1-8 December seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was generally characterized by higher number of earthquakes that had larger magnitudes than the previous week. Several episodes of drumbeat signals were recorded, indicating ascent or growth of a lava dome in Arenas Crater. Gas-and-ash emissions were sometimes visible in webcam images. Two thermal anomalies were visible in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 1-8 December. Rock avalanches were recorded by the seismic network almost daily and were visible most days, traveling 200-1,500 m down the Kobokan drainage. Eruptive events and rockfalls generated pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 2.5 km down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank during 1-3 and 5-6 December. BNPB noted that deposits from the 1 December pyroclastic flow were as thick as 15 m. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-6.1 km (13,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l., or 300-2,400 m above the summit, and drifted E and NE during 2 and 5-6 December. PVMBG noted that incandescent material was ejected 50-100 m above the summit during 5-8 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 27 November-4 December. A gas-and-steam plume drifted 60 km NE on 30 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an ash plume rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit on 2 December. Block avalanches were recorded by the seismic network almost daily, though they were not visually confirmed; however, on 6 December, they were observed traveling 300-500 m down the E and SE flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km that extends 5 km SE and 4 km NE.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 27 November-4 December. A total of 17 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 600 m away from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period (LP) event and associated explosion were recorded by Villarrica’s seismic network at 1844 on 5 December. An ash plume rose 160 m and drifted SSE, depositing ash onto the flanks. Incandescent material was also ejected onto the SSE flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that Whakaari/White Island observations and monitoring data indicated a gradual trend to lower activity levels during the previous two weeks. An overflight of the island on 2 December confirmed that ash emissions stopped and were not visible in satellite images during 2-7 December. Volcanic tremor levels and the number of local earthquakes decreased. Deformation data indicated subsidence around the active vents and parts of the Main Crater wall. Hot steam-and-gas emissions persisted. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green on 7 December.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 2 December 2020 – 8 December 2020

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 1-8 December. Black-and-gray ash plumes were visible daily, rising as high as 1.5 km abo e the summit. Incandescence at the summit was visible nightly and material was sometimes ejected as high as 20 m above the summit. BNPB noted that by 5 December there were a total of 9,028 people housed in 11 evacuation centers. The Alert Level was remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.

Manam – Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 December an ash emission from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG and PVMBG reported that during 27 November-8 December white emissions from Merapi rose as high as 600 m above the summit. Rock avalanches were heard, though not visually confirmed due to weather conditions. A comparison of photos taken on 26 and 29 November showed no morphology changes in the summit area. Seismicity was higher than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data continued to measure a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 11 cm per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Piton de la Fournaise – Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise was recorded during 0510-0554 on 4 December and was accompanied by minor, but rapid, deformation located just below the center and N rim of Dolomieu Crater. Seismicity declined after the crisis but inflation continued through 6 December. A second seismic crisis began at 0228 on 7 December and was again accompanied by rapid deformation. At about 0440 three fissures opened on the WSW flank of Dolomieu Crater at elevations between 2,300 and 2,190 m, spanning a 700-m-long area. Lava began erupting during 0455-0500. An overflight was conducted during 0700-0730; scientists observed lava fountains rising 15 m high from the three fissures and short lava flows. By 1700 the fissure at the highest elevation was the most active with five small vents while the other two fissures were noticeably less active. The eruption phase ended at 0715 on 8 December following a gradual drop in tremor and a three-hour phase of seismic signals indicating degassing. No surficial activity was visible.

Telica – Nicaragua : INETER reported that there were 598 “low energy” ash-and-gas explosions at Telica recorded during 1-3 December, making a total of 775 recorded since the activity began on 30 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 50-400 m above the crater rim and mainly drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Zarandaj (7 km WSW), Cristo Rey (6 km W), Las Colinas (7 km WSW), Garrobo Empinado (8 km SW), El Panal (9 km SSW), Canta Rana, Ceibo Chachagua (10 km SW), Las Mercedes, Punta Arena (11 km SW), La Virgen, and Filiberto Morales (15 km WSW).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 25 November 2020 – 1 December 2020

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 23-30 November incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Very small eruptive events were recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 and 28-30 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 21-24 November that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk during 23-24 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Erta Ale – Ethiopia : Satellite data periodically showed possible thermal anomalies in Erta Ale’s N pit crater during 5 September-10 October; the crater was sometimes obscured by fumes through 29 November. A weak thermal anomaly may have been present in the S pit crater during 5 September-24 November, but was notably larger on 29 November.

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1818 on 27 November a gray ash plume from Ibu rose 800 m and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 20-27 November and lava advanced down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. During 20-21 and 23-26 November ash plumes drifted 186 km N, E, and SE. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Nishinoshima – Japan : The Japan Coast Guard reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 24 August scientists observed white fumarolic plumes rising from multiple locations on the inner crater wall and the rim. The inner crater wall continued to be hot. The ocean water was brown around the W, S, and E parts of the island.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1-3 October dense gray plumes rose 50-300 m above Raung’s summit; neither eruptions nor gas emissions were visible afterwards, through 26 November. Seismicity decreased and deflation was recorded. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 27 November, and the public was warned to stay away from the summer crater.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 20-27 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit daily during 25 November-1 December. Block avalanches traveled 1 km down the flank on 1 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 20-27 November. A total of 34 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 700 m away from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. The Tokyo VAAC noted that ash plumes drifted S and SE. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible from the morning of 20 November through 22 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Telica – Nicaragua : INETER reported that ash-and-gas plumes rose from Telica on 30 November and drifted NE. Social media posts noted that around 50 ash-and-gas plumes rose 100-400 m above the crater rim during 30 November-1 December. Ash fell in Los Cocos (9 km SSW), El Panal (9 km SSW), Verónica Lacayo (10 km SW), Nuevo Belén, and pictures showed vegetation and buildings coated in ash.