Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.3 earthquake hits the southwest Indian ridge.

5.2 earthquake hits Vanuatu.

5.0 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Northwest Pacific Ocean – Tropical depression 23w (Namtheun), located approximately 175 nm east of Minami Tori Shima, Japan, is tracking east-northeastward at 09 knots.

Tropical depression 24w (Kompasu), located approximately 101 nm south-southeast of Hanoi, Vietnam, is tracking west-northwestward at 08 knots.

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Wildlife

Elk Liberated

Wildlife officers have finally removed a rubber tire from around the neck of a bull elk in Colorado who had been carrying it around for over two years.

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Wildfires

Wildfires – California, USA

A wildfire raging through southern California coastal mountains threatened ranches and rural homes and kept a major highway shut down on Wednesday, as the fire-scarred state faced a new round of dry winds that raise the risk of infernos.

The Alisal fire covered more than 15,000 acres (24 square miles) in the Santa Ynez Mountains west of Santa Barbara, and the number of firefighters was nearly doubled to 1,300, with more on the way. Containment remained at 5%.

Although the scenic region along the Pacific shoreline is lightly populated, the blaze was a threat to more than 100 homes, ranches and other buildings, fire officials said.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 6 October – 12 October 2021

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued in Halema`uma`u Crater during 6-12 October. At the beginning of the eruption, on 29 September, lava erupted from vents along the floor and from the W wall of the crater, though by 8 October only the W vent was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained high and were 5,300 tonnes per day on 8 October. A 10-m-wide, horseshoe-shaped spatter rampart had formed around the W vent and was open to the E where lava was feeding the lake. Lava fountains from the W vent were generally 12-15 m high but decreased to 4 m during 10-11 October. The total erupted volume was an estimated 15.9 million cubic meters on 8 October and the lake was as deep as 40 m on 12 October. The lava lake was not level; the W end was 2-3 m higher than the N and S parts of the lake and 5 m higher than the E end. Cooled and crusted parts of the lake’s surface overturned, or “foundered,” in all parts of the lake, though by 11 October foundering was not observed in the E. HVO noted that the central island (or raft) of cooler material from the 2020 eruption remained above the surface as the lava lake rose, and other smaller rafts had reemerged in the E and N parts of the lake.

La Palma – Spain : The eruption at La Palma continued during 6-12 October, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava fountaining from multiple vents, advancing and branching lava flows, and daily ash emissions. Eruption details are based on official sources including PEVOLCA (Plan de Emergencias Volcánicas de Canarias) steering committee summaries. Seismicity continued to be elevated with most earthquakes located 10-15 km deep (though some deeper than 35 km) in the same area where the swarm first began on 11 September; dozens of events were felt by local residents and some were felt across the entire island.

The largest earthquake, at 0816 on 12 October, was a M 4.1 at a depth of 37 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated at high levels between 4,522 and 21,868 tons per day. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted in multiple directions; on 8 October they reached the Caribbean and on 12 October plumes were over northern Africa, Spain, and Portugal. The main cone had at least three effusive vents and another vent to the N was also active. Multiple collapses of parts of the cone sometimes sent large blocks of cooler lava rafting down the flows. The lava delta was fed by numerous streams of lava during most of the week. Plumes of steam containing hydrochloric acid rose from the edge of the lava delta and were quickly dissipated by the wind; local resident were not affected.

On 6 October a breakout lava flow from the W end of the main flow field traveled S between Los Guirres and El Charcó (previously evacuated), destroying crops and buildings. The flow covered about 0.4 square kilometers and was about 350 m from the coast. Ash plumes rose 3-3.2 km (10,000-10,500 ft) a.s.l. during 6-7 October. On 8 October a new vent formed on the main cone and ash plumes rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash accumulation at the La Palma and Tenerife North (on Tenerife Island) airports caused a temporary shutdown of operations until the ash was removed. On 9 October a collapse of the N part of the cone sent a wide, multi-lobed flow carrying larger blocks NW over older flows that quickly advanced W along the N margins of the flow field, covering crops and destroying buildings in both Todoque and an industrial area. Ash plumes continued to rise from the vents; lightning was visible in the plume at times.

By 10 October the flow field was 1,520 m wide, and covered 4.9-5.7 square kilometers, depending on the source of the estimates. Between 726 and 1,323 buildings had been engulfed by lava and more than 1.3 square kilometers of crops were lost. About 6,000 people had been evacuated. A partial collapse of the cone allowed the inner lava lake to spill out, sending flows and very large cooled blocks downslope. Ash plumes rose 3.5 km a.s.l. and caused ashfall to the S. Video showed lava fountains rising 500 m above the vent late that night. By 11 October the lava delta had grown mainly to the N and S, and was an estimated 0.34 square kilometers in size, though flows feeding it had slowed. Dense dark ash plumes were seen rising from the main vents. The most northern flow had continued to advance and was 300 m from the coast. The flows overtook a concrete plant, prompting authorities to instruct residents in El Paso and Los Llanos de Aridane to remain indoors and take measures to reduce exposure to toxic fumes. On 12 October the advancing northern flow caused the pre-emptive evacuation of the La Laguna area, totaling 700-800 people. The flow continued to cover crops and was 200 m from the coast, but had slowed. The lockdown for El Paso and Los Llanos de Aridane was lifted after air quality improved. Ash plumes from the main vent rose 3.5 km a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) for affected communities.