Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 21 July – 27 July 2021

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and ESE.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 10-14 July produced ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 10 and 12 July.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-15 explosions per hour were recorded during 13-20 July at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted 10-20 km NW, W, and SW and caused daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 13-19 July.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite data drifting 80 km NW, NE, and ESE during 8-11 and 15 July. A thermal anomaly was visible during 8 and 10-13 July.

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 14-20 July. Lava fountaining and overflows from the fifth vent were sometimes visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. Visible activity at the vent occasionally paused for various lengths of time. IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1 km and drifted W, NW, NE, and E during 13-20 July. Rumbling was heard daily. Incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km from the summit vent in various directions during 16-18 July.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both remained active during 9-15 July. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.83 million cubic meters and continued to shed material down the flank. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1.1 km down the SW flank and as far as 1.5 km SE. Avalanches traveled a maximum of 1.5 km SE (58 times), 2 km SW (98 times), 1 km W (one time), and 700 m NW (three times). The volume of the summit lava dome was 2.796 million cubic meters.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : On 21 July Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was generally characterized by higher number of earthquakes that had larger magnitudes than the previous week. Gas-and-steam emissions were sometimes visible in webcam images rising as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifting WNW and WSW; these emissions sometimes contained ash. Episodes of drumbeat seismicity were recorded during 13-14 and 17 July, indicating ascent or growth of a lava dome in Arenas Crater.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 13-20 July. Weather clouds and rain sometimes prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano. Daily ash plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC, rising between 900 m to as high as 5.4 km above the volcano and drifting W, SW, SE, and NE. Ashfall was reported in Barca and Guamote (40 km WNW) on 14 July and in Guamote on 19 July. Signals indicating lahars were recorded by the seismic network during 15-16 and 18-20 July.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-20 July daily explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 12 km SW and W. Collapses of blocky lava from Caliente dome sent avalanches down the SW and W flanks, often reaching the base, and caused minor ashfall mostly on the volcano’s flank. Ashfall was also reported in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (6 km WSW) during 14-15 and 19-20 July. On 15 July blocks of extruded lava formed a lava flow on the W flank that was 700 m long. Block-and-ash flows descended the W and NE flanks.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that unrest continued at Semisopochnoi during 13-20 July. Periods of low-level tremor and steam plumes from Mount Cerberus were occasionally recorded. Elevated surface temperatures at the N cone of Mount Cerberus were identified in satellite images during 13-14 July and robust steam-and-gas emissions were seen in webcam images. A plume with low amounts of sulfur dioxide drifting about 200 km N was identified in satellite data on 17 July. Sulfur dioxide emissions were also detected the next day.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 9-16 July.

Sinabung – Indonesia : Video taken on 13 July and posted on social media showed new vents on the upper W flank of Sinabung that were producing steam-and-ash emissions. PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose 100-300 m from the summit and drifted E and SE. During 14-18 June white plumes rose as high as 300 m. An eruptive event that began around 1850 on 19 July and lasted about 11 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted ESE.

Whakaari/White Island-North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island. During overflights of the island on 15 and 20 July scientists observed minor steam-and-gas activity around the 2019 Primary Crater lava domes and noted that the Main Crater area continues to fill with water. Other fumarolic vents remained active and unchanged. Overall, seismicity was at low levels during the previous few months, punctuated by a few notable events; a short-lived tremor episode was recorded on 2 June, discrete acoustic signals recorded during 18-20 June were associated with geysering in a new vent N of 2019 Crater, and a 15-minute low-frequency volcanic earthquake occurred on 30 June. Nighttime incandescence has persisted in webcam views since the 30 June earthquake.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 21 July – 27 July 2021

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that five explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 12-19 July ejected bombs as far as 400 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible on some nights and ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). An explosion at 2330 on 12 July produced an ash plume that rose 3.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 13-20 July. Daily plumes of steam and sulfur dioxide gas rose 0.9-2.1 km from the lake and drifted in multiple directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,142-6,574 tonnes/day. Two tremor events, at 1018 and 1038 on 20 July, were felt at Intensity I by residents of Pira-piraso in the NE sector of Volcano Island. The DROMIC report stated that 3,839 people were in evacuation centers or private residences by 20 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to not enter the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel. Activities on Taal Lake were strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 14 July – 20 July 2021

