Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 6 March – 12 March 2019

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) : Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW, and to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 1-12 March. Strong gas-end-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. Hot avalanches originating from the top of the lava dome were visible at night. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images during 1 and 4-5 March rising as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 90 km E. A thermal anomaly was also visible on those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 6-11 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW, and crater incandescence was visible each night. As many as six volcanic earthquakes and two rockfalls per day were recorded by the seismic network. Phreatic events recorded at 0811 on 7 March and 0627 on 8 March generated grayish ash plumes that rose 500 and 300 m above the crater, respectively, and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : During an overflight between 0700 and 0800 on 6 March tourists observed a new active fissure on the NW flank of Piton de la Fournaise’s Piton Madoré, 150 m upstream of the main vent. The fissure likely opened the day before during 0900 and 1900. The tourist report noted that a small cone had formed, and a lava flow was traveling N. In the morning of 7 March at least six new vents were visible, although weather conditions prevented OVPF volcanologists from confirming if they were along a new fissure. During fieldwork on 8 March volcanologists inspected the 5 March fissure and observed a small cone ejecting material up to 10 m above the rim. Lava from the W side flowed a few tens of meters, and a flow from the N side progressed E. The new vents that opened on 7 March were confirmed to be along an E-W trending fissure. The vents were active, each producing 50-m-high lava fountains. The report also noted that samples from the 5 March and 7 March vents had different compositions, though no other details were noted. Lava flows traveled to around 1,000 m elevation. Satellite images showed sulfur dioxide plumes drifting 450-550 km E on 8 March. Lava flows rapidly progressed during 8-9 March; the lava emission rate was variable, ranging up to 25 cubic meters per second (based on satellite data), although since the new fissures opened the highest values (over 50 cubic meters per second) measured the past few days were approximately 10 times higher than the average values recorded during the 2017-2018 eruptions. By 0800 on 9 March the flow front was at an estimated elevation of 650-700 m. After a phase of intense surficial activity during 9-10 March, with lava fountains rising as high as 100 m, lava-flow emissions ceased around 0628 on 10 March and seismicity significantly decreased.

San Cristobal | Nicaragua : INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristóbal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 10 March an eruption at Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone generated a white, brown, and gray ash plume that, according to a ground observer, rose 600 m and drifted SW. An event at 0600 on 11 March produced a dense gray-to-brown ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 27 February – 5 March 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 28 February-1 March. Strong gas-and-steam emissions continued to be visible. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images during 22 and 24-26 February rising as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 216 km E. A thermal anomaly was visible during 24-25 and 27-28 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the fissure that opened 19 February at a site located at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré, E of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater, continued during 27 February-5 March. RSAM measurements showed fluctuating intensities though an overall upwards trend. Based on satellite images, the main flow front progressed slowly during 22-28 February, advancing only 300 m to 1,200 m elevation. A new lava flow emerged from an area near the cone and traveled NE; the more southern branches did not advance during 28 February-1 March. Scientists conducted fieldwork on 5 March and noted that the cone had grown to 100 m wide at the base, 25 m tall, and had a vent opening 50 m wide. High-temperature gas emissions rose from the vent, and Strombolian activity ejected material. White steam rose from the base of the cone, likely from the presence of lava tubes. The northernmost lava flow remained active.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 20 February – 26 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1631 on 22 February an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 18-25 February. At 0059 on 22 February an event generated a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ejected material 600-900 m from the crater. During 22-25 February there were two events, one of which was explosive. Plumes rose as high as 1.2 km, and material as ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-24 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, SE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 15-22 February that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : On 25 February AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past month and there was no evidence of explosive activity. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 February ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and ENE. A thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau began at 1525 on 23 February and lasted four minutes and 31 seconds. An ash plume rose to about 610 m above sea level and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-21 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was unchanged from the previous few weeks. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. White emissions rose as high as 375 m above the crater rim. On 18 February multiple block-and-ash flows traveled at most 1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 20 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 18-24 February. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Although weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations, gas-and-ash plumes were seen rising as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km SW. MIROVA detected two thermal anomalies. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 15-22 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued to grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with variable ash content rising 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 15-22 February. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba on 21 February generated a plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. Frequent ash pulses were recorded that day. Ash emissions were frequent during 22-24 February, though of variable intensity and duration. Plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted NW and SW. On 22 February ashfall was reported in Santa Cruz (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and a sulfur odor was evident in Moravia (31 km WSW). Cloudy weather conditions prevented visual observations of the vent during 25-26 February.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 20 February – 26 February 2019

