Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 10 March 2021 – 16 March 2021

Bagana – Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and WNW.

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) on 9 and 12 March. The eleventh episode began with Strombolian activity at SEC observed at 1914 on 9 March. Just after midnight activity quickly intensified with lava fountaining and a large eruption plume that rose at least 9 km a.s.l. The plume drifted ENE and caused ash and lapilli to fall in Mascali (18 km E), Giarre (17 km ESE), and Fiumefreddo (19 km ENE). Lava reached an elevation of 1,800 m, also effusing from the flank of the S vent. Lava fountaining ceased at 0430 on 10 March and sporadic ash emissions continued until 0700. The twelfth episode began at 0630 on 12 March with Strombolian activity at SEC and ash emissions. The activity intensified at 0754 and lava overflowed the E part of SEC, traveling towards the Valle de Bove. Lava fountaining began at 0841, with jets up to 500 m, and an eruption plume rose 6 km a.s.l. and drifted E. Lava advanced to 2,800 m elevation and within another hour had reached 2,000 m elevation. At 0939 the plume had risen 9-10 km and had caused ashfall in Milo and Fornazzo (10 km E), Giarre, Santa Venerina (15 km SE), and Torre Archirafi (20 km ESE). Lava fountaining ceased at 1050, though weak Strombolian activity and ash emissions continued until 1115. The lava flow advanced as far as 1,700 m elevation and a second lava flow expanded SE on the W slope of the Valle del Bove, stopping at 3,000 m a.s.l.

Krysuvik-Trolladyngja – Iceland : IMO reported that seismicity in the Reykjanes Peninsula remained elevated with thousands of earthquakes recorded during 10-16 March, in the western part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system in the Fagradalsfjall fissure swarm area. About 16,500 earthquakes had been detected over the week. Some of the largest events, M 4.3-5.4 recorded during 10-12 and 14-15 March, were felt as far as Hvanneyri (97 km NNE of Grindavik), Hvolsvollur (110 km ESE of Grindavik), and Saudakrokur (250 NE of Grindavik). A few, short-lived pulses of tremor were also recorded. The magma intrusion continued to move SW along a fault between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall, and was as shallow as 1 km below the surface. GPS, satellite, and seismic data indicated that the intrusion had expanded S to Nátthaga, a valley just E of Borgarfjall and S of Fagradalsfjall, and was 3-5 km long. Ground fracturing was visible in the area above the intrusion. The Aviation colour Code for Krýsuvík remained at Orange.

Momotombo – Nicaragua : The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 March a possible ash emission was visible in webcam and satellite data just above Momotombo. Ash was not visible in a subsequent satellite image captured around six hours later.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that pulses of moderate-to-strong Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater were commonly recorded during 9-16 March. Frequent ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted as far as 30 km W, SW, and S. On 10 March lapilli (2 mm to 6 cm in length) fell in El Caracol (3 km SW), and ash fell in El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) and likely in other areas downwind. Ash plumes caused daily ashfall in variable places during 11-16 March, including El Patrocinio, San José El Rodeo, the municipality of San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), San José el Bejucal (4 km N), San Antonio el Pepinal (7 km N), Concepción El Cedro (9 km NNW), San José Calderas, and the municipalities of Amatitlán (12 km N), Villa Nueva (16 km N), and Mixco (30 km N). Lapilli as long as 2 cm fell in El Patrocinio, San José El Rodeo and Concepción El Cedro on 16 March. Strombolian explosions and periodic lava fountaining ejected incandescent material as high as 800 m above the summit; tephra fell within a 500 m radius of Mackenney Crater. Explosions and ash emissions also rose from fissures on the S flank, 300 m below Mackenney Crater. The lava flow on the S flank had two branches and was 1 km on 10 March, but had lengthened to 1.8 km by 16 March. Block avalanches from the summit traveled down the S flank.

San Cristobal – Nicaragua : SINAPRED reported that a series of five explosions at San Cristóbal were recorded during 1306-1332 on 9 March. The strongest explosion, at 1325, produced an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim. Ashfall as deep as 2 mm was reported in El Viejo (19 km WSW), Chinandega (16 km SW), and Chichigalapa (16 km S); ash also fell in other communities downwind including Las Grecias, La Mora, and La Bolsa.

