Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week 23 March – 29 March 2022
Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was visible in satellite images during 18-25 March.
Kita-Ioto – Volcano Islands : JMA reported that a submarine eruption occurred at Funka Asane, a submarine vent 4-5 km NW of Kita-Ioto, at around 1800 on 27 March based on satellite images. An eruption plume was visible rising to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. at 2100 and may have contained ash. Eruption warnings and maritime warnings were issued at 2314 and 2318, respectively. Satellite images showed that by 2330 the plume had risen to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Areas of discolored water and bubbling were also visible.
Krakatau – Sunda Strait : PVMBG reported that as many as five daily ash plumes from Anak Krakatau were visible in images from the webcam on Sertung Island, seen by observers on nearby islands, and identified in satellite images during 24-29 March. Dense gray and black ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km from the vent and drifted mainly E, and occasionally S and SE.
Ruapehu – North Island (New Zealand) : On 28 March GeoNet reported that unrest continued at Ruapehu with strong levels of tremor and increasing crater lake water temperatures that began two weeks prior. The temperature was 32 degrees Celsius, up one degree from the week before; the temperature rose at a slow rate due to heavy rainfall and an influx of cold water into the lake.
Sao Jorge – Azores : A seismic swarm beneath the W half of São Jorge began at 1605 on 19 March, with earthquakes along the Manadas volcanic fissure system between Velas (S side of the island) and Fajã do Ouvidor (N coast). CIVISA raised the Alert Level to V2 and then V3 (on a scale of V0-V6) during the morning of 20 March, and finally to V4 that afternoon. On 22 March Proteção Civil e Bombeiros dos Açores noted that, although no official evacuations had been issued, vulnerable people such as patients in the Velas health center were being moved to other locations on the island. Supplies were being distributed to São Jorge Island and residents were encouraged to prepare in case of a volcanic eruption. The total estimated population of the island was around 8,400 people; according to a news report, about 1,250 residents left the island during 23-24 March. Most of the earthquakes were low magnitude, M 1.6-3.3, though about 209 of them were felt by residents; the largest event, a M 3.8, was detected near Velas at 2256 on 29 March. By 30 March a total of about 20,000 events had been recorded. Besides the increased seismicity, CIVISA noted that ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data showed inflation, which was also suggested by satellite-based data processed by partners.
Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that hot volcanic fluids circulated and upwelled in Taal’s Main Crater lake during 24-25 March, producing plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the lake’s surface. A phreatomagmatic eruption was recorded at 0226 on 25 March, based on seismic data and webcam images, and produced a 500-m-tall plume. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 6,957 tonnes/day that same day. A phreatomagmatic eruption during 0722-0859 on 26 March consisted of as many as 66 explosions. Eruption plumes rose as high as 3 km. Wet ashfall with a sulfur odor fell on Taal Volcano Island, along the Calauit and Alas-as shorelines, and on the lakeshore of Banyaga, Agoncillo, Batangas. PHIVOLCS noted that Alert Level 3 (magmatic unrest) means that there has been a magmatic intrusion and evacuation of high-risk barangays is recommended. The Philippine News Agency (PNA) reported that residents of Bilibinwang and Banyaga, Agoncillo and Boso-boso, Gulod and eastern Bugaan East, Laurel, Batangas Province began evacuating that day. Entry onto Taal Volcanic Island as well as the barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel was prohibited. National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) reported that by 27 March 2,961 people had been evacuated. Hot volcanic fluids continued to upwell in the lake during 26-29 March, generating plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km and drifted SW. Phreatomagmatic events were recorded at 0434 and 0504 on 27 March by the seismic network and seen in webcam images, producing eruption plumes that rose 800 and 400 m, respectively, and drifted SW. Three more phreatomagmatic events were recorded at 0930, 0933, and 0946; eruption plumes rose 400-800 m and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,140-4,273 tonnes/day during 28-29 March.