Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.0 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.0 earthquake hits the Chagos Archipelago.

Earthquake Island

A mud island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan during a 2013 temblor has disappeared beneath the waves.

The island was produced by one of the several mud volcanos in the region that are caused by the Arabian tectonic plate sinking beneath the Eurasian plate.

The process pushes mud and gas toward the surface, especially during strong earthquakes.

NASA satellite images showed that incessant ocean waves had eroded most of the island by the end of 2016. Recent images reveal “Earthquake Island” is now completely submerged beneath the northern Arabian Sea.


Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm 07w (Nari), located approximately 314 nm south-southwest of Yokosuka, Japan, is tracking north-northwestward at 13 knots.


Brazil – Death toll from the floods and landslides in Brazil’s northeast reached 13 on Wednesday, local officials said. The Fire Department in the northeastern Pernambuco state confirmed five deaths in Recife, five in Abreu e Lima, three in Olinda, including minors and women who could not take shelter from mudslides and landslides. Heavy rains paralyzed daily life in Recife, capital of Pernambuco since Tuesday. Recife, which has a population of around four million, received 101 millimeters of rainfall for six hours, well beyond seasonal expectations.

Global Warming

Climate Consensus

As all-time temperature records continue to be broken in heat waves around the Northern Hemisphere this summer, scientists say there has never been a time in the past 2,000 years when global temperatures have risen so quickly.

June 2019 was the hottest on record, and July is likely to be the hottest as well.

Scientists in three separate reports say that while the world has warmed and cooled many times over the centuries, soaring greenhouse gas emissions are resulting in a climate that is now warming as never seen before.

“This paper should finally stop climate change deniers claiming that the recent observed coherent global warming is part of a natural climate cycle,” said Mark Maslin, professor of climatology at University College London, who wasn’t part of the studies.

One of the lead authors says the scientific consensus that human activity is behind global heating is likely to have surpassed 99%.

Oceans Are Melting Glaciers from Below Much Faster than Predicted

Beneath the ocean’s surface, glaciers may be melting 10 to 100 times faster than previously believed, new research shows.

Until now, scientists had a limited understanding of what happens under the water at the point where ice meets sea. Using a combination of radar, sonar and time-lapse photography, a team of researchers has now provided the first detailed measurements of the underwater changes over time. Their findings suggest that the theories currently used to gauge glacier change are underestimating glaciers’ ice loss.

The warming atmosphere melts glaciers from above, while ocean water can erode the ice along the glacier’s face. Researchers have been studying similar effects of ocean water beneath the ice shelves in Antarctica, which slow the flow of the glaciers on land behind them. Last year, a study there found that warming ocean waters are contributing to glacial changes that increase the rate of sea level rise.

As fresh water from melting glaciers enters the ocean, it does more than increase sea level. “Plumes” of fast-moving runoff stir up nutrients locked deep in the water, which then feed phytoplankton and zooplankton near the surface, spurring population booms.

Changes in tidewater glaciers can have an impact on people living along the Alaskan coast, altering patterns in the ocean water that provides food and livelihood for many. Longer melt seasons mean more fresh water entering the ocean earlier in the year. This could affect things like salmon swimming up those streams or not.

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Iceland Reforestation

A warming climate is helping efforts in Iceland to restore the forests that once thrived before the seafaring Vikings colonized the island and razed its forests more than 1,000 years ago.

Nearly 97 percent of the native birch were felled to make way for farming as well as to build homes for the European settlers.

Iceland’s cool climate and volcanic eruptions have hampered efforts in the past to restore the forests.

But climate change is now allowing the birch to be planted along with non-native lodgepole pines and Sitka spruces, which grow more quickly.

Those species were also chosen for their ability to capture carbon and help Iceland mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) in Adrar, Algeria.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 96.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 71.1 degrees Celsius) at Russia’s Vostok base, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Leptospirosis – Philippines

Health officials in the Western Visayas are advising the public to be aware of leptospirosis this rainy season. According to the Department of Health CHD-6 Regional Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit (RESU), from January 1 to July 6, they have recorded 98 cases and 11 deaths, mostly in farmers.


Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 17 July – 23 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 19-22 July as many as four explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated ash plumes that rose at least to 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-22 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W, NW, and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images during 13-16 and 18 July. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, observed explosions during 15-16 July that sent ash plumes up to 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 15-17 July sporadic explosions at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were accompanied by small ash puffs that quickly dissipated. Strombolian activity at NSEC increased during the morning of 18 July with explosions occurring at a rate of one every 1-2 minutes. In the following hours the rate of explosions increased, and by the evening Strombolian activity was almost continuous. The activity continued to intensify until 2300 when a sharp decrease occurred. At 0009 on 19 July lava flowed from a new vent that opened on the lower NE flank of NSEC, and traveled towards the Valle del Leone. Within a few hours explosive activity again increased at NSEC; ash emissions occasionally rose from the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova Crater. Explosive activity decreased and had ceased by noon. A sudden increase in explosive activity was recorded that afternoon and by the evening three vents within NSEC were producing Strombolian activity and sporadic ash emissions. Ashfall was reported in areas on the S flank. Explosive activity at NSEC again declined in the late evening. NEC produced abundant ash emissions until the morning of 20 July. Just before 0800 on 20 July a new phase of explosive activity began at NSEC and lava effusion at the new vent on the NE flank increased. Later that morning explosive activity completely ceased; by evening the lava flow was only weakly fed.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky drifted 60 km in multiple directions during 13-17 July. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 14 and 16-18 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 15 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-21 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 21 July. White plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-23 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as four lava flows traveled down the NW and N flanks; two of the flows were 300 m long. Minor avalanches of material from the lava flow fronts descended the flanks.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 and 20-22 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified by pilots and in satellite images rising to 2.1-4.6 km (7,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 13-18 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that rain triggered a lahar at 1700 on 19 July that originated on the SW flank of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported a high level of incandescence from Villarrica’s summit crater on 22 July and lava bombs on the flanks just below the crater rim. Strombolian explosions intensified on 23 July, with material continuing to be ejected onto the flanks.