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 10-14 July produced ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 10 and 12 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-15 explosions per hour were recorded during 13-20 July at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted 10-20 km NW, W, and SW and caused daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 13-19 July.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky were identified in satellite data drifting 80 km NW, NE, and ESE during 8-11 and 15 July. A thermal anomaly was visible during 8 and 10-13 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 14-20 July. Lava fountaining and overflows from the fifth vent were sometimes visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. Visible activity at the vent occasionally paused for various lengths of time. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1 km and drifted W, NW, NE, and E during 13-20 July. Rumbling was heard daily. Incandescent material was ejected as far as 1 km from the summit vent in various directions during 16-18 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both remained active during 9-15 July. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.83 million cubic meters and continued to shed material down the flank. One pyroclastic flow traveled 1.1 km down the SW flank and as far as 1.5 km SE. Avalanches traveled a maximum of 1.5 km SE (58 times), 2 km SW (98 times), 1 km W (one time), and 700 m NW (three times). The volume of the summit lava dome was 2.796 million cubic meters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Nevado del Ruiz – Colombia : On 21 July Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was generally characterized by higher number of earthquakes that had larger magnitudes than the previous week. Gas-and-steam emissions were sometimes visible in webcam images rising as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifting WNW and WSW; these emissions sometimes contained ash. Episodes of drumbeat seismicity were recorded during 13-14 and 17 July, indicating ascent or growth of a lava dome in Arenas Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 13-20 July. Weather clouds and rain sometimes prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano. Daily ash plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC, rising between 900 m to as high as 5.4 km above the volcano and drifting W, SW, SE, and NE. Ashfall was reported in Barca and Guamote (40 km WNW) on 14 July and in Guamote on 19 July. Signals indicating lahars were recorded by the seismic network during 15-16 and 18-20 July.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-20 July daily explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 12 km SW and W. Collapses of blocky lava from Caliente dome sent avalanches down the SW and W flanks, often reaching the base, and caused minor ashfall mostly on the volcano’s flank. Ashfall was also reported in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (6 km WSW) during 14-15 and 19-20 July. On 15 July blocks of extruded lava formed a lava flow on the W flank that was 700 m long. Block-and-ash flows descended the W and NE flanks.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that unrest continued at Semisopochnoi during 13-20 July. Periods of low-level tremor and steam plumes from Mount Cerberus were occasionally recorded. Elevated surface temperatures at the N cone of Mount Cerberus were identified in satellite images during 13-14 July and robust steam-and-gas emissions were seen in webcam images. A plume with low amounts of sulfur dioxide drifting about 200 km N was identified in satellite data on 17 July. Sulfur dioxide emissions were also detected the next day. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Sheveluch

Central Kamchatka (Russia)

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 9-16 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 9-16 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : Video taken on 13 July and posted on social media showed new vents on the upper W flank of Sinabung that were producing steam-and-ash emissions. PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose 100-300 m from the summit and drifted E and SE. During 14-18 June white plumes rose as high as 300 m. An eruptive event that began around 1850 on 19 July and lasted about 11 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Whakaari/White Island-North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported continuing unrest at Whakaari/White Island. During overflights of the island on 15 and 20 July scientists observed minor steam-and-gas activity around the 2019 Primary Crater lava domes and noted that the Main Crater area continues to fill with water. Other fumarolic vents remained active and unchanged. Overall, seismicity was at low levels during the previous few months, punctuated by a few notable events; a short-lived tremor episode was recorded on 2 June, discrete acoustic signals recorded during 18-20 June were associated with geysering in a new vent N of 2019 Crater, and a 15-minute low-frequency volcanic earthquake occurred on 30 June. Nighttime incandescence has persisted in webcam views since the 30 June earthquake. Thermal infrared measurements taken on 15 July confirmed that temperatures at dome vents had notably increased, from around 110 degrees Celsius measured in late May-early June to 498-654 degrees. Gas emissions had not notably changed over the previous few months as confirmed during the 20 July overflight. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 14 July – 20 July 2021