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 27 February KVERT reported increased activity at Bezymianny characterized by nighttime crater incandescence, hot avalanches originating from the lava dome, and occasionally strong fumarolic activity. The report noted that the temperature of the thermal anomaly was gradually increasing. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 20-26 February dense white plumes rose as high as 500 m above the rims of Karangetang’s Main Crater and Kawah Dua (North Crater). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite images drifting 200 km E during 16-20 February, and a thermal anomaly was visible during 16 and 18-20 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that activity continued during 20-26 February from the fissure that opened on 19 February; the site is at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré, E of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater. On 21 February scientists mapped the slowly eastward-advancing flows (and also those that had erupted on 18 February). They noted that the cone at the vent was growing, and hosted a lava lake that ejected spatter from bursting gas bubbles. A channelized lava flow traveled 1 km E and descended 200 m elevation before splitting into two flows near Guyanin Crater. The more northern of the two flows was 50 m wide and had progressed as far as 1,320 m elevation. The second more southerly flow was 200 m wide and itself split into two flows about 300 m SE of Guyanin Crater; one branch went to about 1,350 m elevation and the other to 1,300 m. Overall the longest part of the lava flow had traveled 1.9 km from the vent. During 22-26 February the lava emission rate was variable up to 16 cubic meters per second (based on satellite data), though webcam images from 24 February indicated that the flow had not significantly advanced.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 23-26 February seismicity at Poás was dominated by low-frequency events. Robust gas emissions rose from four fumarolic vents in the area previously covered by a lake, though the most vigorous emissions originated from vent A (Boca Roja). Minor incandescence from vent A was sometimes visible at night. A sulfur odor was reported in areas downwind including Naranjo, Zarcero, and Grecia (16 km SW). Particles of molten sulfur were included in ash deposits collected in Naranjo. Ashfall was reported in Canoas de Alajuela on 26 February.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 February an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 13 February – 19 February 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an explosive event at Agung was recorded at 0434 on 14 February, causing ashfall in Bugbug village, 20 km SE. Crater incandescence was recorded at night by webcams in Karangasem City (16 km SE). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that 12-18 February incandescence was visible from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), and two events and two explosions were recorded. One of the explosions occurred at 0624 on 14 February, producing a plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejecting material 500-700 m from the crater. An explosion on 17 February generated a plume that rose 2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1-1.3 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-15 February that sent ash plumes to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 11 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : On 19 February INGV summarized Etna’s fissure eruption that occurred high on the SE flank during 24-27 December 2018, noting that 3-4 million cubic meters of lava erupted and covered an area of 1 square kilometer. After the event seismicity gradually decreased. The last significant event was a ML 4.1 recorded on 8 January 2019; afterwards seismicity was characterized as frequent events with modest magnitudes. Since the beginning of January ash emissions intermittently rose mainly from Northeast Crater (NEC) and more sporadically from Bocca Nuova. News sources noted that the Catania Airport (Aeroporto di Catania – Sicilia) was closed during 26-27 January. Preliminary assessments of some of the ash deposits showed they contained no juvenile material. During 11-17 February ash emissions of variable intensity rose from NEC and were notable on 14 and 18 February. Volcanic tremor amplitude did not significantly vary compared to the previous week, having average values overall. The Catania Airport announced the partial closure of airspace and flight delays during 17-18 February due to ash emissions.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 February ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1309 on 13 February an observer noted a brownish-white ash plume rising 400 m above Kerinci’s crater rim and drifting NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that a brief explosive event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 0026 on 14 February, though weather conditions prevented clear views of the event. During 15-17 February diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the summit. At 1402 on 18 February another short-lived event produced an ash plume that rose about 500 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 February an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 8-17 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was about the same as the previous week, and there were no apparent morphological changes. Most of the extruded lava did not add to the dome volume but instead fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage and the SE flank. Incandescent avalanches traveling down the SE flank were visible at night. At 0858 on 11 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 400 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 February growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was very slow (10.8 cubic meters per hour). White water vapor emissions, occasionally grayish from included tephra, rose as high as 1.7 km and drifted SE and NE. Crater incandescence was recorded by a webcam each day. At 0109 on 15 February an explosive event partially destroyed the lava dome and ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-19 February there were 20-140 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. Seismicity began to increase at 2100 on 14 February coincident with the onset of Strombolian activity. Incandescent material was ejected 1.5 km onto the flanks, and gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the carter rim and drifted SW. The phase lasted for about seven hours. Explosions were recorded at 1528, 1602, 1824, and 1935 on 14 February and at 0409 on 15 February. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Zacualpan (31 km SW), Jonacatepec (43 km SW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), and in Tochimilco (16 km SSE).

