Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 7 October 2020 – 13 October 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 5-12 October. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-13 October ash plumes from Dukono rose 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, NW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-9 October that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 7-8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-19 explosions per hour recorded during 7-13 October at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted as far as 20 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within 7-15 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-400 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). On 9 October lahars descended multiple drainages on Fuego’s flanks. Lahars overflowed the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank and deposited blocks and sediment on the RN 14 road, causing its closure.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-13 October white-to-gray ash plume rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted N and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 October discrete ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 7-13 October. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater intensified on 8 October, ejecting material 200-300 m above the vent. At least four lava flows were active on the N and E flanks and all were 250-300 m long. By the next day three lava flows, on the NE, N, and W flanks were 200-400 m long. During 9-13 October explosions ejected material as high as 150 m. Lava flows were periodically active on NE, N, and W flanks, traveling 100-300 m.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 October there were 84-143 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted NE, WNW, W, and SSW. Minor ashfall was reported during 6-7 October in areas downwind including the municipality of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos, and the municipalities of Amecameca (20 km NW), Atlautla (17 km W), Ayapango (22 km NSW), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico. Incandescence from the crater was observed during 11-12 October and occasionally intensified with some emissions. Ashfall was reported in Amecameca on 13 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-13 October lava extrusion at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block-and-ash flows that descended the W, SW, S, and SE flanks, sometimes reaching the base of Caliente cone. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 10 km NW, W, and SW. The lava dome was incandescent most nights, sometimes for prolonged periods of time.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 2-9 October. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 250 km SE during 7-8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 200 m above Sinabung’s summit on 7 October. Lava avalanches traveled E and SE from the summit crater for 300 m on 9 October and 300-700 m during 12-13 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1 September-9 October white emissions rose as high as 100 m above Slamet’s summit. During the previous two weeks seismicity significantly decreased, specifically tremor and the signals indicating emissions. The magnitude of earthquakes returned to baseline levels. Tiltmeter data from an instrument on the upper E flank indicated inflation in the upper part of the edifice, though data from an instrument located N of the volcano indicated no overall deformation. On 8 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside a radius of 1 km.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 2-9 October. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. An explosion at 1155 on 8 October generated an ash plume that rose more than 700 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Telica | Nicaragua : INETER reported that during 6-7 October there were five explosions recorded at Telica. The largest occurred at 0742 on 7 October; it produced an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW and caused ashfall around the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that a 12 October satellite image of Villarrica showed a strip of tephra deposits, 200 m wide and 3 km long, on the NE flank. The deposits originated from two eruptive events on 9 October. A thermal anomaly was also visible in the middle of the crater floor. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 7 October 2020 – 13 October 2020

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was continuing and a lava flow was advancing down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Activity increased during 7-8 October and was characterized by strong explosions, collapses of parts of the drainage sides, strong thermal anomalies, and ash plumes that drifted over 200 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) on 8 October.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 30 September 2020 – 6 October 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 29 September-3 October. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An eruptive event at 1635 on 3 October produced a plume that rose 1.7 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 September-6 October ash plumes from Dukono rose 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W N, NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25-26 and 30 September and on 1 October that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 October discrete ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Kikai | Japan : JMA reported that at 0757 on 6 October an eruption at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, generated a volcanic plume that rose 200 m above the Iodake crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 October an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that eruptive activity at Raung continued during 28 September-4 October with white-and-gray plumes rising 100-400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent (1-2 events per day) eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja continued to be recorded, though sometimes not visually confirmed, during 30 September-6 October. Eruption plumes often rose 500-800 m above the crater rim but on 1 and 6 October they rose 1 km.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : According to PVMBG ground-based observers noted ash plumes rising 700 m above Semeru’s summit and drifting SW on 30 September. An ash plume rose 600 m and drifted S at 0509 on 2 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 September-2 October. A new lava block (named “Dolphin”) that extruded from the E part of the lava dome was first visible on 28 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 25 September-2 October. Eruptive activity was intermittently recorded along with nine explosions. Ashfall was periodically reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. An explosion at 0822 on 26 September generated a gray-white ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. At 2028 on 27 September an explosion ejected blocks 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period (LP) event and associated explosion were recorded by Villarrica’s seismic network at 1130 on 4 October. A grayish plume was visible rising above the crater rim. At 1343 and 1347 on 5 October there were two LP events and associated explosions; each generated ash plumes that rose as high as 400 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 30 September 2020 – 6 October 2020