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that five explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 12-19 July ejected bombs as far as 400 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible on some nights and ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). An explosion at 2330 on 12 July produced an ash plume that rose 3.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 13-20 July. Daily plumes of steam and sulfur dioxide gas rose 0.9-2.1 km from the lake and drifted in multiple directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,142-6,574 tonnes/day. Two tremor events, at 1018 and 1038 on 20 July, were felt at Intensity I by residents of Pira-piraso in the NE sector of Volcano Island. The DROMIC report stated that 3,839 people were in evacuation centers or private residences by 20 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to not enter the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel. Activities on Taal Lake were strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 7 July – 13 July 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). Crater incandescence was visible at night during 9-12 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8 and 11-13 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 2, 4, and 6-8 July produced ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 5-7 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing Strombolian activity and two episodes of lava fountaining Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 5-11 July. The first episode began at 1130 on 6 July with Strombolian activity at SEC. The intensity and frequency of explosions progressively intensified and formed lava fountains. Ash plumes rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, causing ashfall in areas downwind. A small lava flow originated from the S side of the cone and traveled SW, stopping at 2,800 m elevation. During fieldwork on 7 July scientist observed deposits of bombs, 1 m in diameter, on the N flank and smaller bombs scattered farther away. A second episode began at 2100 on 8 July with Strombolian activity which again intensified and formed lava fountains. Ash plumes rose to 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, causing ashfall in downwind areas. Lava flowed SW to 2,350 m elevation.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was idenitifed in satellite images during 5-8 July and ash plumes were visible drifting 60 km W and E during 6-8 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 7-13 July. Lava fountaining and overflows from the fifth vent were sometimes visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. Visible activity at the vent occasionally paused for various lengths of time, though sub-surface lava likely continued flowing through the tube system. Weather conditions prevented views of the crater on some days and also created hazardous conditions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted SW, W, and NW during 6-12 July. Incandescent material was ejected from the summit vent on 6, 8, and 10 July; on 6 July material landed as far as 300 m away. The Darwin VAAC noted that on 7 July an ash plume rose 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, based on satellite data and information from PVMBG. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both remained active during 2-8 July. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.815 million cubic meters by 8 July and continued to shed material down the flank. The volume of the summit lava dome was 2,741 million cubic meters. A total of 17 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank and as far as 1.5 km SE. As many as 125 incandescent avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank and 1.8 km down the SE flank. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Nevados de Chillan – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing explosive and effusive activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 16-30 June, alomg with increased sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and crater incandescence at night; incandescent material was ejected as far as 500 m onto the N, E, and S flanks. The L5 and L6 lava flows continued to be active, with increased effusion rates during 17-19 and 27-28 June. During the periods of increased effusion rates the flow temperatures were higher, nighttime incandescence was more intense, emissions rose higher, and more pyroclastic flows were recorded. The pyroclastic flows traveled less than 500 m down the NE flank and were sourced from collapses at the sides of L6 and the front of L5. The average temperature was 131 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 174 degrees for L5 and an average of 163 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 181 degrees for L6. Temperatures at the vents at Nicanor Crater were as high as 360 degrees Celsius during explosive phases. Satellite images indicated that the L5 lava flow was 1,033 m long and L6 was 894 m long, and that the distal end of L6 had thickened. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate was 694 (± 43) tons/day, reaching a high value of 903 on 19 June. There was a total of 35 thermal anomalies. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 July there were 47-112 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Some emissions contained ash during 8-13 July. Almost daily periods of low-amplitude tremor lasted from 10 minutes to five hours. A few volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 12-13 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Semeru continued to erupt during 7-13 July. Inclement weather often prevented visual observations, though a gray-and-white ash plume was seen rising 500 m above the summit and drifting SW on 6 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that continuous volcanic tremor at Semisopochnoi began at 1200 on 12 July and explosive activity was recorded by the infrasound network. Emissions began at 1300 and lasted tens of minutes; a sulfur dioxide gas plume possibly containing ash was identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude less than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation colour Code was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch. Volcanic tremor decreased to low levels after several hours.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 2-9 July. A plume of re-suspended ash drifted 90 km E during 6-7 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on most days during 6-13 July white gas-and-steam plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 500 m above the summit. At 0925 on 13 July an eruptive or collapse event produced an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Veniaminof – United States : AVO changed both the Aviation colour Code and Volcano Alert Level for Veniaminof to Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 July, noting that seismic stations were back online. The monitoring network consists of local and regional seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite image monitoring.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 7 July – 13 July 2021

Bagana – Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 July an ash plume from Bagana rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Krakatau – Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Pavlof – United States : At 1140 on 9 July AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation colour Code at Pavlof to Advisory and Yellow, respectively, noting that seismicity had increased during the previous 16 hours and was characterized by near-continuous tremor. Seismicity decreased and was more periodic during 10-13 July, but remained above background levels.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT reported that on 29 June and 1 July brief ash emissions from Sarychev Peak rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A weak thermal anomaly identified in satellite data persisted through 12 July; SVERT lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 96 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that generally rose 2-2.4 km above the crater rim during 5-12 July. Large volcanic bombs were ejected mainly 400 m from the crater and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption sounds were sometimes heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW). An explosion at 0439 on 8 July ejected large bombs 800 m NW and an explosion at 1319 on 12 July produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that an eruption at Taal continued during 7-13 July. A series of short-lived phreatomagmatic explosions were recorded at 0518, 0847, 0915, 0926, 1156, and 2141 on 7 July and jetted ash plumes as high has 700 m. Another series was recorded at 0647, 1806, 2121, 2150 on 8 July and 0259 on 9 July, jetting ash 200 m high. During 7-13 July daily plumes of steam and sulfur dioxide gas rose 1-1.5 km from the lake and drifted NW, W, and SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 4,149-11,397 tonnes/day. Low-level background tremor continued with as many as 185 volcanic earthquakes and 44 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes recorded per day. There were also 5-176 daily episodes of volcanic tremor, each lasting between 1 and 97 minutes. The network also detected 2-10 daily hybrid earthquakes during 6-9 July. The DROMIC report stated that 10,408 people were in evacuation centers or private residences by 12 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and to not enter the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel. Activities on Taal Lake were strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 30 June – 6 July 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported nightly incandescence during 28 June-5 July from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano). An eruptive event on 29 June produced an ash plume that rose 1 km before entering weather clouds. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was low at 600 tons per day on 30 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-3 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 27-28 June and 1 July produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported three episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 28 June-4 July, producing ash plumes that rose 5-10 km (16,400-32,800 ft) a.s.l. Occasional ash-and-gas emissions rose from Bocca Nuova Crater and Northeast Crater. The first episode at SEC began with Strombolian activity at 0040 on 2 July. Ash plumes drifted ESE and within an hour lava fountains were visible that sent flows SW; fountaining ceased at 0250. The second episode began at 1656 on 4 July, produced fountains at 1725, and ended at 1900. Lava flows traveled SW and ENE, and ash plumes drifted ESE. The last episode began at 2330 on 6 July and produced ash plumes that drifted SE. Explosive activity intensified at 0000 on 7 July; lava fountaining began 30 minutes later, rose as high as 1 km, and ended within two hours. Lapilli was reported in the S part of Tremestieri and ash fell in Nicolosi, as well as in many other areas downwind. According to news articles the Catania airport was closed during the night due to ashfall.