Semisopochnoi – Aleutian Islands (USA) : On 12 March AVO reported that although no ash plumes were observed at Semisopochnoi and nothing was detected in regional infrasound data during the previous week, ash deposits within Mount Cerberus’s N crater and extending 1.5 km on the flank were identified in satellite data. The Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow/Advisory, respectively.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 10-13 March there were around 51-55 volcanic earthquakes recorded daily at Taal, and about 23-49 periods of volcanic tremor with variable durations. One hybrid earthquake was recorded during 11-12 March. Diffuse steam plumes from fumarolic vents in Main Crater rose only 5 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,327 tonnes per day on 10 March, and fluctuated between 518 and 795 tonnes per day through 14 March. At 1411 on 12 March a short-lived (2.5 minutes) burst of steam-rich gas from Main Crater generated white plumes that rose 400-500 m. Diffuse steam plumes rose 50 m above fumarolic vents on the inner N and E walls during the rest of the day. The number of volcanic earthquakes per day rose to 74 during 13-14 March and to 252 during 15-16 March. Episodes of tremor persisted, with 17-46 periods recorded per day. Five hybrid events were detected during 14-15 March. An episode of high-temperature gas upwelling to the crater lake’s surface occurred during 1830-2045 on 14 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,216 tonnes per day on 15 March. Steam emissions rose 10 km during 15-16 March. The seismic network recorded 42 volcanic earthquakes and 34 periods of tremor. The Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater and Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.

Veniaminof – United States : AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 9-16 March. Ash emissions rose to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km NE and SE during 9-10 March. Explosions and ash emissions declined to lower levels the rest of the week, though new ash deposits within the caldera, and as far as 10 km SE, were sometimes identified in satellite images. Lava continued to effuse under the intra-caldera glacier in an area on the flank about 1 km E of the cone’s summit. Elevated surface temperatures over this area were identified in a satellite images during most days, along with steam plumes and a broadening collapse pit in the ice from melting around the eruption site. Data from local seismic stations were back online by 12 March and showed elevated seismicity and tremor through 15 March. Steam-and-has plumes were identified in satellite images during 15-16 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 3 March 2021 – 9 March 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 1-8 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion at 1810 on 1 March ejected bombs 600-900 m away from the crater; an eruption plume was not confirmed. That same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,900 tons per day. An explosion on 5 March produced an eruption plume that rose 2.7 km above the summit and ejected bombs 800-1,100 m away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-9 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26-28 February and 1-2 March that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 26 February and 2 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kikai – Japan : In response to an eruption at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, on 2 November 2019 JMA had raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Since then, surveillance cameras sometimes recorded minor incandescence reflected in emitted plumes. On 8 March JMA revised the Alert Level guidelines, keeping the level at 2, but reducing the exclusion zone around the crater from 1 km to 500 m.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 2-8 March through a submerged inlet. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,000 tons/day during 2-3 March, and 800 tons/day on 7 March. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated around 219-220 m. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. Rangefinder measurements and visual observations indicated that the eastern and western portions of the lake were rising at the same rate, suggesting that lava was accumulating under the crusted eastern portion. In recent weeks a part of the cone, several meters NE of the main vent, occasionally fed short (less than 100 m) lava flows that entered the lake at the crusted margins. During 5-7 March flows from this vent poured lava into the lake at several shifting inlets, though lava also accumulated on the lake margin within 50 m of the vent. By midday on 7 March the flows had built a perched lava pond on the NW lake margin, but it abruptly collapsed just after 1300. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 3-9 March; weather conditions sometimes hindered visual observations. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 100-1,000 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, SW, and W. Incandescent material was ejected 300-800 m SE from the crater during 3-6 March. Rumbling and occasional thumping sounds were reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the new lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 19-25 February. The 2021 lava-dome volume was an estimated 618,700 cubic meters on 25 February, with a growth rate of about 13,600 cubic meters per day. A total of three pyroclastic flows traveled 1.9 km down the SW flank. One of the three, recorded at 1652 on 25 February, was followed by minor ashfall in Kali Tengah Lor, Kali Tengah Kidul, Deles, and Tlukan. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km awa