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy began at 1003 on 2 October prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Explosions ejected ash 300-400 m above the volcano and produced gas-and-steam plumes with some ash that drifted down the E flank.

 

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 23 September 2020 – 29 September 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 14-21 September. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,000 tons per day on 25 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing activity at Copahue during 1-15 September. Webcams recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km, sometimes associated with nighttime crater incandescence. The plumes drifted 6-15 km SW and SE. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high, averaging 1,499 tonnes per day (ranging from 1,148 to 1,850 tonnes per day), with a high value of 3,435 on 12 September. Two thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. The Alert Level was remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale). ONEMI maintained the Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for residents of the Alto Biobío municipality and access to an area within 1 km of El Agrio Crater was restricted to the public.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-28 September ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 20-23 September that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and NE. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was visible in satellite data on 21 and 22 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0554 on 26 September a white-to-gray ash plume from Ibu rose 600 m and drifted S. At 0641 on 27 September and at 0554 on 28 September ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Laguna del Maule | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 September inflation continued to be detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, although at a lower rate of 0.7 cm per month which is below the 2 cm per month average for this year. Seismicity in the S sector was low in both number and magnitude of events. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest colour on a four-colour scale, as activity remained above baselines. ONEMI recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the emission center.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 September an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was ongoing during 1-15 September. Explosions at the lava dome in the crater produced plumes that rose less than 1.5 km. Ashfall was mainly distributed within 300 m E and NE. Deposits from larger explosions were visible to the ESE. Incandescence at the E part of the crater was visible. The lava flow on the NNE flank (L5) was 500 m long and was advancing at a rate of 1.7 meters per hour by 15 September. The W levee of the flow channel ruptured, causing the channel to widen and the toe of the flow to thicken. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the W and SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 36 explosions at Sabancaya during 21-27 September. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, SE, SW, and NW. Eleven thermal anomalies over the crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation was detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. Ashfall was reported in Lluta (30 km SW) and Huanca (75 km SSE) on 24 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 18-25 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 18-25 September. An explosion at 0923 on 25 September generated a gray-white ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim and disappeared into weather clouds. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica was characterized by an active lava lake, minor explosions, and gas emissions during 1-15 September. Webcam images showed whitish gas emissions rising no higher than 500 m above the crater rim during the day, with occasional nighttime crater incandescence and ejected material seen at night. Satellite images showed tephra deposits around the crater extending from the rim up to 36 m on the E and SE flanks on both 5 and 7 September. Two thermal anomalies were visible in satellite images on 14 September. At 1350 on 25 September the seismic network recorded a long-period earthquake associated with a moderate explosion. The explosion generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the vent and drifted ENE, and ejected blocks onto the flanks. Another long-period event and explosion were recorded at 1829 later that day that generated another ash plume, though weather clouds obscured views. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 23 September 2020 – 29 September 2020