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 July an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 25 and 30 June and 1 July; the volcano was quiet or obscured by weather clouds on the other days during 26 June-2 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, periodically continued during 30 June-6 July. Lava fountaining and overflows from the fifth vent were occasionally visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. Occasional rim collapses generated minor ash plumes on 2 July based on footage captured by a visitor. A longest pause in the eruption so far, also reflected in seismic data, began near midnight on 5 July and ended early on 7 July according to a news source. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Kuchinoerabujima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that deformation data at Kuchinoerabujima had shown a deflationary trend since February and the number of volcanic earthquakes had been decreasing since May. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 5 July, and JMA reminded the public to stay 1 km away from Shindake Crater in general and 2 km away from the W flank.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions during 29 June-6 July. Incandescent material was ejected from the summit vent in various directions during 2-5 July; on 3 July material landed as far as 1 km SW and started vegetation fires. On 5 July an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both remained active during 25 June-1 July. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.68 million cubic meters by 1 July, with a growth rate of 11,800 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. The summit lava dome was 0.5 m shorter than the previous week, corresponding to the increasing numbers of incandescent avalanches and pyroclastic flows as more material was shed to the SE. A total of 10 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank and 29 traveled as far as 3 km SE. As many as 100 incandescent avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank and 26 traveled as far as 1.2 km down the SE flank. Ashfall was reported in several areas to the SE on 25 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 29 June-6 July; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, harmonic tremor events, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.6 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly W, NW, and NE. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling down the S flank were often observed at night.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : Semeru continued to erupt during 29 June-6 July. Inclement weather often prevented visual observations, though PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that gray-and-white plumes rose 500 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions on 30 June and 1 and 3 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia): KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 25 June-2 July. An ash plume drifted 18 km SW on 30 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli – Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 28 June-4 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from three vents in Area N (North Crater area) and four vents in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 150 m high, and produced minor ash emissions. Explosions at N2 vents (Area N) averaged 4-10 events per hour and ejected material 80 m high; spattering was intense on 28 June. Explosions from the S2 vents in Area C-S occurred at a rate of 5-8 events per hour and ejected coarse material more than 150 m high.

Telica – Nicaragua : INETER reported that at 0500 on 29 June ash-and-gas emissions from Telica rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC noted that ash was emitted during 2-3 July. A few discrete emissions and ash near the crater were visible in webcam images on 2 July, and possible diffuse ash just W of the crater was seen in satellite images. Plumes likely rose to 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. Another steam-and-ash plume drifted SW and then turned N. On 3 July possible ash plumes rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 30 June – 6 July 2021

Copahue – Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN and SEGEMAR reported increased activity at Copahue, beginning with minor, sporadic increases in tremor first detected at the end of May. During 30 June-2 July tremor was elevated and volume of water in the crater lake decreased significantly. Coincidently crater incandescence was visible in nighttime webcam views and gas emissions increased. Residents reported volcanic gas odors. Increased gas-and-steam emissions during 1100-1400 on 2 July contained minor amounts of ash that left visible deposits on the SE and ENE flanks.