During 0044-0606 on 16 February Strombolian activity ejected incandescent material that fell back into the crater. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted SE. A period of harmonic tremor began at 1600, accompanied by emissions of water vapor and gas that rose 1.5 km. By 1830 ejected incandescent fragments were visible and fell onto flanks 400 m from the crater. Plumes rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Seismicity decreased by 2100 and material was no longer being ejected above the crater rim, though crater incandescence remained visible. There were at least 14 explosions detected on 17 February; the more significant events were recorded at 0438, 0457, 0719, 0821, and 0956, generating plumes that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Tlaxco (85 km NE) and Xalostoc, Nativitas (40 km NE), Hueyotlipan (57 km NNE), Amaxac de Guerrero (60 km NE), Tepetitla de Lardizábal (37 km NE), Texoloc, and Tlaxcala (51 km NE). An explosion at 0704 on 18 February produced a plume that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. An explosion was detected at 0613 on 19 February. On 20 February CENAPRED noted growth of lava dome #82. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 8-15 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued to grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with variable ash content rising to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 13-15 February a period of almost continuous gas emissions with minor ash content rose 200-300 m above the rim of Turrialba’s active vent. The plumes drifted NW, W, and SW. An event at 1330 on 15 February produced a plume that rose 1 km and drifted W. During the morning of 18 February a plume with low ash content rose from the vent. An event at 1310 generated a plume that rose 500 m and drifted W.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 13 February – 19 February 2019

