Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 12 January – 18 January 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 10-17 January. Seismic data showed a decreasing number of volcanic earthquakes.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 6-13 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 12-18 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes mainly drifted 10-20 km S and SW causing almost daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and La Rochela. Ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km E and NE during 14-16 January. Daily, periodic shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the flanks in all directions, but most commonly were visible in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material up to 150-350 m above the summit during 12-16 January.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 12-18 January, though cloudy conditions prevented satellite and webcam confirmation. Seismicity was very low and small events were occasionally recorded. Steam emissions were observed in webcam views during 14-15 January.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported increased explosive activity at Karymsky and a thermal anomaly visible in satellite images during 7-8 and 11-12 January. Explosions during 11-13 January produced ash plumes that drifted almost 130 km in various directions.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater at around 1840 on 11 January. The level of the lava lake had increased 13 m by about 0300 on 12 January, slightly surpassing the level prior to the pause that began on 10 January; the lake has risen a total of 70 m since the beginning of the eruption. During 12-14 January the lake was active and lava oozed out along the crusted-over E margins. A surge in lava effusion at the vent was recorded at 0545 on 15 January, coincident with a peak in summit inflation. Effusion had paused by the afternoon, though minor activity at the vent on the N side of the spatter cone, minor overturns of the lake, and small oozes of lava at the lake’s margins persisted. The lake level dropped 10 m by the morning of 16 January. Small overturns of the crusted lake were visible during 16-17 January. By 18 January the lake was completely crusted over and a small wispy plume rose from the vent.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 11-16 January. Ash plumes rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and W during 11-14 January. Incandescent material ejected up to 300-700 m SE from the vent was accompanied by rumbling and banging noises. Eruption noises persisted through 16 January but weather prevented visual confirmation of activity during 15-16 January.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported no significant morphological changes at Merapi’s lava domes, located just below the SW rim and in the summit crater, during 6-13 January. The intensity of the seismic signals remained at high levels. As many as 123 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2.2 km SW down the Bebeng drainage, and four pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2.5 km SW.

Pavlof – United States : AVO reported that elevated seismicity at Pavlof during 12-18 January was characterized by daily periods of tremor. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion near the vent and the active lava flow on the SE flank were identified in satellite images almost daily; weather clouds prevented views for periods of time during 12-13 January.

Rincon de la Vieja – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0024 on 13 January a two-minute eruption was recorded at Rincón de la Vieja, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. Residents to the N heard the eruption and felt vibrations, and lahars were seen in the Rio Azul. Small eruptive events were recorded at 1153 on 15 January and 1243 on 18 January, but plumes were not visible due to weather clouds.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 12-17 January. White steam plumes that were sometimes dense rose as high as 1 km above the summit almost daily, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Incandescent avalanches traveled as far as 500 m down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank during 11-12 January. White-and-gray ash plumes rose 300 m during 14-15 January. At 1020 on 16 January a collapse from the end of the active lava flow in the Kobokan drainage produced a pyroclastic flow, and an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted N. An eruptive event at 0534 on 17 January generated an ash plume that a ground observer reported rising 400 m.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity and elevated seismicity at Semisopochnoi’s North Cerberus cone continued during 12-18 January. A small explosion was recorded by local seismic and infrasound sensors during 12-13 January. The weather was mostly cloudy, though low-level ash clouds were occasionally visible in webcam images during 12-15 January. Steam emissions were visible in 15-16 January webcam images.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 8-14 January. Intense steam-and-gas emissions with ash were visible during 6-7 and 9-11 January; plumes rose as high as 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 175 km W.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 10-17 January. There were 157 explosions recorded, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 800 m away from the crater. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Volcanologists observed ash-and-steam plumes rising from the crater during an overflight on 17 January.

Turrialba – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that incandescence from Turrialba’s West Crater was visible overnight during 15-16 January. Eruptive events were recorded at 2126 and 2132 on 17 January; the second event was stronger and produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 1 km above the crater. Ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported by residents in Coronado, Tres Rios (30 km SW), Alajuela (50 km W), and Santa Ana (46 km WSW). At 1115 on 18 January an eruptive event produced a plume that rose 300 m and drifted SW.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : On 18 January GeoNet reported results from an overflight of Whakaari/White Island the week before, noting a significant decrease of temperatures at the active vent area and a small decrease in gas emissions. Temperatures in the main vent area were as high as 191 degrees Celsius, a decrease from a high value of 516 measured in December. Gas emissions had slightly decreased since December; both sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gas emission rates were slightly below the 10-year average. Both the gas-emission and temperature data were consistent with a degassing magma body below the surface. Very minor ash emissions continued to be visible with deposits only extending around the active vents. The water in the lake had receded likely due to recent dry weather conditions.

Yasur – Vanuatu : The Wellington VAAC reported that on 15 January intermittent low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Ashfall was reported in nearby villages. A Sentinel satellite image acquired that same day showed a strip of ash deposits in areas to the NW. Continuous, low-level ash plumes were visible in satellite and webcam images on 17 and 18 January rising to 1.5 km a.s.l. and drifting SE and W, respectively.

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