Krakatau – Indonesia ; The Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 July ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Rincon de la Vieja – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption at Rincón de la Vieja was recorded at 0838 on 1 July, though weather conditions prevented visual conformation of emissions. Small emissions were visible at 0937, 0940, and 1006 on 3 July. Small steam plumes were seen on 4 July, but too small to be recorded by the seismic network.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : The Tokyo VAAC and SVERT reported that during 30 June-1 July ash plumes from Sarychev Peak rose to 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SE, and E based on satellite images. Plumes drifted as far as 25 km E on 1 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-COLOUR scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 35 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim during 28 June-5 July. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that anomalously high sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded at Taal, averaging 14,241 and 13,287 tonnes/day on 28 June and 1 July, respectively. Upwelling of hot volcanic fluids in the crater lake produced steam-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 3 km. Vog in the vicinity of the volcano persisted. At 1516 on 1 July a phreatomagmatic eruption generated a dark, 5-minute-long, Surtseyan plume that rose 1 km above the lake. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) at 1537. According to news articles and the Philippine Coast Guard, authorities began evacuating residents in Banyaga, Bilibinwang, Gulod, Boso-boso, and Lakeshore Bugaan East around 1700. Four additional short eruptions (less than two minutes) were recorded at 1826, 1921, 1941, and 2020, each ejecting material as high as 200 m. More phreatomagmatic eruptions on 2 July, at 1025, 1047, and 1101, jetted material 100 m above the lake. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 10,254 tonnes/day. Vigorous upwelling in the lake was visible in the afternoon, and steam-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 3 km drifted SW and NW. On 3 July steam-and-gas plumes rose 2.5-3 km and drifted SW and NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 14,699 tonnes/day, the highest ever measured from Taal. The high emissions and weather conditions again created vog in the area. A news article noted that about 10 children showed signs of illness from the vog. On 4 July PHIVOLCS issued a special advisory noting, again, a new record-breaking high of sulfur dioxide emissions at 22,628 tonnes/day. A total of 26 strong and very shallow low-frequency volcanic earthquakes below the E part of TVI had been recorded since the beginning of the day. Some of the earthquakes were accompanied by rumbling and weakly felt by fish cage caretakers off the NE shore. Lake upwelling persisted during 5-6 July with steam-and-gas plumes rising 2.5-3 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 5,299 tonnes/day on 5 July. The DROMIC report stated that 3,027 people were in 20 evacuation centers, and 2,759 people were in private residences by 6 July.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 23 June – 29 June 2021

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) ;: Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) ; According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 18-25 June produced ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that there were nine episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 21-27 June. The episodes were recorded shortly after midnight on 21 June, at dawn on 22 June, at dawn and sunset on 23 June, in the late morning on 24 June, at dawn and sunset on 25 June, in the afternoon on 26 June, and during the late morning of 27 June. Explosive activity was concentrated in the W part of SEC at three of the four saddle vents; some weak explosions occurred at the E vents. The episodes produced ash plumes that rose 5-10 km (16,400-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and lava flows that traveled SW and SE. Lava also began to effuse on 23 June from the vent on the SE flank of the SEC cone. INGV noted that these continuing episodes have caused the SEC cone to grow significantly, especially compared to the previous year, changing not only it’s morphology but the whole profile of Etna as well.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that on 24 June lahars resulting from substantial rainfall descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego’s ESE flank, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1 m in diameter. During 23-29 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind, including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), La Rochela, El Zapote, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on 23 June; the volcano was quiet or obscured by weather clouds on the other days during 18-25 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 23-29 June. Lava fountaining and overflows from the fifth vent were periodically visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. The Institute of Earth Sciences noted that during 11-26 June the lava effusion rate averaged 13 cubic meters per second, which was high but similar to rates during May. The area of the flow field had grown to 3.82 square kilometers, and the total volume erupted was 80 million cubic meters. Lava flows thickened 10-15 m in the Meradalir Valley, 15 m in the Nátthaga Valley, and 20 m in the S and E part of Geldingadalur. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok during 22-29 June rose as high as 600 m and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Manam – Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 June ash plumes from Manam rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WNW, and NW.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 18-24 June. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.59 million cubic meters by 24 June, with a growth rate of 11,400 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 17 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2.5 km down the SW flank and five traveled 1.4 km SE. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 206 times, traveled as far as 2 km down the SW flank and 600 m SE. The summit lava dome grew taller by 0.5 m. Beginning at 0443 on 25 June a series of three pyroclastic flows traveled 3 km down the SE flank and produced ash plumes that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SE. Several towns to the SE reported ashfall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 18-25 June. The newest lava block (named “Dolphin-2”) that had extruded from the top of the lava dome in February was about 200 m tall and 170 m wide at the base on 16 June; the top was slowly crumbling. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 22-29 June. Low-level background tremor continued with as many as 10 volcanic earthquake per day. As many as three low-frequency volcanic earthquakes were detected during 23-26 June and 0-3 episodes of volcanic tremor during 23-27 June lasted two minutes to two hours. Upwelling of hot volcanic fluids in the crater lake produced steam-and-gas plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 2,284-5,129 tonnes/day. In a special report issued on 28 June PHIVOLCS warned that public that the high levels of sulfur dioxide, the gas-and-steam plumes rising as high as 3 km above the lake’s surface, and weather conditions had caused vog over the Taal Caldera region. They issued another special statement on 29 June noting that on 28 June sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 14,326 tonnes/day, the highest rate ever recorded at Taal. Voggy conditions persisted, mainly impacting the NE and E lakeshore communities, with some residents reporting adverse effects. PHIVOLCS noted the continuing state of elevated unrest, reminding the public that the Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater, Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail), and boating on Taal Lake was strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 23 June – 29 June 2021