Grimsvotn | Iceland : The Icelandic Meteorological Office raised the Aviation Colour Code for Grímsvötn to Yellow on 30 September, noting that activity had been increasing over time and was above background levels. The report stated that seismicity increased over the past month, cauldrons had deepened in several places around the caldera signifying increased geothermal activity, surface deformation surpassed the level prior to the 2011 eruption, and magmatic gases were present in emissions over the summer. Additionally, water levels in the subglacial lake were comparable to levels prior to floods in 2004 and 2010.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG issued a report with additional information about the large explosive event at Sangay on 20 September. The event began at 0440 and ended at 0610 and produced an ash plume that rose 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l., or about 9.7 km above the summit. The lower part of the plume was the most ash-rich and drifted W, causing significant ashfall in areas W (especially in the Cebadas parish, Guamote district). The gas-rich higher part of the plume drifted E. Parts of the plume also drifted S. Researchers visited several sites to measure ashfall and collect samples, allowing them to estimate the volume of the deposits at 1.5-3.4 million cubic meters, signifying a VEI 2 event.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 16 September 2020 – 22 September 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 14-21 September. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An eruption at 0810 on 15 September generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-22 September ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 11 and 14-17 September that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, N, and NW. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was visible in satellite data on 13 and 15 September. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 14-15 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 14-20 September activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by Strombolian activity and ash emissions. The ejection of incandescent material onto the crater rim and the S flank was occasionally visible during phases of increased activity. Minor ash emissions sporadically rose from Voragine Crater (VOR). Strombolian activity also occurred within Northeast Crater (NEC).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that effusive activity at Fuego decreased as of 16 September; the lava flow that had descended the Ceniza drainage (SSW) was no longer active. There were 6-16 explosions per hour recorded during 16-22 September, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 7-20 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius. Sometimes incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). During 18-19 September lahars descended the Ceniza, Las Lajas, and Honda drainages, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter. Additionally, lava flows traveled 200-350 m down the Seca and Ceniza drainages.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-22 September white-and-gray ash plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 September ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : On 22 September SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava continued to advance down Nevados de Chillán’s NNE flank. Gas emissions and occasional explosions were also recorded. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that as of 16 June the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 16-21 September there were 52-121 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja continued to be recorded, though sometimes not visually confirmed, during 16-22 September. A larger event, at 1053 on 22 September, ejected material out of the crater and into the drainages on the N flank.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : According to PVMBG ground-based observers noted ash plumes from Semeru rising 500 m above the summit and drifting SE on 17 September. An ash plume rose 200 m and drifted N the next day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 11, 13-14, and 16-17 September; weather clouds prevented views on other days during 11-18 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 11-18 September. An explosion at 0155 on 15 September generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected large rocks as far as 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 16 September 2020 – 22 September 2020

Erta Ale | Ethiopia : Satellite data showed thermal anomalies in both of Erta Ale’s S and N pit craters in mid-August, though by 5 September only the N pit had anomalous temperatures.

Pavlof | United States : On 21 September AVO announced that the Volcano Alert Level for Pavlof was raised to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Seismicity had increased above background levels during the previous day and was characterized by ongoing tremor.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 15-22 September. Seismicity was characterized by high levels of explosions, harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations of the volcano, but the Washington VAAC and IG webcams recorded daily ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Pyroclastic flows descended the SE flank almost daily. An explosion at 0420 on 20 September was the largest such event in the recent months. Within 10 minutes several satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising 6-10 km above the summit; high-altitude parts of the cloud drifted E while lower parts drifted W. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) reported that 32 districts within the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolívar, Guayas, and Los Ríos were affected by ashfall. Authorities in the districts of Bucay and Cumandá restricted driving, the opening of businesses, and outdoor activities due to ashfall. The José Joaquín de Olmedo Airport in Guayaquil suspended its operations for seven hours to clean the runways. Ashfall was most significant in Chimborazo, particularly in the districts of Guamote, Alausí, Chunchi, Pallatanga, and Cumandá, with photos showing poor visibility and ashfall covering streets, cars, and houses. Ashfall significantly impacted agriculture fields. Authorities inspected the confluence of the Volcán River (SE flank) and Upano River, and observed significant deposits of tephra, some of which had damned the river and created an immense lagoon. Normally the Upano was about 25 m wide in that area but because of the deposits it was more than 250 m across and had almost no water in it. After the explosion, IG noted that activity returned to levels similar to previous months with ash plumes rising 1-2 km above the volcano during 20-22 September.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 8 September 2020 – 14 September 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 7-14 September. Nighttime crater incandescence was noted during 9-10 and 12-13 September. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,300 tons/day on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a new lava dome began growing in the summit crater of Bezymianny around 26 August. A thermal anomaly over the summit was visible during 28-31 August and on 4, 8, and 10 September. Weather clouds sometimes obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-14 September ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 4-5 and 10 September that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-12 explosions per hour at Fuego recorded during 26 August-1 September, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius. Incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). During 10-11 September a lava flow traveled 200 m down the Ceniza and lengthened to 700 m by 12 September; the front of the lava flow generated block avalanches. Strong Vulcanian explosions generated ash plumes that rose over 1.1 km above the crater rim during 11-12 September. Shorter portions of the lava flow were active through 14 September, and by 15 September the flow was 100 m long.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 September an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Kikai | Japan : JMA reported that during 7-14 September white plumes from Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, rose as high as 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September ash plumes from Manam rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, based on satellite data and weather models.

