Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.6 earthquake hits southeast of the Loyalty Islands.

5.3 earthquake hits southern Iran.

5.1 earthquake hits the Kermedec Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits near the east coast of Kamchatka.

5.0 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits Southern Alaska.

5.0 earthquake hits Kepulauan Aku, Indonesia.

Global Warming

Greenland Ice Loss

A new study finds that Greenland’s ice sheet is disappearing faster and sliding into the sea more quickly than earlier predicted, threatening greater sea level rises. “It’s not something that we expected,” said Danish glaciologist Shfaqat Abbas Khan. ”Greenland and Antarctica’s contributions to sea level rise in the next 80 years will be significantly larger than we have predicted until now.”

The main contributor to Greenland’s ice loss is the increasing flow of two fast-moving glaciers, which drain about 12% of the interior ice sheet into the sea.

Earth’s Thermostat

Earth appears to have a climate-stabilising process that keeps global temperatures within a habitable range over the long term. A team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology looked at a process called “silicate weathering,” which over hundreds of thousands of years draws carbon dioxide out of the air and stores it in ocean floor sediment.

This helps explain how life on Earth has survived dramatic global temperature swings in the past. “On the one hand, it’s good because we know that today’s global warming will eventually be cancelled out through this stabilising feedback,” said study author Constantin Arnscheidt. “But on the other hand, it will take hundreds of thousands of years to happen, so not fast enough to solve our present-day issues.”

Emissions Rise Once Again

As leaders met in Egypt to find a way to curb carbon emissions, a comprehensive study finds that instead of declining, carbon emissions will reach yet another record high by the end of 2022. A report by the Global Carbon Project says there are no signs of the decline needed to meet the warming limit goal of 1.5 degrees C.

It projects fossil fuel CO2 emissions will rise another 1% worldwide this year, while China’s emissions are, in contrast, likely to drop by 1% in 2022. “If governments respond by turbocharging clean energy investments and planting, not cutting down, trees, global emissions could rapidly start to fall,” said Corinne Le Quéré of the University of East Anglia, who was part of the study.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 42.0 degrees Celsius (107 degrees F) at Rivadavia, Salta, Argentina.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 56.0 degrees Celsius (-69 degrees F) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

Covid-19

The countries with the 10 greatest number of Covid-19 cases:

Screen Shot 2022 11 18 at 1 19 15 PM

Dengue Fever – Philippines

Concerning total cases, authorities have reported 187,560 dengue cases, with 613 deaths, substantially higher than the 213 deaths for the whole of 2021.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week 9 November – 15 November 2022

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) and nighttime crater incandescence during 9-15 November. An eruptive event at 2130 on 10 November generated an eruption plume that rose to 1 km above the crater rim. An explosion at 2010 on 15 November produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted SE. Seven volcanic earthquakes were detected.

Alaid – Kuril Islands (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Alaid was ongoing during 3-10 November. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 3, 6, and 8-9 November; the volcano was obscured by clouds the other days of the week. On 10 November, KVERT reported that the eruptive activity was gradually decreasing.

Bezymianny – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 November a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images. Strong fumarolic activity was visible, the lava dome continued to grow and was sometimes incandescent at night, and occasional collapses from the dome produced avalanches of hot material.

Dukono – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray gas-and-steam plumes from Dukono rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and S during 9-15 November. The Darwin VAAC reported a continuous ash plume that rose to 2.1 km altitude and extended E on 11 November, based on satellite imagery. A discrete ash plume on 14 November rose to 10.7 km altitude and drifted SW. In addition, a strong hotspot and sulfur dioxide signal was observed in satellite imagery. On the same day, a continuous ash plume rose to 2.1-2.4 km altitude and drifted NE, which persisted through 15 November.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate activity at Ebeko was ongoing. According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island, about 7 km E) explosions on 4, 5, 7, and 9 November generated ash plumes that rose to 2.2-3.1 km altitude and drifted in E, NE, and N directions. Ashfall was reported at Severo-Kurilsk on 7 November. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 4 November; the volcano was covered by clouds the other days of the week.

