Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.0 earthquake hits the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan.

5.0 earthquake hits the central mid-Atlantic ridge.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

There are no current tropical storms.


Togo – Ongoing flooding along the Oti River has resulted in casualties and widespread damage in northern Togo, West Africa. In a statement of 21 September, 2020, officials said the overflow of several watercourses including the Oti had damaged or destroyed bridges and roads and left communities isolated. Homes were also damaged or destroyed. 8 people had died as a result of the floods.

Indonesia – Heavy rainfall hit parts of the island of Sulawesi on 15 October, 2020, causing floods in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Over 5,000 people have been affected and hundreds of homes damaged. Floods struck in Donggala Regency in Central Sulawesi Province on 15 October after a period of heavy rain caused the Powelua river to break its banks. Around 5,000 residents were affected and 995 houses damaged, with flood waters said to be around 1.5 metres deeps in some areas. Flash floods struck on the same day in Toli-Toli Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, forcing 1,750 people from 350 families to evacuate their homes.

Global Warming

Massive Ozone Hole

The ozone hole in the stratosphere above Antarctica reached its annual peak on Oct. 1, which scientists say was the largest and deepest in 15 years.

This was in contrast to an unusually small and short-lived ozone hole in 2019 caused by unusual weather conditions. “There is much variability in how far ozone hole events develop each year,” said Vincent-Henri Peuch, director of Europe’s Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. He added that it’s proof nations need to continue enforcing the Montreal Protocol, which bans emissions of ozone-depleting chemicals.



Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 112 degrees Fahrenheit (44.4 degrees Celsius) in Aqaba, Jordan.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 90.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 67.8 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.


Wildfires – Colorado, USA

A Colorado wildfire, fuelled by high winds, grew by more than 22,000 acres Wednesday to become the largest in state history.

The Cameron Peak Fire burning in the mountains west of Fort Collins had grown to 158,300 acres by Wednesday evening, making it the largest wildfire in state history. No injuries or deaths have been linked to the record-setting blaze, which is 56 percent contained.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 7 October 2020 – 13 October 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 5-12 October. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-13 October ash plumes from Dukono rose 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, N, NW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-9 October that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, E, SE, and S. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 7-8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-19 explosions per hour recorded during 7-13 October at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted as far as 20 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within 7-15 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-400 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). On 9 October lahars descended multiple drainages on Fuego’s flanks. Lahars overflowed the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank and deposited blocks and sediment on the RN 14 road, causing its closure.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-13 October white-to-gray ash plume rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit and drifted N and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 October discrete ash puffs from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 7-13 October. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater intensified on 8 October, ejecting material 200-300 m above the vent. At least four lava flows were active on the N and E flanks and all were 250-300 m long. By the next day three lava flows, on the NE, N, and W flanks were 200-400 m long. During 9-13 October explosions ejected material as high as 150 m. Lava flows were periodically active on NE, N, and W flanks, traveling 100-300 m.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 October there were 84-143 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted NE, WNW, W, and SSW. Minor ashfall was reported during 6-7 October in areas downwind including the municipality of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos, and the municipalities of Amecameca (20 km NW), Atlautla (17 km W), Ayapango (22 km NSW), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico. Incandescence from the crater was observed during 11-12 October and occasionally intensified with some emissions. Ashfall was reported in Amecameca on 13 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-13 October lava extrusion at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block-and-ash flows that descended the W, SW, S, and SE flanks, sometimes reaching the base of Caliente cone. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 10 km NW, W, and SW. The lava dome was incandescent most nights, sometimes for prolonged periods of time.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 2-9 October. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 250 km SE during 7-8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 200 m above Sinabung’s summit on 7 October. Lava avalanches traveled E and SE from the summit crater for 300 m on 9 October and 300-700 m during 12-13 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 1 September-9 October white emissions rose as high as 100 m above Slamet’s summit. During the previous two weeks seismicity significantly decreased, specifically tremor and the signals indicating emissions. The magnitude of earthquakes returned to baseline levels. Tiltmeter data from an instrument on the upper E flank indicated inflation in the upper part of the edifice, though data from an instrument located N of the volcano indicated no overall deformation. On 8 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside a radius of 1 km.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 2-9 October. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. An explosion at 1155 on 8 October generated an ash plume that rose more than 700 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Telica | Nicaragua : INETER reported that during 6-7 October there were five explosions recorded at Telica. The largest occurred at 0742 on 7 October; it produced an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW and caused ashfall around the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that a 12 October satellite image of Villarrica showed a strip of tephra deposits, 200 m wide and 3 km long, on the NE flank. The deposits originated from two eruptive events on 9 October. A thermal anomaly was also visible in the middle of the crater floor. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.