Rincon de la Vieja – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0542 on 28 June an eruption at Rincón de la Vieja produced a steam-and-ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material onto the flanks. Residents in Gavilan de Dos Ríos (7 km N and NNW) and Bromelias (6 km NNE) reported volcanic gas odors and ashfall. Lahars descended multiple drainages on the N flank.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT reported that thermal anomalies over Sarychev Peak were identified in satellite images on 12, 23, 25, and 29 June. At 0020 on 30 June an ash plume was visible in satellite data rising 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 30 km WNW. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 30 June.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) _ JMA reported that eruptive activity at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater increased during 21-23 June with multiple events. Eruptive events at 2254 on 21 June and 0004 on 23 June ejected large incandescent bombs 900 m NW and SE (respectively) from the crater; eruption plumes rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. The increased activity prompted JMA to raise the Alert Level to 3 at 0015 on 23 June and warn the public to stay at least 2 m away from the active crater. During an overflight on 23 June scientists noted incandescence on the crater floor and that there were several high-temperature deposits scattered in and around the crater. White plumes rose 200-300 m above the crater rim. Multiple eruptive events during 23-28 June ejected bombs 600 m and produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.3 km.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 16 June – 22 June 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 14-21 June incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,400 tons per day on 15 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 11-18 June produced ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that there were several episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 14-23 June, and additional periods of Strombolian activity and ash emissions. The lava fountaining episodes were recorded during 1332-1450 on 16 June, 2220 on 18 June to 0210 on 19 June, 2040-2215 on 19 June, 1131 on 20 June to 0214 on 21 June, overnight during 21-22 June, and in the early hours of 22 and 23 June. Each episode began with Strombolian activity which was followed by lava fountaining and crater overflows sending lava down the flanks. Ash plumes that rose as high as 4.7 km above the summit and sometimes caused ashfall in areas downwind. Lava flows on 16 June descended the SW and SE flanks, and those produced on 21 June traveled about 1 km SW, towards Monte Frumento Supino, and stopped at 2,900 m elevation. The lava fountains on 21 June were notably tall.

Fuego – Guatemala, : INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 June lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego’s SE flank, carrying tree branches and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter. During 16-22 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano, and within 15 km of the S and SW flanks during 20-21 June. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit each day.

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) PVMBG reported that during 15-21 June gray-and-white ash plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted N, E, and S. As many as 63 eruptive events per day were recorded during 18-20 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 June ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 10-11, 14, and 17 June. Ash plumes drifted 70 km NE on 15 and 17 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and NW daily during 16-22 June. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 500 m above the summit and 300-500 m away from the vent in multiple directions almost daily. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to be active during 11-17 June. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.39 million cubic meters by 17 June, with a growth rate of 11,300 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 19 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 2 km down the SW flank and 1 km SE. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 100 times, traveled as far as 2 km down the SW flank and eight times went 1 km SE. The summit lava dome grew taller by 1 m. At 0350 on 20 June a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km down the SW flank. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-22 June white gas plumes rose as high as 600 m above Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater and drifted as far as 5 km NW, W, and SW. Some weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 17-18 June.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 80 explosions at Sabancaya during 14-20 June. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the summit and drifted S, SE, E, and NE. Seven thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Sangay – Ecuador IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 15-22 June. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano; almost daily lahars were detected by the seismic network. Ash plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC ash plumes almost daily, rising as high as 1.2 km above the volcano and drifting W and SW. Thermal anomalies continued to be often visible in satellite data.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that Semeru continued to erupt during 16-22 June. Inclement weather often prevented visual observations, through gray-and-white plumes were visible on 17 and 20 June rising 400-600 m above the summit and drifting S and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO lowered Semisopochnoi’s Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 16 June, reporting that no explosions or ash emissions had been detected since 30 May and seismicity was relatively low. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures and sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded on several occasions during the previous few weeks, indicating continued volcanic unrest.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 10-18 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 15 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim during 11-18 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 15-22 June. Low-level background tremor that had begun at 0905 on 8 April continued. One volcanic earthquake was recorded during 15-16 June, and 92 were recorded during 18-19 June along with 10 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. Between two and 82 episodes of volcanic tremor were detected during 18-19, 19-20, and 21-22 June, with periods lasting as short as one minute to as long as four hours. Almost daily upwelling of hot volcanic fluids in the crater lake produced steam plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted in multiple directions. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 3,007-5,604 tonnes/day. PHIVOLCS noted the continuing state of elevated unrest, reminding the public that the Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater, Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail), and boating on Taal Lake was strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 16 June – 22 June 2021

No new Global Volcanic Activity was reported this week.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 9 June – 15 June 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-14 June incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was low at 900 tons per day on 9 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Asosan – Kyushu (Japan) : Volcanic tremor amplitude had increased at Asoson on 2 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The amplitude remained high through 10 May, and then gradually decreased. On 9 June the Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the public was warned of an increased risk within 1 km of Nakadake Crater.