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 13-19 February sometimes-dense white plumes rose as high as 400 m above the rim of Karangetang’s Main Crater. White emissions that were occasionally bluish rose mostly 50-150 m above Kawah Dua’s (North Crater) crater rim, though on 18 February the plumes were grayish and rose 200-300 m. Roaring sounds from the volcano were occasionally noted at an observation post. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that at 1427 on 16 February a satellite image captured an ash plume from Karymsky drifting 55 km SE at altitudes of 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). According to the Tokyo VAAC a possible ash plume on 17 February rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A weak ash plume drifting 117 km ESE was visible in satellite images on 18 February.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis began at Piton de la Fournaise at 1521 on 16 February accompanied by rapid deformation. The number of earthquakes sharply decreased at 1618 and deformation stopped at 1630. A second seismic crisis began at 0916 on 18 February, again accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor commenced at 0948, coincident with at least eruptive fissures opening on the E flank of Dolomieu crater. Weather conditions prevented good views of the eruption site. Lava fountains rose less than 30 m above the vents, and after about an hour the longest lava flow reached 1,900 m elevation. Lava effusion ceased at 2200 on 18 February. A seismic crisis began at 1500 on 19 February, and tremor began to be recorded at 1700. Gas emissions were recorded by webcams for about an hour. During an overflight on 20 February the OVPF team observed a new eruption site located at 1,800 m elevation at the foot of Piton Madoré. One fissure opened and at 0620 only one lava fountain was active. The front of a lava flow reached 1,300 m elevation.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that since 8 February almost continuous emissions of gas has been recorded at Poás, with plumes rising as high as 1 km and drifting mainly SW. During 13-14 February the emissions contained ash; gas-and-ash plumes drifted SW, impacting areas downwind including Naranjo, Zarcero, and Grecia (16 km SW). Gas-and-ash emissions rose from the crater on 15 February, and gas emissions were recorded on 18 February.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 18 February an eruption at Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone generated a dense white-and-brown ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted WSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 30 January-5 February 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 28 January-1 February. An explosion at 1400 on 1 February produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. During a field survey that same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000 tons/day, an increase from the previous measurement of 1,800 tons/day recorded on 22 January. An explosion at 0228 on 3 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and ejected tephra 800-1,100 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 January an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 3-5 February ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25 January-1 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 27 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 1713-1915 on 29 January an eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted E, and a pyroclastic flow. Ash fell in parts of Yakushima. During 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 27 January observers noted that the inner crater was 150 m deep and had an unchanged diameter of 300 m. There was no visible lava dome at the bottom of the crater. Each day during 28 January-5 February there were 81-207 steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : During 28 January-5 February IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 600-800 m down the flanks on most days.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 25 January-1 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 415 km E and W. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor, sporadic ash emissions that rose to low heights above Turrialba’s active crater were recorded on most days during 28 January-4 February. An event at 0640 on 1 February produced a taller plume which rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. OVSICORI-UNA noted that activity had been slowly decreasing in 2019. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes had been recorded, and tremors were decreasing in both energy and duration. The number of low-frequency, volcanic earthquakes (LPs) remained stable, although they had decreasing amplitudes. No explosions had been recorded, and emissions were weak, had short durations, and very dilute ash contents.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 30 January-5 February 2019

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) – Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 January ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) – PVMBG reported that the current eruption at Karangetang began with increased seismicity and thermal anomalies in November 2018. Since then activity was dominated by lava-dome growth, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows. A gray ash plume rose above the summit craters on 30 January. By 2 February ’a’a lava from Kawah Dua (North Crater) had traveled 2.5 km NNW down the Melebuhe River drainage, prompting the evacuation of eight families (about 21 people). A section of the local road was closed, from W of the Batuare River to Kali Melebuhe. According to a news article the flow was 50 m thick in some areas. Seismic signals indicating avalanches sharply increased on 3 February. Lava and pyroclastic flows originated from the Kawah Dua crater, traveling as far as 1 km W down the Sumpihi River drainage, 2 km NW down the Batuare River, and 2.9 km NW down the Malebuhe drainage. BNPB reported that 112 residents (from Niambangeng, Kampung Beba, and Batubulan villages) had evacuated by 1730 on 4 February, and according to a news article the lava crossed the highway at 1800. The lava flow continued to progress and reached the ocean during 5-6 February.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) – PVMBG reported that during 25-31 January the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was 461,000 cubic meters, relatively unchanged from the previous week. During 0000-2000 on 29 January as many as nine incandescent rockfall events were recorded, with material traveling 200-700 m SE in the Gendol River drainage. Three pyroclastic flows, recorded at 2017, 2053, and 2141, traveled 1.1-1.4 km down the Gendol drainage, and produced minor ashfall in areas E including Boyolali (17 km E), Mriyan (5 km E), and Mojosongo (44 km E). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Planchon-Peteroa | Central Chile-Argentina border – Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported an increase in ash emissions at Planchón-Peteroa beginning at 1700 on 1 February, with ash plumes rising as high as 2 km and drifting E. This activity was accompanied by the appearance of discrete, very-low-frequency seismic events which were only recorded that day. On 3 February webcams showed gas-and-ash plumes rising to heights less than 2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curicó (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW).

