Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.8 earthquake hits Macquarie Island.

5.8 earthquake hits near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.

5.6 earthquake hits Myanmar.

5.5 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

5.4 earthquake hits northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

5.3 earthquake hits Mindoro in the Philippines.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Northwest Pacific Ocean – Tropical storm 22w (Lionrock), located approximately 310 nm east-southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam, is tracking northwestward at 06 knots.

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Alabama, USA – According to National Weather Service (NWS) Birmingham, Alabama, several waves of slow-moving, intense storms brought estimated rain rates as high as 4-5 inches (100 to 130 mm) per hour late on 06 October 2021. As of 07 October, the hardest hit areas were in Jefferson and Shelby counties in central Alabama, Marshall county in the north, and Escambia and Baldwin counties in the south. Two people lost their lives in separate incidents as a result of flooding in Marshall County in northern Alabama.

Global Warming

Water Warnings

Much of the world appears unprepared for the hazards that global heating will bring, with increased flooding, hurricanes and drought.

A new report by the World Meteorological Organization says that well over half of the 100 countries surveyed need better weather forecasting systems to cope. The report documents that since 2000, flooding disasters rose by 134% compared with the last two decades of the 20th century. Drought-related disasters rose by 29% during the same period.

Asia suffered most from increased flooding, while African nations recorded the most drought-related deaths. A quarter of all cities around the world already experience water shortages.


Resurgent Rodents

Australia’s disastrous mouse plague is growing rapidly again as the country leaves wintertime and approaches the summer growing season.

Following a lull in recent months, experts warn that farmers could again be forced to destroy their crops if they become contaminated by the pests’ droppings or decaying bodies.

The losses and emotional toll inflicted last autumn by untold hundreds of millions of the marauding mice created economic and mental health crises for many growers. Wildlife experts say that the poisons used by farmers to help control the ravenous hordes have also killed large clusters of cockatoos and other creatures.



Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 45.6 degrees Celsius at Omidiyeh, Iran.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 68.3 degrees Celsius at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.



The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

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Hepatitis A – Noway

The Norwegian Institute of Public Health has reported an outbreak of hepatitis A. So far, infection has been detected in ten people living in several counties. In addition, two more people are suspected of belonging to the outbreak. The source of the outbreak remains unknown.

Dengue Fever – Bangladesh

At least 208 patients were hospitalized in 24 hours preceding 8:00 am today, of whom 35 are from outside Dhaka, according to the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS). With the new cases, a total of 1,347 people were diagnosed during this month out of a total 19,544 infected.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 29 September – 5 October 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 27 September-4 October. The trend of inflation that was first detected on 13 September continued. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,500 tons per day on 28 September. A very small eruptive event occurred on 3 October.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 29 September-5 October. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images. By 3 October the dome had grown to 1,200 m E-W and 1,000 m N-S. Lava flows that continued to advance down the S and SW flanks were about 300-350 m long. The SW lobe was descending two drainages and produced hot avalanches that traveled 450 m downslope on top of a snow field.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 24-28 September. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.6 km (15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km E, SE, and SW during 24-26 September.

Katmai – United States : AVO reported that beginning at 0400 on 2 October strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes blew unconsolidated ash SE towards Kodiak Island at an altitude up to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash was originally deposited during the Novarupta eruption in 1912.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 29 September strong winds resuspended unconsolidated ash from Klyuchevskoy’s flanks.

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The Institute of Earth Sciences reported that lava effusion at Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, likely ceased during the evening of 18 September. The area of the flow field was about 4.85 square kilometers, and the total volume erupted was 150 million cubic meters, based on 30 September measurements. Parts of lava flows thickened in areas to the S of Geldingadalur and in Nàtthagi valley, and deflated in areas N of Geldingadalur. Points of incandescence were visible at night, at least through 4 October, likely from lava flows that continued to advance downslope. A seismic swarm in an area SW of Keilir (about 10 km NE of the fifth vent), at the N end of the dike intrusion, began on 27 September. According to news reports, over 6,000 earthquakes at depths of 5-6 km had been recorded by 4 October with at least 12 of them over M 3; the largest event was a M 3.8. Some of the larger events were felt in the capital. The seismicity was similar to patterns recorded before the beginning of the eruption to the SW. IMO stated that more data was needed to characterize the data as either indicative of magma movement or due to tectonic stress. IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities also warned of gas emission hazards.

Langila – New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : The Darwin VAAC reported that a discrete ash plume from Langila rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 October and drifted S. A thermal anomaly was visible afterward. On 4 October an ash plume again rose to 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted S.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 28 September-4 October. White-and-gray plumes rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. Rumbling sounds were reported almost daily. During 30 September-1 October and 3-4 October incandescent material was ejected as far as 700 m away from the vent in multiple directions.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported minor morphological changes to Merapi’s SW lava dome, located just below the SW rim and in the summit crater, and no changes to the summit crater dome during 24-30 September. The SW dome grew 1 m taller and had an estimated volume of 1.63 million cubic meters; the summit lava dome had an estimated volume of 2.85 million cubic meters. As many as 67 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 1.8 km SW.

Pavlof – United States : AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof remained elevated during 29 September-5 October. No explosions were recorded most days by the seismic and infrasound networks, and no eruptive activity was observed in mostly cloudy webcam and satellite images. On 3 October webcam images showed that recent ash deposits on the flanks had been covered by fresh snow; later that night either new ash deposits were visible in webcam images or older deposits were revealed due to snowmelt. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. At least two minor explosions were recorded during 4-5 October and minor emissions likely comprised of steam and sulfur dioxide were visible in morning webcam images on 5 October.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 29 September-3 October; cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly W and NW. Crater incandescence was often observed at night along with incandescent blocks that rolled as far as 800 m down the flanks.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 28 September-5 October. Weather clouds and rain sometimes prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano. Ash plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC or in webcam views during 30 September-1 October and 3 and 5 October; plumes rose 500-1,200 m above the volcano and drifted W and SW. Thermal anomalies over the volcano were often visible in satellite data. .

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi’s North Cerberus crater continued during 29 September-5 October. Seismicity remained elevated with intermittent explosion signals or bursts of activity likely from explosions. A few explosions were also detected in regional infrasound data during 2-5 October. Small ash clouds were observed almost daily in either webcam or satellite images rising to altitudes below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; plumes drifted ENE on 2 October, then N and NW on 3 October. Sulfur dioxide plumes were possibly observed on a few days, though definitely on 3 October. Webcams located 5-6 km from the active vent recorded ashfall during 4-5 October.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) ; KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 24 September-1 October.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 129 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim during 27 September-4 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Taal averaged 8,854 tonnes/day beginning on 27 September, and peaked on 5 October at 25,456 tonnes/day which was the highest ever sulfur dioxide gas flux recorded at the volcano. On 27 September the number of daily volcanic earthquakes significantly decreased. During 27 September-5 October upwelling of hot volcanic fluids in the lake was visible and gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 3 km above the lake. The report noted that a sudden increase in inflation below Taal Volcano Island was recorded in August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and that boating on Taal Lake was prohibited.

Telica – Nicaragua : INETER reported that on 4 September a diffuse ash plume from Telica rose 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 10 km WSW, based on satellite images and model data.

Yasur – Vanuatu : On 30 September the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that seismic data and recent visual observations at Yasur confirmed ongoing explosions and gas-and-ash emissions. A few earthquakes were recorded on 28 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.