Bulusan – Luzon (Philippines) : At 2300 on 12 June PHIVOLCS stated that unrest at Bulusan had again increased, with a total of 95 weak volcanic earthquakes occurring during the previous 17 hours. Diffuse white steam plumes rose from the SW vents. Inflation of the upper flanks first recorded on 6 March in tilt data was sustained. GPS data indicated short-term inflation starting in May, though the long-term pattern since May 2019 showed overall deflation. The seismic unrest was likely due to shallow hydrothermal activity; the Alert Level remained at 1 and the public was reminded not to enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 8-10 and 14 June ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted NW, NE, E, and SW. Weather conditions prevented visual observations during 10-13 and 15 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 4-6 and 9-10 June produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in different directions. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 10 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 9-15 June gray-and-white ash plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted mainly N and E. Rock avalanches were recorded during 11-13 June, though they were not visually confirmed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar – Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 June ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 3 and 8-10 June. Ash plumes drifted 40 km NE during 6-8 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1730 on 13 June an ash plume from Kerinci rose 700 m above the summit and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 9-15 June. Lava fountaining from the fifth vent was periodically visible, and lava from the crater flowed in tubes as well as on the surface. Sections of the cone’s rim periodically collapsed, sending lava cascading down the flanks. A notable event on 10 June began with lava rising in the crater and vigorously splashing above the rim; an overflow began with several streams of lava that quickly merged into a wide, fast-moving “lava fall” that broke parts of the crater rim. On 13 June lava overflowed the southern area of Geldingadalur valley and flowed over hiking trail “A”, causing authorities to restrict access to the eruption site that day due to safety reasons. The narrow lava flow then turned E and entered the Nátthaga valley from the W wall and joined the larger advancing flow. Lava in Nátthaga continued to get closer to Highway 427 (Suðurstrandarvegur) to the S, and buried fiber optic communication cables. The leading edge of the flow ignited the vegetation, causing small fires. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Langila – New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 June ash plumes from Langila rose 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 800 m and drifted W and E almost daily during 9-15 June. Incandescent material was ejected 200-500 m SE during 8-10 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the lava domes just below Merapi’s SW rim and in the summit crater remained active during 4-10 June. The SW rim lava-dome volume was an estimated 1.3 million cubic meters on 8 June, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of 12 pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1.6 km down the SW flank and 1 km SE. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 52 times, traveled as far as 2 km down the SW flank and three times went 600 m SE. The volume of the summit lava dome was 2.1 million cubic meters on 8 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismic activity at Semisopochnoi was low during 9-15 June and no eruptive activity was detected in infrasound or satellite data. Elevated surface temperatures and steaming from the active vent were occasionally identified in satellite images. Sulfur dioxide emissions were visible in satellite data during 11-13 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 3, 6, and 8-10 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that avalanches of material from Sinabung’s summit lava dome were occasionally recorded during 11-13 June but not visually observed due to weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) reported that seismicity at Soufrière St. Vincent (often simply referred to as “La Soufriere”) had remained low since the last episode of ash venting on 22 April. Some daily earthquakes were recorded during 7-15 June. Steam-and-gas plumes rose from a few areas inside the crater and thermal anomalies persisted. The crater was observed and photographed during 11-12 June; observers saw no signs of lava domes. The Alert Level remained at Orange.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that 28 explosions at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 9-15 June. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached the highest levels ever detected at the volcano, averaging 9,911 tonnes/day on 10 June. Peak measurements coincided with periods of vigorous upwelling at the Main Crater Lake; the upwelling was continuous from 1800 on 9 June to 1000 on 10 June, producing steam plumes that rose 1.5 km and drifted mainly NW. Residents of barangays Banyaga, Bilibinwang, and Subic Ilaya (Municipality of Agoncillo, Batangas Province) reported throat irritations and observed sudden drying or die off of crops, plants, and trees after a period of rain. Averages on the other days were also elevated at 1,725-5,837 tonnes/day, and steam plumes from periods of lake upwelling rose 1-1.5 km and drifted NE, NW, and SW. Low-level background tremor that had begun at 0905 on 8 April continued. During 13-14 June the seismic network recorded 13 periods of volcanic tremor with durations from 1 to 270 minutes. During 14-15 June the network recorded 221 volcanic earthquakes, 29 low-frequency earthquakes, and 192 periods of volcanic tremor with durations from 1 to 135 minutes. PHIVOLCS noted the continuing state of elevated unrest, reminding the public that the Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater, Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail), and boating on Taal Lake was strictly prohibited.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 9 June – 15 June 2021

