Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.8 Earthquake hits Tonga.

5.7 Earthquake hits off the coast of Jalisco, Mexico.

5.2 Earthquake hits the Loyalty Islands.

5.2 Earthquake hits the Fox Islands in the Aleutian Islands.

5.2 Earthquake hits near the coast of Papua, Indonesia.

5.1 Earthquake hits Colombia.

5.0 Earthquake hits Taiwan.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Atlantic Ocean: Invest 95L is an area of disturbed weather in the Atlantic Ocean that has the potential for further tropical development.

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Typhoon 28w (Damrey), located approximately 182 nm northeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is tracking west-southwestward at 13 knots.


Vietnam – At least four people have been killed by heavy rain and flooding in Central Vietnam caused by a tropical storm. Storm Damrey is expected to make landfall on Sunday.

Floods and Groundwater

A new study has pointed out that flooding in polluted rivers has the potential to make groundwater unsafe for human use. Researchers collected water samples from 17 locations in December 2015 and April 2016 (i.e. during and after the floods). They tested the samples for salt and heavy-metal concentrations, the microbial load and their susceptibility to available antibiotics. The results showed that the heavy-metal concentration and microbial load in groundwater samples were high.

Additionally, scientists found a high level genetic similarities between bacteria from various locations, implying that they must have originated from a single domestic sewage source containing faecal matter. The findings show that floods have the potential to impact the microbial quality of groundwater in affected areas.

Global Warming

Ozone Hole Is Smallest Since 1988

Higher temperatures over Antarctica this year shrank the hole in the ozone layer to the smallest it’s been since 1988.

The ozone hole is a depletion of (O3) in the stratosphere above Antarctica. The three-oxygen molecule is toxic at ground level, but high in the atmosphere, it deflects dangerous ultraviolet rays from reaching Earth’s surface.

This year on Sept. 11, NASA measured the maximum extent of the hole at 7.6 million square miles (19.6 million square kilometers), 2.5 times the size of the United States.

That was smaller than in 2016, when the maximum extent was 8.9 million square miles (22.2 million square km), also a below-average size. According to NASA, the average maximum extent of the ozone hole since 1991 has hovered at about 10 million square miles (25.8 million square km).

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