Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.0 earthquake hits Java, Indonesia.

5.9 earthquake hits Java, Indonesia.

5.4 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.3 earthquake hits Tonga.

Two 5.1 earthquakes hit Tonga.

5.0 earthquake hits Tonga.

5.0 earthquake hits the Molucca Sea.

5.0 earthquake hits New Britain, Papua New Guinea.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Atlantic Ocean: Post Tropical Cyclone Humberto is located about 525 mi…845 km ssw of Cape Race Newfoundland with maximum sustained winds…100 mph…155 km/h. Present movement…nne or 30 degrees at 20 mph…31 km/h.

Hurricane Jerry is located about 290 mi…465 km e of the northern Leeward islands with maximum sustained winds…105 mph…165 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 290 degrees at 16 mph…26 km/h.

Screen Shot 2019 09 20 at 1 05 25 PM

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm Kiko is located about 1370 mi…2205 km wsw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…nw or 315 degrees at 6 mph…9 km/h.

Tropical Storm Mario is located about 365 mi…590 km s of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…65 mph…100 km/h. Present movement…nne or 30 degrees at 5 mph…7 km/h.

Hurricane Lorena is located about 100 mi…160 km ese of Cabo San Lucas Mexico with maximum sustained winds…70 mph…110 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 290 degrees at 9 mph…15 km/h.

Screen Shot 2019 09 20 at 1 05 40 PM

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm 18w (Tapah), located approximately 210 nm south-southwest of Kadena AFB, Okinawa, Japan is tracking northwestward at 03 knots.


Texas, USA – Record-breaking rainfall from the tropical storm Imelda is soaking southeastern Texas. Some areas have been swamped with 20 to 42 inches (51 to 107 centimeters) of rain over just three days, causing catastrophic flooding that is among the worst in U.S. history.

Screen Shot 2019 09 20 at 12 29 00 PM

Mauritania: Floods – Aug 2019 – From 26 to 27 August 2019, Guidimakha Wilaya (Region), located in southeast Mauritania, witnessed torrential rains exceeding the 200 mm mark in the regional capital city of Sélibaby and which approached 300 mm in other areas of the region. These torrential rains caused heavy human and material damages in all three districts of the Wilaya namely Sélibaby, Ould Yenja and Ghabou. According to the latest information, a total of 4,200 households were affected including 850 homeless households.


Endangered Giant Salamanders of Mexico

Screen Shot 2019 09 20 at 12 29 29 PM

When the Aztecs settled the Valley of Mexico in the 13th century, they found a large salamander living in the lake surrounding the island where they built their capital, Tenochtitlán. They called the salamander “axolotl” after Xolotl, their god of fire and lightning. Xolotl was said to have transformed into a salamander, among other forms, to avoid being sacrificed so the sun and moon could move in the sky. He was eventually captured and killed.

In the same vein, axolotls were commonly killed for food by the Aztecs and are still eaten today in Mexico. They’ve also become one of the world’s most popular pets, thanks to their easy care and charisma. The creatures’ extraordinary regenerative abilities have made them an interesting study subject for scientists. But in their native home, the salamanders have almost disappeared.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources considers axolotls critically endangered and their population declining. Surveys in 1998 and 2008 found that the population density had dropped from about 6,000 individuals per square kilometer to 100 individuals per square kilometer. A more recent survey in 2015 found about 35 individuals per square kilometer.

Pollution has been particularly detrimental to the species. Poor waste regulations and increasing tourism in Mexico City mean that trash, plastics, heavy metals and high levels of ammonia spilled from waste-treatment plants clog the canals where the salamanders live.

Aussie bats suffer mass starvation event

A mass starvation event affecting bats in the Australian State of Queensland has left rescue organizations inundated and prompted a call to the public to leave food out in their backyards to support the struggling creatures.

The affected population are a native species known fruit bats, or flying foxes, which normally feed on fruit and nectar.

With the recent drought, developments and deforestation, there’s just not enough food supply and especially with the recent bushfires which aggravated the situation because there has been a lot of habitat loss.

Aggravating the problem is the issue that a number of bats are now failing to return to their colonies during the day and are instead remaining with food sources, leaving them vulnerable to birds, people and other dangers. They’re so desperate for food, when they do find a food source, they’re staying there and they’re guarding it and they’re refusing to leave.

Residents in the Gold Coast region are being told if they want to help the bats they can thread apples onto wire and hang them at least two meters from the ground in their gardens where the bats can feed safely during the night.

Global Warming

Hottest Summer

A full 90 percent of the world’s population just experienced the hottest summer on record, according to the U.S. agency NOAA.

While it was the second-hottest on record worldwide, most people live in the Northern Hemisphere, where records say it was a tie with 2016 as the hottest meteorological summer.

• French researchers say that mounting atmospheric CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels is warming the Earth’s surface more quickly than earlier predicted.