Pacaya | Guatemala : On 13 September INSIVUMEH reported that during the previous week activity at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater was characterized by lava-flow effusion and Strombolian explosions that ejected material as high as 200 m above the vent. Ejected material landed within 50 m of the cone. An active lava flow that had traveled NE was 1,250 m long; another on the N flank was as long as 300 m. Explosive activity rattled houses within a 4-km radius. Lava flows continued to be active during 13-15 September; reaching 600 m long on the NE flank, 300 m long on the N flank, and 400-425 m long (and most active) on the S flank. Strombolian explosions continued to ejected material as high as 200 m.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador. In a special report, IG reviewed the activity had started in mid-June, characterized by strong explosions, the ejection of blocks that rolled down the flanks, and pyroclastic flows that descended the N, NE, and W flanks less than 1 km. Additionally, at the beginning of August, a small lava flow effused at the summit and traveled 400-500 m down the NE flank. Formation of a summit lava dome was also noted on 17 August. The number of thermal alerts was the highest in August compared to the rest of the year. The cone destroyed during a 2002 eruption had been rebuilt and was as tall or slightly taller by 11 September. During 9-15 September gas, steam, and ash emissions observed with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, sometimes multiple times a day, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted N, NW, and W. Incandescent blocks rolled down the N flank during 9-10 September and as far as 600 m down the S and SW flanks during 13-15 September. The lava flow on the NE flank had not lengthened.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : According to PVMBG ground-based observers noted ash plumes from Semeru rising 400 m above the summit and drifting S on 14 September. An ash plume rose 500 m and drifted NE the next day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 4-5 and 8-10 September; weather clouds prevented views during 6-7 and 11 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported periodic nighttime incandescence and three explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 4-11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Whakaari/White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 15 September GeoNet reported continuing but low levels of activity at Whakaari/White Island. Over the previous six weeks the team conducted three flights to measure gas emissions and one for visual observations. The data show that shallow magma was degassing at a high rate through an open, unobstructed system. Temperatures at the gas vents remained high (around 440 degrees Celsius), though that is 100 degrees less than when measured in July. Some of the gas vents had become larger and water had ponded on the crater floor. Continuing subsidence of the active vent areas and the S and W parts of Main Crater wall was indicated by deformation measurements. Volcanic tremor had been generally low, except for a short period in early August. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 8 September 2020 – 14 September 2020

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung’s summit and drifted in multiple directions during 9-15 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 2 September 2020 – 8 September 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that 12 eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 31 August-7 September produced plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,400 tons/day on 31 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO lowered both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned on 3 September, noting a lack of unrest over the past few months. A short-lived explosion was recorded on 1 June; satellite images showed no signs of elevated temperatures nor surficial changes in the summit crater since then.

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing activity at Copahue during 16-31 August. Webcams recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising as high as 1.7 km, sometimes associated with nighttime crater incandescence. The plumes drifted in multiple directions as far as 4.3 km N, 9 km NE, 8 km E, 4 km SE, 4 km SW, 9 km W, and 4.4 km NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high, averaging 2,641 tonnes per day (ranging from 2,029 to 3,253 tonnes per day), with a high value of 4,627 on 27 August. The Alert Level was remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained the Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-color scale) for residents of the Alto Biobío municipality and access to an area within 1 km of El Agrio Crater was restricted to the public.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-8 September ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 27-28 and 30-31 August, and 1-2 September. Ash plumes rose up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, SE, and S. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that explosions at Karymsky were last recorded on 29 July. A thermal anomaly was weak for most of August and undetectable after 21 August. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 3 September.

Makushin | Fox Islands (USA) : Seismicity at Makushin returned to background levels after steadily declining for almost three months following a sequence of earthquakes about 10 km E of the summit at a depth of 8 km that had started on 15 June. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 September.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 3 September geologists observed Rincón de la Vieja from the summit and noted that the acid lake in the main crater had a low water level, was actively convecting, and exhibited strong gas emissions. The temperature of the lake was 60 degrees Celsius. Vigorous fumaroles on the inner W wall of the crater were 120 degrees Celsius. At 0559 on 8 September an eruption produced a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 2-8 September. Seismicity was characterized by high levels of explosions, harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but the Washington VAAC and IG webcams recorded daily ash plumes that rose 600-1,500 m above the summit and drifted NW, W, and S. Lahars were periodically generated by heavy rains. On 2 September pyroclastic flows descended the SE flank.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0541 on 8 September an ash plume from Semeru rose 400 m above the summit and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images daily during 28 August-4 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported periodic nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 28 August-4 September, and there was a total of 11 eruptions. An eruption at 0234 on 4 September generated a grayish white ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim before entering weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 2 September 2020 – 8 September 2020

Kavachi | Solomon Islands : Satellite data showed discoloured water around Kavachi possibly beginning in early September; by 7 September discoloured plumes in the water were visible E of the submarine cone.

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 600 m above Sinabung’s summit and drifted in multiple directions on most days during 2-8 September. At 0513 on 5 September an eruption produced a gray ash plume that rose at least 800 m and drifted NNE. Emissions were brown and white on 6 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 26 August 2020 – 1 September 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 17-28 August; the volcano was quiet during 29-31 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that no eruptions at Asosan had been observed since 16 June; only white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater afterwards. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been low since mid-June, and volcanic-tremor amplitude decreased to low levels on 18 July. During a field inspection on 17 August, observers noted no water in the crater and a whitish area at the center of the crater floor. On 18 August the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 August-1 September ash plumes from Dukono rose 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 14-17 and 21-28 August that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, S, and NW. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 22 August. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 16 and 24-25 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 3-16 explosions per hour at Fuego recorded during 26 August-1 September, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-20 km NW, W, and SW. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high, causing avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). During 26-27 August a lava flow traveled 150 m down the Ceniza drainage and lengthened to 400 m on 28 August; the front of the lava flow generated block avalanches. By 30 August the continuously active flow was 500 m long. During 31 August-1 September the first 200 m of the lava flow was active and continued to produce block avalanches.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 18-29 August white and gray ash plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted in multiple directions; weather conditions prevented observations on 27 August. The Darwin VAAC noted a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 23 August. Emissions were brown and white on 30 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Irazu | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazú’s seismic network recorded land movement 1.2 km SW of the SW crater rim in a high area used for radio and television antennas. Landslides in the area had been observed since 2014, but activity accelerated in the previous months. The number of events indicating landslides began to exponentially increase particularly after 20 August. The rate of movement had increased to 20 m/year horizontally and about 25 m/year vertically by 24 August; movement of more than 20 cm was recorded during 23-24 August. A large block collapsed to the NW, into the Rio Sucio drainage, during the morning of 26 August.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and quickly dissipated.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 18 and 21 August; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 14-28 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 19-22 August brown emissions from Kerinci rose as high as 600 m above the summit and drifted W. Pilots reported that during 20-21 August ash plumes rose to 4-4.6 km (13,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l., or 150-770 m above the summit, and drifted NE and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Japan Coast Guard reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 19 August scientists observed a white plume comprised of volcanic gases rising 3 km from the crater. No lava effusion was visible, though the inner crater was hot. The entire island was covered with ash.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 26 August-1 September Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 150 m above the crater rim. By 30 August lava flows advanced 300 and 650 m on the NE and N flanks, respectively. A continually active 300-m-long lava flow originated from a vent on the NW flank. By 31 August no fumes rose from the NE lava flow, suggesting it was no longer advancing. Two lava flows, 50 and 350 m long, advanced N on 1 September.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 25 August-1 September there were 96-331 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing phreatic activity at Rincón de la Vieja during 19 August-1 September. Phreatic explosions were recorded almost daily, sometimes multiple times a day, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation of emissions. Plumes were seen rising 0.5-1 km above the crater rim on 19, 24, 28, and 31 August.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 29 explosions at Sabancaya during 24-30 August. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km above the summit and drifted E, SE, and S, SW, and NW. Four thermal anomalies over the crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation was detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. On 29 August Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported increased activity during 28-29 August and noted higher seismic levels and inflation over the previous few weeks. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 26 August-1 September explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended multiple flanks of Caliente cone; some reached the base of the cone and were sometimes accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. The lava dome was incandescent most nights, sometimes for prolonged periods of time.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified almost daily in satellite images during 14-28 August; weather cloud cover prevented views on 15 and 27 August. A plume of resuspended ash drifted 75 km ESE on 24 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 14-24 August. Occasional eruptive events and about 12 explosions were recorded during 18-24 August. One of the explosions, detected at 0452 on 21 August, ejected blocks as far as 600 m from the crater. An explosion at 1449 that same day generated a grayish white ash plume that rose more than 2 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was noted in Toshima village (4 km SSW) on 21 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : On 21 August OVSICORI-UNA reported that fracturing of SW wall of Turrialba’s active crater, along with an area of incandescence within the fracture zone, had been observed during the previous month. An eruption was recorded at 1253 on 22 August, though a plume was not visible due to weather conditions. At 2301 on 24 August a plume rose 1 km above the crater rim.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 26 August 2020 – 1 September 2020

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 August an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 August an ash plume from Manam rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW, based on satellite data and a ground-based observer. On 31 August an ash plume rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 21 August white-and-brown emissions rose 100 m above Raung’s summit and drifted N and S. White plumes rose as high as 100 m during 22-26 August; weather conditions prevented visual observations during 27-31 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 2 km above Sinabung’s summit and drifted in multiple directions during 18-20, 23-25, and 31 August. An eruptive event was recorded at 0517, though weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. White plumes were seen rising 100-400 m during 22 and 26-30 August. Notably, at 1823 on 19 August an ash plume rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted ESE. At 0741 on 23 August a gray ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E; pyroclastic flows traveled about 1 km down the E and SE flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 12 August 2020 – 18 August 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 10-17 August. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was just over 1,000 tons/day on 13 August. During an overflight on 14 August observers noted that emissions were rising from multiple vents in the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A discrete ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on 17 August; the event was associated with a summit thermal anomaly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 7, 9, 11, and 13 August that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, S, and E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 9 August. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images on 7 and 10 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 12-14 and 16-17 August ash plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted N, W, and S. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations of the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 August an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 7 and 10 August; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 7-14 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1602 on 12 August a brown ash emission from Kerinci rose 1 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. At 1225 on 13 August and 0731 on 15 August brown ash emissions rose 600-800 m and drifted ENE and NW, respectively. On 16 August brown emissions rose 300-500 m and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 12-18 August ash plumes from Nishinoshima rose to 2.4-5.5 km (8,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, W, and SW.

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 11-17 August. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed sometimes multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted NW and W. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled 500-700 m down mainly the NE and E flanks during 12-13 and 15-16 August. A lava flow traveled 200 m down the NE flank on 13 August. The flow lengthened to 300 m by 15 August and remained active, though did not advance, through 18 August. A small pyroclastic flow descended the NE flank during 15-16 August.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 7-14 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported, based on satellite images and weather models, that on 14 and 16 August ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. A thermal anomaly was visible on 16 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).