Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.7 earthquake hits Arunachal Pradesh, India.

5.3 earthquake hits the Molucca Sea.

5.2 earthquake hits Greece.

5.2 earthquake hits the Izu Islands off Japan.

5.0 earthquake hits Guatemala.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm 06w (Danas), located approximately 374 nm south-southwest of Kunsan AFB, Korea is tracking northward at 11 knots.


Southeast Asia – At least 227 people have died since flash floods ravaged swathes of South Asia over the weekend, officials said Thursday. Flooding and landslides, triggered by torrential monsoon rains, have swept across India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, leaving devastation in each country. he northeastern Indian states of Bihar and Assam were hit particularly hard. The death toll has risen to 67 in Bihar and 10 in Assam, with more than 10.3 million people affected in total, according to the states’ disaster management authorities. In Bihar, the rains have eased, allowing the full extent of the damage to become clear. As the floodwaters recede, the bodies of previously undiscovered victims are being recovered, said state officials Thursday. The two Indian states have set up more than 900 relief camps and temporary shelters for evacuees and displaced families, who number over 265,000. In Nepal, the death toll has reached 88, according to the Home Ministry.

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June Hottest Month on Record

June 2019 was the hottest June on record for the globe. And, it was the second month in a row that balmy temperatures caused Antarctic sea ice coverage to reach a record low.

The sizzling average land and sea temperature of June 2019 was 1.71 degrees Fahrenheit (0.95 degrees Celsius) above the global average temp of 59.9 F (15.5 C), making June 2019 the hottest June in 140 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information.


Coral Reefs Suffering – Florida, USA

Climate change is killing the world’s coral reefs. But it’s not the only factor turning them into white, dead husks. According to a new study, all the chemicals humans are dumping into the ocean are making it easier for the hotter weather to do its deadly work.

Published in the journal Marine Biology, a paper based on 30 years of data concluded that nutrient pollution, stemming from fertilizer and improperly treated sewage, is responsible for coral death in Florida. “Our results provide compelling evidence that nitrogen loading from the Florida Keys and greater Everglades ecosystem caused by humans, rather than warming temperatures, is the primary driver of coral reef degradation.”

When the symbiotic relationship between coral and algae becomes stressed—due to temperature fluctuations or contamination—algae will leave the coral’s tissue, taking with it a major food source.

Once abandoned, coral turns white or very pale, and becomes more susceptible to disease.

Coral bleaching is not an immediate death sentence, though: A healthy coral can survive a bleaching event if water temperatures return to normal quickly. Many of the marine invertebrates do, however, lose their battle with bleaching.

Nature – Images

Interesting Images

A recent sunset photo stunned viewers. An unusual optical effect made the sunset resemble a split-screen image showing two very different skies side by side.

Though it looks unnatural, the so-called split sunset wasn’t created with filters or Photoshop. Rather, it was caused by the shadow of a large cloud below the horizon that prevented sunlight from striking the clouds that were closer to viewers on the ground. The photo was shot in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Screen Shot 2019 07 19 at 3 19 44 PM


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50.0 degrees Celsius) in Ouargla, Algeria.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 101.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 73.9 degrees Celsius) at Russia’s Vostok base, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Wildfires – Israel

Israel sent teams of firefighters and planes on Thursday (Jul 18) to contain a blaze near Jerusalem as record temperatures fuelled wildfires across the country.

Some 100 fires have been reported in Israel in recent days and at least three or four areas had to be evacuated. No one had been injured in the fires, which were likely sparked through negligence and amplified by high temperatures, drought and winds.


Food Poisoning – Moscow

The Moscow Department of Rospotrebnadzor reported this week that dozens of people have been sickened after eating food from vending machines in Moscow. As of Wednesday, at least 51 people developed symptoms of food poisoning and 26 required hospitalization.

DR Congo – Ebola

The World Health Organization on Wednesday declared Congo’s Ebola outbreak an international health emergency, sounding a rarely used global alarm after the virus threatened to spread to a major city and into neighbouring countries.

Despite a highly effective vaccine and a swift international response after it was declared 11 months ago, the outbreak has proved tenacious in an unstable region beset by violence, becoming Congo’s worst ever, with almost 1,700 dead.

Flu Season

At least 300 people have died from the flu in Australia, more than double the number in all of 2018. The most virulent flu strains in years have already infected 136,000 people, compared to about 17,350 at the same point in past years.

Health officials say this year’s vaccine appears to be “strongly effective” against most of the flu strains circulating. They add that careful monitoring is needed to see if the early spike of the Australian influenza outbreak has implications for the upcoming 2019-20 flu season in the Northern Hemisphere.


Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 10 July – 16 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 8-16 July very small eruptive events were detected at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), though none of them were explosive. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater reached a high value of 2,300 tons per day on 12 July. Very small events ejected sediment during 13-16 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-16 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5-12 July that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 11 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 4-5 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 July an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, based on satellite images and weather models.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 4-5 and 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded as many as 25 eruptive events during 1-7 July. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 8-14 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 July. White plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater recorded at 0657 on 14 July was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 9-15 July there were 49-326 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. As many as three explosions per day were recorded, though weather conditions often prevented visual characterization of ash emissions. An explosion at 1949 on 11 July generated an ash plume that rose 2.8 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash plumes were visible rising at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifting W and N. Blocks were observed rolling 500-600 m down the flanks on 10 and 16 July.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were visible in satellite images rising to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.108°S, 112.922°E | Elevation 3657 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 July an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW based on satellite images and weather models. Ash plumes rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. on 13 July and drifted NW and W.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 6-12 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that webcam images captured deposits of incandescent material on the flank 300 m from Villarrica’s summit crater in the morning of 15 July. Incandescent material from lava fountaining ejected above the crater rim was periodically visible on 16 July.