New models that will replace those used for the current U.N. global warming predictions point to an atmosphere up to 2 degrees Celsius hotter than the 2014 U.N. report had warned.


Nuclear Waste Flush

Japan’s power company is running out of storage for the radioactive water held in tanks at the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant and will have to start dumping it into the Pacific.

Since the 2011 meltdowns, brought on by an offshore temblor and subsequent tsunami, the Tokyo Electric Power Company has collected more than 1 million tons of contaminated water from the cooling pipes that keep the remaining reactors from melting.

“The only option will be to drain it into the sea and dilute it,” Environment Minister Yoshiaki Harada told a news conference in Tokyo.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) in Basra, Iraq.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 106.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 76.7 degrees Celsius) at Concordia, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Eastern Equine Encephalitis – New Jersey, USA

The New Jersey Department of Health has reported the second and third human Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) cases in Union and Atlantic counties. This has prompted health officials to encourage residents to take steps to protect themselves from all mosquito-borne diseases.

Polio – Philippines

The Philippines on Thursday announced an outbreak of polio, 19 years after the World Health Organization declared the Southeast Asian country free of the infectious disease. The government blamed “poor immunization coverage,” a lack of sanitation and proper hygiene and poor surveillance by health workers as among the reasons the disease returned.


Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 11 September – 17 September 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that inflation at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) began to be detected on 9 September and was similar to the deformation recorded just before a notable eruption on 16 June 2018. An eruption recorded at 0746 on 16 September produced an ash plume that rose 2.8 km above the crater rim and drifted SW. A series of eruptive events were recorded during 0830-1110. Deformation ceased after the events. An explosion at 0927 on 17 September generated an ash plume that rose 1 km and ejected blocks as far as 1.1 km. Two eruptive events later than day produced ash plumes that rose 1.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 10-13 September ash plumes rose 1.6 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,600 tons per day on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 7-13 September that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and N. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 6 September. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 8 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s Northeast Crater (NEC) likely began on 8 September. Continuous Strombolian activity recorded between 2000 on 9 September and 0700 on 10 September produced diffuse ash emissions which quickly dissipated. The most intense part of the eruptive period occurred during 2000-2200. Minor ashfall was reported in Piedimonte Etneo, Giarre-Riposto, and Rifugio Citelli. Incandescence from the activity had significantly subsided by 0300 on 10 September, coincident with the ejection of lava fragments outside of the crater. Dilute ash puffs were continuously observed at dawn the next day. Strombolian activity ceased around 0540 and then resumed around 0800. Weather conditions hindered observations at times on 11 September but clear observations after 2000 allowed for the confirmation of continuing explosive activity at varying intensity at NEC. Ash emission from Voragine Crater began during the morning of 12 September and gradually increased in frequency. Activity further intensified at 1200 as Strombolian activity commenced and tephra ejected out of the crater was deposited at the base of Bocca Nuova Crater. Strong Strombolian explosions were felt in Zafferana Etnea, Aci S. Antonio, Pedara, and neighboring areas. Webcam and field observations on 13 September confirmed continuing activity at NEC and Voragine craters. Diffuse ash plumes rose from NEC and dispersed near the summit area. Strombolian activity at Voragine Crater ejected coarse tephra as high as 20 m above the crater rim and produced diffuse ash emissions. Impact craters from the ejected tephra were distributed mostly in the W part of the area between Bocca Nuova and Voragine craters down to 3,000 m elevation. Activity continued on 14 September. During an overflight on 15 September observers noted that a scoria cone had formed in Voragine Crater, and diffuse ash emissions continued to rise from NEC.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 9-15 September lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S) and Dua Crater (N), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW flank. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 100 m above the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose almost 650 m above the summit and drifted E on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 10 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded five eruptive events during 9-15 September. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising 150 m from the bottom of the crater, and dense gray-and-white ash plumes rising 300 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 9-15 September the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images on 8 August. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : A special report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya had increased on 8 September, with RSAM values reaching 7,000 units by 13 September, coincident with increased explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; lava flows advancing on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino were about 500 m long. Avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter were produced by the flow front. Similar activity was observed during 15-16 September.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September a diffuse ash plume from Sangeang Api was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 6-9 and 12 September. Resuspended ash formed plumes that drifted 250 km ESE during 11-12 September. Satellite and webcam data recorded ash emissions and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash drifting 50 km ESE on 12 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : Low-level lava fountaining and minor explosive activity within Shishaldin’s summit crater was last observed on 17 August and likely continued during 11-17 September; continuous tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. The webcam possibly recorded a steam emission on 16 September. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Tangkubanparahu | Western Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that phreatic events, accompanied by roaring, continued at Tangkubanparahu’s Ratu Crater during 9-15 September, though no larger eruptions were recorded. Ash-and-steam emissions rose as high as 20 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.

Ubinas | Peru : During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius.