Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.1 earthquake hits Kepulauan Barat Daya, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits Tonga.

Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

In the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Typhoon 25w (Malou), located approximately 83 nm south-southwest of Iwo To, is tracking northeastward at 12 knots.

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Rare Owl Spotted in the Wild

Two scientists stumbled across a Shelley’s eagle-owl, a species not seen in the wild for over 150 years as they were working in the Atewa Forest, Ghana. According to a report by Lad Bible, “The last confirmed sighting of the Shelley’s eagle-owl, which is native to Central and Western Africa, was in the 1870’s. The giant owl is officially classified as at risk of extinction, with only a few thousand of them believed to exist in the wild.”

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The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

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Diphtheria – India

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 13 diphtheria cases through October in Ghaziabad district in Uttar Pradesh state, according to a TOI report. This compares to 14 cases in 2020. Two confirmed deaths were reported while two other fatalities are under investigation.


Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 20 October – 26 October 2021

Asosan – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA characterized the eruption at Asosan that occurred at 1143 on 20 October as medium-sized. The event ejected blocks 900 m S, produced pyroclastic flows that descended 1.3 km W, and generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater rim. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 1244-1410. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,500 tons per day on 21 October. White plumes rose 900 m from the crater during 21-22 October.

Karangetang – Siau Island (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 October a pilot observed an ash plume from Karangetang rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW. Continuous ash emissions were also visible in satellite images, though emissions ceased within five hours.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that the summit eruption at Kilauea continued during 19-26 October at a vent in the lower W wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. Lava entered the lake through a 10-m-wide breach in the E part of the W wall cone, feeding the lake which had risen 49 m since 29 September. Consistent lava fountains from the W vent rose 5-18 m with occasional bursts up to 23 m, based on field crew observations. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,600-3,200 tonnes per day during 21-22 and 24-25 October. The lava lake was not level with the deepest parts surrounding the W vent; the W end was 8 m higher than the stagnant E part by 24 October.

Krakatau – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1413 on 26 October an eruption at Anak Krakatau produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 500 m above the summit and drifted N. The eruption lasted 45 seconds based on seismic data.

La Palma – Spain : The eruption at La Palma continued during 20-26 October, characterized by Strombolian explosions, lava fountaining from multiple vents, advancing and branching lava flows, and daily ash emissions. Eruption details are based on official sources including PEVOLCA (Plan de Emergencias Volcánicas de Canarias) steering committee summaries issued daily. Seismicity remained elevated, with most earthquakes located 10-15 km deep (though some were as deep as 39 km); dozens of events were felt by local residents and some were felt across the entire island. A M 4.8 earthquake was recorded at 2248 on 19 October at a depth of 39 km, and the largest earthquake recorded since the beginning of the eruption, a M 4.9 at 38 km deep, was recorded at 1634 on 23 October; both of these events were felt across La Palma Island, as well as in some areas of Gomera and Tenerife islands. The vents in the main cone continued to effuse lava, eject tephra, and produce sometimes dense and billowing ash-and-gas plumes that rose 2.8-4 km (9,200-13,100 ft) a.s.l. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated at high levels between 3,200 and 53,600 tons per day. Four vents in the main cone were active, though the activity levels varied in intensity throughout the week. A new vent opened on 19 October, in an area between the 16 October vent (located 300 m from the SE base of the main cone) and the main cone. The new vent began with explosive phreatomagmatic activity before Strombolian activity commenced. The main cone changed shape, with cycles of partial crater rim and wall collapses and growth as the eruption continued. Explosions and a lava overflow from the main cone were visible at 2000 on 22 October. A partial collapse of the NW flank of the main cone on 23 October intensified ash emissions and sent large blocks downslope; the blocks fell onto another vent, causing lava to spill out into numerous lava flows. Strong explosions were heard at 1230 and lava overflowed a vent on the flanks of the main cone at 1415. On 24 October tall lava fountains rose from at least two vents. During the afternoon, a new vent opened on the W flank and effused lava at a high rate. The vent grew taller and widened during 24-25 October. The vent located at the SE end of the fissure produced slow-moving lava flows that traveled SW. Very intense explosive activity was visible on 25 October. A small collapse of the cone was observed at 1700. At around 2100 a lava lake in the main cone increased in volume, causing a partial collapse of the upper part of the cone, and producing large, detached blocks that were carried downslope by several lava flows. Lava fountains rose about 600 m above the vent. The lava-flow field was characterized by three main areas: the initial main flow that traveled W, flowing around the S part of Montaña de Todoque, toward the sea and created a lava delta, a flow that had branched off of the main flow to the S, and the flows that traveled W along the N margins of the main flow. Lava flows sometimes overflowed their channels, forming ephemeral flows that spread laterally, descended short distances, and were also transported downslope in lava tubes. The lava flows along the northern margins (the N flow) were the most active; the flow that traveled N of Montaña Todoque had stopped, while the flow to the S of Montaña de La Laguna continued to advance and spread laterally. A lull in lava advancement during 22-23 October allowed for some homeowners to retrieve items from their residences. Lava advanced over some areas in the flow field that were previously unaffected, particularly in Alcalá, and covered an estimated 8.79 square kilometers by 26 October. The farthest end of N flows was less than 100 m from the coastline. Lava at the delta had reached 120 m water depth and rock fragments from the end of the flow were observed at depths of 360 m. The thickness of the flow at the delta was 10-30 m; lava had filled the upper and middle parts of underwater ravines and covered an area of about 0.11 square kilometers. Scientists observed an absence of marine life around the lava flows.

Manam – Papua New Guinea : According to the Darwin VAAC, ground-based observers at Manam observed on going, low-level eruptive activity on 21 October. Ash emissions rose as high as 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Within a few hours, ash had dissipated and activity was no longer visible.

Yasur – Vanuatu : The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that seismic activity slightly increased at Yasur beginning at 1330 on 22 October. Emissions also increased and large, dense ash-and-gas plumes were visible rising from the crater in webcam images at 1445. Increased ash emissions were confirmed during field observations later that day, prompting VMGD to expand the restricted area to a 1-km radius around the cone, defined by Danger Zone B on the hazard map. The Wellington VAAC noted that ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, and N during 22-24 October, based on webcam views and information from VMGD; emissions ceased by 1845 on 24 October.