Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.1 Earthquake hits New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

5.0 Earthquake hits the Gulf of California.

5.0 Earthquake hits off shore Chiapas, Mexico.

Mexico – Hopes that rescuers will find more survivors trapped beneath collapsed buildings in central Mexico were fading on Thursday, as the scale of the devastation wreaked by the country’s deadliest earthquake for a generation started to become clear.

The death toll from Tuesday’s 7.1 magnitude quake rose to 282, including at least 137 in the capital, and was almost certainly set to rise as rescue workers continue to search the precarious ruins amid the threat of aftershocks, collapsing rubble and gas leaks.

Frida Sofía, age 12: the Mexico City quake ‘survivor’ who was never there Read more Parts of Mexico City – which is built on a drained lakebed – were devastated in the quake which struck 32 years to the day after the country’s deadliest earthquake killed thousands and laid waste to the capital.

But details of the destruction outside the capital are only now starting to emerge, with reports of entire towns flattened and thousands of people left homeless.

Directly south of Mexico City in Morelos state, the death toll stands at 73. The damage was especially acute in the municipality of Jojutla, where houses were reduced to rubble.

In Puebla state, authorities have declared a state of “extraordinary emergency” in 112 municipalities – equivalent to 51% of the region.

At least 1,700 homes have been declared uninhabitable and should be demolished over coming months, according to the state governor. The number could well rise after experts finish more exhaustive inspections.

In Metepec, a quaint colonial town, almost every house and business has suffered structural damage, raising fears among residents that the rebuild could take years.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Gl sst mm

In the North Atlantic Ocean: Hurricane Maria is located about 35 mi…55 km ENE of Grand Turk island and about 490 mi…790 km ESE of Nassau with maximum sustained winds…125 mph…205 km/h. Present movement…NW or 315 degrees at 7 mph…11 km/h.

Post-tropical Cyclone Jose is located about 125 mi…200 km SE of Nantucket Massachusetts with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…W or 270 degrees at 2 mph…4 km/h.


DR Congo – At least 10 people have died and another 92 are missing in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo due to flooding after torrential rains caused a river to overflow its banks, a local official said on Wednesday.


CO2 Evolution

Plants have been observed changing the way they conduct photosynthesis over the past 40 years as levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have steadily increased.

Researchers led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography found that land-based plants have adjusted to higher levels of the greenhouse gas by increasing the efficiency with which they use waterith more CO2 in the air, plants have evolved to have fewer or smaller microscopic holes that allow leaves to absorb the gas. The plants then don’t need to draw up as much water from their roots to flourish.

Global Warming

Arctic Sea Ice

The Arctic ice cap reached its eighth-lowest extent on record at the time of year the sea ice is typically at its minimum coverage.

Scientists at the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) said that the sea ice had set a record for the smallest winter extent earlier this year and was on track to rival the record minimum set in 2012.

But a cloudy and cooler-than-normal August across the central Arctic slowed the seasonal melting.

“It’s not going to be a staircase heading down to zero every year,” said Ted Scambos of the NSIDC. “[But] the Arctic will continue to evolve towards less ice. There’s no dodging that.”

Lost Islands

Rising ocean levels in the South Pacific have swallowed at least eight low-lying islands in the Solomon Islands and Micronesia, where sea levels have risen by about half an inch each year since the early 1990s.

Australian researchers conducted coastal surveys, analyzed satellite data and spoke with island residents before making the conclusion. They found six of the islands went underwater between 2007 and 2014.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 116.2 degrees Fahrenheit (46.7 degrees Celsius) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 102.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 74.4 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – United Arab Emirates

On 23 August 2017, the national IHR focal point of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) reported one additional case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) infection.

Swine Flu – Maryland, USA

The Maryland Department of Health has identified the influenza virus strain H3N2v in seven Maryland residents who had close contact with pigs at the Charles County Fair. None of the infected individuals has developed serious illness or been hospitalized.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 13 September-19 September 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 4-11 September there were 52 events detected at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), seven of which were explosive and ejected material as far as 500 m. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was observed most nights. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 8-15 September a lava flow continued to move down the W flank of Bezymianny’s dome, and incandescence from the dome was visible at night. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 8-9 and 12-13 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discoloured ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in often cloudy satellite images and web camera views of Cleveland; elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-15 September and minor steaming was noted during 17-19 September. Nothing noteworthy was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 13-14 September generated ash plumes that rose 2.2 km (7,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : Based on INSIVUMEH notifications, CONRED reported that Fuego’s ninth effusive eruption phase in 2017 began on 13 September. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.2 km above the crater and drifted 15 km W and SW, causing ashfall in communities downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Pyroclastic flows descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) ravine on the W flank. The eruptive phase ended about 35 hours later. INSIVUMEH noted that on 14 September, explosions generated ash plumes that rose 750 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. Shock waves from some explosions vibrated nearby structures. A lava flow was active in the Santa Teresa ravine. Explosions on 15 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 750 m and drifted 5 km NW and SW. The lava flow was 300 m long. During 17-18 September ash plumes from explosions rose almost 1 km and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 250 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material around the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and El Porvenir.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : Based on satellite data, KVERT reported that ash explosions at Karymsky occurred at 0420 on 20 September, producing an ash cloud that drifted 95-100 km NNE. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 13-19 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain. On 13 September geologists noted that several prominent cracks running parallel to the coastline had widened in the past two weeks, underscoring the potential for bench collapse into the sea.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that on 8 September a weak thermal anomaly at Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Popocatepetl | Mexico : Each day during 12-19 September CENAPRED reported 141-299 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible daily. During 12-13 September there were 22 explosions detected, four of which generated emissions with minor amounts of ash and ejected incandescent tephra. An explosion was detected at 1820 on 14 September. On 19 September a plume with low ash content rose 1 km. CENAPRED stated that there was no significant increase in activity at Popocatépetl related to the M 7.1 earthquake, centered beneath Puebla (45 km E), that occurred at 1314. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Reventador | Ecuador : On 15 September, in a special report, IG summarized recent activity at Reventador noting lava flows during 24 June-1 July and 23-24 August, periods of frequent small explosions in August, and periods of explosions that were less frequent but moderate-to-large in size during July and September. Data indicated no changes in the internal and external activity of the volcano, suggesting that the eruption will continue with alternation of effusive and explosive activity in the next days to weeks.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya continued to decline; there was an average of 29 explosions recorded per day during 11-17 September. The earthquakes were dominated by long-period events and signals indicating emissions, with fewer numbers of hybrid events. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted no more than 30 km E and SE. The MIROVA system detected one thermal anomaly. The report warned the public not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified daily in satellite images during 8-15 September. Several explosive events during 8-13 September generated ash plumes that rose 9-10 km (29,500-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 400 km NW, E, and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 18 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-7.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted ESE, SE, SW.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Turrialba at 1555 on 13 September and 0600 on 14 September generated plumes that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and W. Another event at 0703 on 18 September produced a plume that rose 400 m.