Bagana – Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 June an ash plume from Bagana rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Turrialba – Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption at Turrialba at 1800 on 31 June produced an ash plume that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW. Residents in several areas reported volcanic gas odors and rumbling, and minor ashfall was reported in Monte Calas and La Central.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 2 June – 8 June 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 31 May-7 June incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly and very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,700 tons per day on 2 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, an explosion on 28 May produced an ash plume that rose to 4.5 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 2 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported a few eruptive episodes at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) during 31 May-6 June, as well as minor and diffuse ash emissions at Bocca Nuova (BN) and ash emissions on 4 June at Northeast (NEC). Weak Strombolian activity at SEC began at 0850 on 2 June and produced minor and diffuse ash plumes. The activity intensified at 1000; within 30 minutes lava fountaining was observed and lasted for over two hours. Ash plumes rose 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, causing ashfall in Petrulli, Santa Venerina, and in an areas N of Zafferana. Lava overflowed the S side of the crater and traveled W. Fountaining stopped at 1245. Weak Strombolian activity continued to be observed during the night hours of 3-4 June. Activity increased at 1530 on 4 June and was characterized by discontinuous ash emissions and lava overflowing the S rim of SEC. Lava fountaining began at 1820 and an ash plume rose to 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. Tephra fell in Aci Castello, Acitrezza, San Giovanni La Punta, Tremestieri, Catania, and Viagrande, and between Pedara, Fleri, and Siracusa. Fountaining began to decline at 1930. The lava flow continued to advance, and by 2300 had reached 2,800 m elevation. Occasional ash emissions were noted during 4-5 June, and the lava flow had ceased.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 1-8 June at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit on most days.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 28-31 and 2-3 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci – Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 June an ash plume from Kerinci rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 2-8 June. The flow rate at the fifth vent, now the main lava source, was 12.4 cubic meters per second by 3 June, similar to the 11-13 cubic meters per second measured in May. Cycles of lava fountaining followed by no activity persisted at the fifth vent, though observers noted that the vent opening was getting smaller as the crater walls thickened. One observer described standing waves of lava 20 m high during a period of greater lava effusion. Lava advanced in the Nátthaga, Geldingadalur, and Merardalur valleys. The flows in Nátthaga continued to get closer to Highway 427 (Suðurstrandarvegur) to the S, covering an area with buried fiber optic communication cables. The leading edge of the flow ignited vegetation, causing small fires. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities warned of increased gas emissions hazards.

Lewotolok – Lembata Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes from Lewotolok rose as high as 500 m and drifted W and E almost daily during 1-8 June. Rumbling was heard every day. Crater incandescence was visible during 1 and 3-4 June. Incandescent material was ejected as far as 300 m in all directions during 3-4 June and as far as 1 km NW during 5-6 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Merapi continued during 1-8 June. As many as 16 daily incandescent avalanches were recorded, traveling as far as 2 km down the SW flank. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 1.6 km down the SW flank during 5-8 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing explosive and effusive activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 16 May-2 June, and increased sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies. Explosions partly destroyed the dome, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 1.1 km down the NE flank. Satellite images indicated that the L5 lava flow did not lengthen, remaining at 966 m, though the distal part of the flow widened. The L6 lava flow advanced at a rate of 1.16 m per hour to over 890 m long. The average temperature was 101 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 264 for L5 and an average of 121 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 293 for L6. A new lobate flow emerged just to the N of L6; measurements on 2 June indicated that the temperature of the flow was similar to that of L6. Data indicated that the lava dome in Nicanor Crater did not get larger. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate was 706 (± 216) tons/day, reaching a high value of 1,101 on 27 May. The number and intensity of thermal anomalies increased, and were notable on 20, 23, 25, 28, and 30 May, likely due to the active lava flows. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 2-8 June there were 87-136 steam-and-gas emissions with minor amounts of ash from Popocatépetl and periods of low-amplitude tremor lasting from five minutes to about three hours and 40 minutes. Minor crater incandescence was visible overnight during most nights. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador – Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 1-8 June; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by 3-23 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose higher than 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly W, NW, and NE. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling as far as 500 m down the S flank were occasionally observed at night. Lava flows on the N, NE, SE, and S flanks were active. The report also noted that a bulging area on the N flank first detected on 13 May had persisted.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-8 June daily explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the summit and drifted SE, SW, and W. Collapses of blocky lava from Caliente dome sent avalanches down the S, SW, and W flanks, sometimes reaching the base, and caused minor ashfall mostly on the volcano’s flank. Ashfall was also reported in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (6 km WSW) during 4-5 June.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that Semeru continued to erupt during 1-8 June. Inclement weather often prevented visual observations, through gray-and-white plumes were visible on 3 and 6 June rising 200-500 m above the summit and drifting S and SW. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 2, 5-6, and 8 June ash plumes rose as high as 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l., or about 600 m above the summit, and drifted SE, SW, W, and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 5 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 28 May-4 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 2-8 June. An eruptive event was recorded at 2004 on 3 June but not visually confirmed due to inclement weather. Another event, at 2335 on 6 June, produced ash plumes and pyroclastic flows, though weather again inhibited visual observations. The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash continued to be identified in satellite images; the next day ash clouds drifted W and WSW at 9.1 km, W at 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., WNW at 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l., and N at 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : According to GeoNet water filled in the vents of Whakaari/White Island’s 2019 Primary Crater based on 18 May webcam views. During an observation overflight on 27 May scientists confirmed the new lakelet and noted that several active steam and gas vents were under water. Thermal infrared measurements indicated that temperatures had cooled significantly. Gas emissions had not notably changed over the previous few months. A persistent gas-and-steam plume likely produced acid rain on the island. A period of low-energy volcanic tremor began at around 0400 on 1 June and lasted for two hours. Activity rapidly returned to low levels afterwards. Overall, seismicity was at background levels. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.