Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Storm Fay is located about 65 mi…105 km sse of Ocean City Maryland and about 105 mi…165 km s of Cape May New Jersey with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…n or 360 degrees at 10 mph…17 km/h

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Tropical Storm Cristina is located about 345 mi…560 km sw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…70 mph…110 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 300 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

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Japan – More than a week of devastating floods and landslides have now killed at least 58 people in Japan, while dozens remained missing on Thursday. Tens of thousands of responders continue to dig through mud and debris in the hardest-hit areas along the Kuma River in Japan’s southwestern-most island of Kyushu. The Japan Meteorological Agency ordered over 200,000 residents to evacuate from Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures.

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Local Rangers Interfere with Migration

The famed wildebeest migration in parts of East Africa was brought to a halt by huge wildfires that raged along the route. More than 2 million of the migratory grazers cross from Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park to Kenya’s Maasai Mara Game Reserve each year at this time.

But rangers set fire to some of the overgrown grasslands in their path to help what they describe as pasture regeneration. The smoke and fires have spooked the wildebeest, causing them to stop short of the Sand River, along the Kenya and Tanzania border.


Lingering Radioactivity

Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant meltdowns blanketed snow and ice around the Northern Hemisphere with a thin layer of light radioactivity dubbed the Fukushima Layer. The nuclear disaster was triggered by a massive thrust earthquake that spawned a devastating tsunami, which knocked out the nuclear plant’s main cooling system. The resulting meltdowns contaminated groundwater around the plant and spewed radioactive particles into the atmosphere. It was thought that the airborne radiation would have faded by now. But scientists writing in Environmental Research Letters say the thawing and melting of glaciers around the hemisphere has made the radioactivity more concentrated, creating a lingering layer of contamination.

Global Warming

No quick fix in fight against global warming

Slashing greenhouse gas emissions would probably not yield visible results until mid-century, researchers have said, cautioning that humanity must manage its expectations in the fight against global warming.

Even under optimistic scenarios in which carbon pollution falls sharply, climate change will continue for decades, they reported on Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications.

Two factors will make it difficult to feel and measure a drop in Earth’s surface temperature, if and when that happens.

One is lag time – Over the past half-century, human activity has loaded the atmosphere with more than 1-trillion tonnes of planet-warming carbon dioxide (CO2), a gas that lingers for hundreds of years.

The second factor is natural variability – Over the past half-century the planet has warmed 0.2°C every decade, mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels.


Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50.0 degrees Celsius) in As Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 102.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 74.4 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.



The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

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Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 1 July 2020 – 7 July 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 29 June-3 July; inclement weather prevented visual observations during 4-6 July. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tons per day on 2 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that conditions at Copahue had returned to normal levels and seismicity was low. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 7 July.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on information from PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC dense white-and-gray ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW almost daily during 1-7 July. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26 June-3 July that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,123 ft) a.s.l. which drifted S and E. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images during 26-28 and 30 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a bright thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 26-30 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 26 June-3 July along with a bright thermal anomaly identified in satellite images. A lava flow continued to advance down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. Avalanches of material on the S side of the lava flow were sometimes visible. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava began breaching the rim of Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater around 27 June and had flowed 40 m down the N flank by 1 July. An explosion at 0837 on 6 July generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that as of 16 June the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-7 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim; explosions were audible as far away as 5 km during 4-5 July. Lava flows 150-500 m long were active on the N, NW, and SW flanks.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET) reported that drone footage acquired at Sabancaya on 20 June showed that the lava dome in the main crater had been destroyed, leaving blocks on the crater floor. Explosions at fractured areas generated gas-and-ash plumes. During 23-24 June explosions produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the summit and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in the districts of Chivay, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, and Coporaque, and in the area of Sallali. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 20 explosions during 29 June-5 July. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km above the summit and drifted S, SE, NE, and N. There were seven thermal anomalies over the crater identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay | Ecuador : On 2 July IG presented additional results from the Sangay overflight that was conducted on 24 June with the purpose of performing maintenance on a gas and seismic station, taking visual and infrared photos of the surficial activity, and measuring volcanic gases. Three thermal anomalies were identified: the first was in the summit crater and associated with explosions, the second was near the SE rim of the summit crater and possibly highlighted a small lava flow, and the third corresponded to the accumulation of hot deposits of pyroclastic flows at the lower part of the SE drainage. Ash from summit explosions and pyroclastic flows that descended the SE flank dispersed mainly S and W. Notable morphological changes to the summit areas were evident when comparing photographs from 17 May 2019 to 24 June 2020. The maximum width of the SE flank drainage was an estimated 397 m. Due to a large amount of airborne ash in the N, E, and S parts of the volcano, the SAGA station on the SW flank could not be reached and repaired. Winds caused ashfall in populated areas. Gas emission data could also not be obtained due to the amount of airborne ash.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0633 on 7 July an ash plume from Semeru rose 400 m above the summit and drifted W. Weather clouds had prevented visual observations of the volcano during the previous six days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general restricted area 1 km from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 26 June-3 July. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 140 km E on 28 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 26 June-3 July. An eruptive event on 2 July generated a grayish white plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).