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 113 degrees Fahrenheit (45.0 degrees Celsius) in Port Augusta, South Australia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 63.4 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53.0 degrees Celsius) at Oimyakon, Siberia.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 1 February 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: ERUPTION AT 20190201/0027Z FL260 REPORTED OBS VA DTG:01/0040Z

Sakurajima (Kyushu, Japan): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: EXPLODED AT 20190201/0500Z FL060 EXTD SE OBS VA DTG:01/0450Z

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA EM.

Reventador (Ecuador): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT EMISSIONS OF VA

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 15 kts in ENE direction.

Nevados de Chillán (Central Chile): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT PULSES OF VA

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 27 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Anchorage warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 and is moving at 20 kts in N direction.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL060 EST VA DTG:27/0000Z

Reventador (Ecuador): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Sabancaya (Peru): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 25000 ft (7600 m) altitude or flight level 250.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150.

Barren Island (Indian Ocean): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSIONS TO FL030 HAVE CEASED

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 24 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 25 kts in SW direction.

Manam (Papua New Guinea): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140.

Dukono (Halmahera): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: CONTINUOUS VA TO FL070 LAST OBS AT 23/0700 EXT E

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): The volcano has been particularly active recently. A series of very strong explosions occurred on Tuesday (22 Jan 2019) which destroyed the most recent lava dome that had accumulated in the summit crater. The strongest was a powerful vulcanian-type eruption at 21:07 local time, which ejected incandescent material to more than 2 km height and distance from the crater and produced an ash plume that rose approx. 4 km above the summit. The ejecta showered the entire upper cone of the volcano with glowing bombs, in up to 2 km distance.

Fuego (Guatemala): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: NEW VA CLD

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: SPORADIC PUFFS OF VA.

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 20 January 2019

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070.

Fuego (Guatemala): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 18000 ft (5500 m) altitude or flight level 180 .

Turrialba (Costa Rica): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 12500 ft (3800 m) altitude or flight level 125.

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: EMISSIONS OF STEAM AND PSBL VA

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: WEAK EMISSION OF VA

Nevados de Chillán (Central Chile): (19 Jan) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: NO VA EMISSIONS

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 18 January 2019

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 13000 ft (4000 m) altitude or flight level 130 and is moving at 20 kts in E direction.

Kuchinoerabu-jima (Ryukyu Islands): (17 Jan) Following renewed unrest and a minor eruption beginning last August, earlier today a more significant explosion occurred, sending ash to 20,000ft (6km) and generating a moderate pyroclastic flow which travelled 1.5km (~1 mile) down the southwest flank, though fortunately did not affect adjacent communities. No injuries have been reported and this event was smaller than the powerful explosion in 2015. JMA has kept the alert level at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Kadovar (Northeast of New Guinea): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude or flight level 100 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.

Cleveland (Aleutian Islands, Alaska): (17 Jan) A new lava dome has been observed to be growing in the summit crater following a small explosion on January 9- continuing a pattern of behaviour typical of Cleveland since it began a period of regular activity in 2005. AVO raised Cleveland to ORANGE/WATCH.

Reventador (Ecuador): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: VA DETECTED IN STLT IMAGERY

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: continuous ash emissions

Planchón-Peteroa (Central Chile and Argentina): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Volcanoes Today, 15 Jan 2019

Karymsky (Kamchatka): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190114/2255Z FL150 EXTD E MOV 10KT REPORTED

Shiveluch (Kamchatka): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 .

Bezymianny (Central Kamchatka Depression): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) issued the following report: VA AT 20190115/0606Z FL120 EXTD SE MOV 5KT REPORTED

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 and is moving at 15 kts in SW direction.

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Washington (VAAC) issued the following report: POSS VA 15/0927

Sabancaya (Peru): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) issued the following report: INTERMITTENT PUFF EMISSION