Fuego – South-Central Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-12 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 9-15 November, generating daily ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5-4.8 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 10-15 km S, SE, E, NE, SW, and W, causing fine ashfall in areas downwind, including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), La Asunción, La Rochela, Ceilán, San Andrés Osuna, El Rodeo, Ceylén, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Yepocapa (8 km NW). The explosions generated weak and moderate rumbling that vibrated the roofs and windows of nearby houses. Daily block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), Honda, Santa Teresa, and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. The avalanches uplifted fine material 200 m high that dispersed to the S and SW. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 400 m above the summit. Weak crater incandescence was observed accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. On 9 November lahars were generated in the Las Lajas and Ceniza drainages, which carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks 30 cm to 1.5 m in diameter.

Great Sitkin – Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 9-15 November and seismicity was low. Satellite images were often cloudy, though elevated surface temperatures were identified on 9, 13, and 15 November.

Heard – Kerguelen Plateau : Satellite images of Heard Island’s Big Ben volcano showed thermal anomalies of varying intensity over Mawson Peak (the summit area) and on the NW flank on 9 and 14 November. Weather clouds prevented views of the volcano for the rest of the month. The thermal anomaly on 9 November consisted of three pixels that trended NE-SW from the summit. The activity on 14 November was visible as a larger anomaly over a vent or multiple vents about less than 1 km NW of the peak.

Ibu – Halmahera : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 9-15 November. Daily white and gray gas-and-steam emissions rose 200-1,000 m above the summit and drifted S, SW, and NW. On 11 November similar emissions rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted SW and NW. The Darwin VAAC reported that discrete ash emissions rose to 2.1 km altitude and drifted W on 13 November. A possible weak thermal anomaly was observed in satellite imagery. On 15 November a hotspot was visible, accompanied by multiple ash emissions that rose to 2.7 km altitude and drifted NE.

Karangetang – Sangihe Islands : PVMBG reported that incandescence from Karangetang’s S crater on 9 November and from both the N and S craters on 14 and 15 November. Daily white emissions rose generally 50-150 m above the summit, but sometimes as high as 200 m.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly at Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 4 and 9 November. Gas-and-steam emissions persisted.

Kerinci – Central Sumatra : PVMBG reported that diffuse white-and-brown plumes from Kerinci rose as high as 150 m above the summit and drifted W during 9-15 November. The

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava continued to effuse from a vent in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater during 9-15 November, entering the lava lake and flowing onto the crater floor. On 9 November the sulfur dioxide emission rate was 600 tonnes per day (t/d). The active part of the lake remained at a steady level all week.

Krakatau – Sunda Strait : PVMBG reported that multiple ash plumes were visible in webcam images rising from Anak Krakatau during 11 and 14 November. Dense gray ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit and drifted NE at 1047 and at 2343 on 11 November. On 14 November at 0933 ash plumes rose 300 m above the summit and drifted E. Daily white gas-and-steam emissions rose 25-300 m above the summit and drifted generally E and NE.

Manam – Northeast of New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 November an ash plume from Manam rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) and drifted W based on RVO webcam images.

Mauna Loa – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 9-15 November. The seismic network detected 27-74 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 2-5 km beneath Mokua’weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. An M 3.6 earthquake occurred NW of the summit on 9 November at 0621. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week.

Mayon – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that white gas-and-steam plumes from Mayon crept downslope and drifted generally W during 9-15 November. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 276 per day on 3 November. Faint crater incandescence was observed at night during 9-12 November. Five volcanic earthquakes were detected during 10-13 November. Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM), precise leveling, continuous GPS, and electronic tilt monitoring data showed that the volcano had been slightly inflated, especially on the NW and SE flanks, since 2020.

Merapi – Central Java : BPPTKG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 9-15 November and seismicity remained at high levels. Cloudy often prevented clear visuals of the summit. A seismogram detected a pyroclastic flow at 0905 on 11 November that lasted 135 seconds; it descended 1 km down the Boyong drainage (SW), though webcam images were cloudy. A second pyroclastic flow occurred at 1208 on the same day, lasting 104 seconds and descending 1 km down the Boyong drainage (SW). On 12 November a lava avalanche traveled as far as 800 m down the SW flank. Two lava avalanches were observed descending the SW for 1.5 km on 15 November.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) reported that during 8-14 November seismicity associated with rock fracturing at Nevado del Ruiz increased in number and energy compared to the previous week. Some of the signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions. The hypocenters were located 0.6-7 km deep. The largest event was an M 3.1 that was recorded at 0225 on 10 November at a depth of 3.6 km below the crater and 2.7 km SW of the crater. The Washington VAAC reported ash plumes that rose to 6.4-7.3 km altitude (21,000-24,000 ft) and drifted S and SE on 11 November, based on satellite and webcam images. During 13-14 November ash plumes rose to 6.7 km altitude (22,000 ft) and drifted NE based on satellite and webcam images. Several low-to-moderate thermal anomalies in Arenas Crater were identified in satellite images. Gas-and-steam plumes (mainly sulfur dioxide) continued to be emitted, rising as high as 1.8 km above the summit on 8 November and drifting NW, SW, SE, and NE.

Pavlof – Alaska Peninsula, Alaska : AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof’s upper E flank was ongoing during 9-15 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions were detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were seen in cloudy satellite images during 10 and 12-15 November. Clear webcam images taken on 12 and 15 November showed a lava flow and ash deposits on the upper flanks, though due to cloudy conditions earlier in the week the timing of these events is uncertain. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible in webcam images on 14 and 15 November.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that there were 39-108 steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatépetl each day during 9-15 November. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of activity. The seismic network recorded daily periods of tremor lasting from 33 minutes to 302 minutes. According to the Washington VAAC, daily ash plumes rose to 5.8-7.6 km altitude (19,000-25,000 ft) and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. Four minor explosions were detected at 1337, 1625, 1629, and 2026 on 10 November. Another four minor explosions were detected at 0141, 1109, 1223, and 1519 on 11 November. Three minor explosions were recorded at 0919, 1933, and 2057 on 12 November. Three minor explosions were detected at 1302 on 13 November, and four minor explosions at 0131, 0615, 1459, and 2330 on 14 November. A minor explosion was also detected at 0710 on 15 November. A total of five volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded on 11 and 12 November. Light ashfall was reported in Tochimilco, Puebla on 10 November.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 9-15 November. Daily seismicity was characterized by 18-47 explosions, 22-45 long-period earthquakes, and 2-18 signals that indicated emissions. During 9-12 November there were also 1-4 periods of daily harmonic tremor. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted S, W, SW, N, and NW. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night and the lava flow on the NE flank was active. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 22, 20.2, and 174.9 tons per day on 9, 11, and 12 November, respectively. An incandescent avalanche was visible on the N flank during the night of 9 November; by 10 November it had traveled to 800 m below the crater.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 7-13 November with a daily average of 33 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted S, E, and NE. As many as five thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N).

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 9-15 November, which included daily explosions, volcanic tremor, and gas-and-steam emissions. Incandescence at the summit was periodically visible at night. Daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in either or both IG webcam images and satellite images according to the Washington VAAC. Plumes generally rose as high as 1.8 m above the volcano and drifted SW, W, S, N, and NW. Moderate ashfall was reported in Zuñac on 9 November. During 10-14 November an incandescent avalanche was observed descending the SE flank during the night.

Santa Maria – Southwestern Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that nighttime incandescence was observed in the crater of Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex during 9-15 November. The lava flows continued to descend the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages, as well as the S flank. Block-and-ash avalanches from the dome, and from the middle and front of the lava flows, descended the W, SW, and S flanks. Fine ash fell on the perimeter of the volcano. Moderate gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 500-700 m above the dome complex that extended 3-6 km E, SE, S, SW, and W.

Semeru – Eastern Java : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 9-15 November. A pyroclastic flow was observed descending the SE flank as far as 4.5 km at 1550 on 9 November. The event also generated a white-gray ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the summit and drifted NE. On 14 November an ash plume rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted SW, according to the Darwin VAAC. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 100-1,000 m above the summit and drifted N, NE, S, and SW.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the ongoing eruption at Sheveluch during 3-10 November was generally characterized by explosions, hot avalanches, lava-dome extrusion, and strong fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. Collapses generated hot avalanches and ash plumes that drifted 400 km N, NE, and E during 5-7 November.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater continued during 9-15 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. An explosion at 2238 on 11 November produced an eruption plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ash plumes during 15 November rose 1-1.3 km above the crater and drifted SE.