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose 200-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 2-9 March. Ash plumes drifted mainly E and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 3-9 March. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but satellite and webcam images recorded daily ash plumes. Ash plumes were notable during 5-6 March and impacted communities downwind with ashfall. According to the Washington VAAC ash plumes rose 5.8-12.2 km (19,000-40,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 170-370 km SW, W, and NW; ash at altitudes of 5.8-8.2 km (19,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted 185 km E. During 5-6 March ashfall was reported in Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno (132 km W), but fell more significantly in Alausí (61 km WSW), Chunchi (73 km SW), Cumandá (90 km WSW), Guamote (42 km WNW), Pallatanga (70 km W), Milagro (140 km W), San Jacinto de Yaguachi (150 km W), Samborondon (170 km W), Daule (180 km W), and Durán (168 km W). SNGRE reported that the ashfall affected a total of 108,457 people (23,750 families) as well as numerous crops and animals; they distributed volcano-related aid kits to impacted populations. Ashfall continued to impact multiple communities during 6-7 March. Ash fell in Guayaquil (175 km W), General Antonio Elizalde (97 km WSW), Simón Bolívar, Milagro (140 km W), San Jacinto de Yaguachi (150 km W), El Triunfo (125 km WSW), Daule, Samboróndon (170 km W), Coronel Marceliño Maridueña (120 km WSW), Durán, Naranjito, Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno, Playas (240 km WSW), Guamote (40 km WNW), Alausí (60 km SW), Pallatanga (70 km W), Chunchí (72 km SW), and Colta (55 km NW).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 26 February-5 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to slowly grow during 2-8 March. The SE part of the dome was in line with the pre-existing fumarolic area on the 1979 dome. Gas plumes continued to damage vegetation in the summit area as well as on the SW flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 26 February-2 March. Bombs were ejected as far as 600 m away from the crater and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The number of explosions began increasing on 2 March; the total recorded through 1500 on 7 March was 139, but by 1500 on 8 March there was only one additional explosion. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose 0.9-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 3-7 March. An explosion at 0317 on 6 March ejected tephra as high as 500 m above the crater rim and bombs 900 m away. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 3 March 2021 – 9 March 2021

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) on 2, 4, and 7 March. Weak Strombolian activity began at SEC at 1145 on 2 March, then intensified at 1234 and produced an ash plume. Lava fountaining began at 1324. Ash plumes rose to 9 km above the summit and drifted S, causing lapilli to fall in Nicolosi (16 km S), Aci San Antonio (18 km SE), Pedara (15 km SSE), and Catania (29 km SSE). Lava fountaining ceased at 1550, ending the eighth episode.

Krysuvik – Iceland : IMO reported that seismicity in the area between the Krýsuvík and Reykjanes-Svartsengi volcanic systems remained elevated during 4-10 March. GPS and InSAR data indicated that the intrusion was ongoing, with magma moving slowly SW along a fault between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall at depths of 2-6 km. Seismicity fluctuated during 6-7 March but continued to be elevated; the largest event was a M 5.1 on 7 March. The geophysical and satellite data on 8 March suggested that magma movement had decelerated over the past week, and was possibly as shallow as 1 km. A burst of seismicity was recorded around 0520 on 9 March, concentrated at the S end of the intrusion in an area that was most likely source of the magma. On 10 March IMO stated that more than 34,000 earthquakes had been detected during the past two weeks, a total larger than all of 2020 which was characterized as an unusually high year for seismicity. The Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík remained at Orange.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 2-6 March strong Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. Tephra fell in areas downwind including El Patrocinio (5 km W), El Rodeo (4 km WSW), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), El Cedro (9 km NNW), Calderas (3 km N), and Las Jazmines (5 km W), and in the municipalities of Palín (10 km WNW) and Escuintla (22 km SW). Periods of lava fountaining were visible, and incandescent material was ejected 300-1,000 m high. Three lava flows were active and all had several branches; one traveled SSW, one traveled S, and one on the SE flank was 800-1,200 m long. During 6-8 March strong explosions ejected material as high as 500 m and produced dense ash plumes that rose up to 1 km. Lava flows continued to be active, sometimes producing block avalanches from the ends. On 8 March the S-flank flow was about 850 m long and continued to generated block avalanches. Strong explosions during 8-9 March ejected ballistics 300-500 m away from the crater. Dense ash plumes rose up to 1.5 km and drifted 30 km SW and S. The lava flow on the S flank was 900 m long and shed blocks from the end.

Pinatubo – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Pinatubo to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 4 March noting elevated seismicity with a total of 1,722 earthquakes recorded in two swarms since 20 January. The first swarm was recorded during 20-26 January and was comprised of local M 1-2.5 events that occurred along the Sacobia Lineament fault at depths of 15-28 km. A more persistent swarm followed; it was comprised of local M 0.5-2.8 events at depths of 10-35 km along another fault system, with a few shallower earthquakes occurring at both ends of the swarm. Carbon dioxide flux at Pinatubo Crater lake was 378 tonnes per day in February, within background ranges that topped 1,000 tonnes per day during the last decade. Minor temperature increases were recorded at fumarolic vents.

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 3-9 March. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (or 600 m above the summit) and drifting NW on 5 March. The observatory noted that avalanches of material traveled 500 m down the SE flank during 6-7 March, and an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NW at 1910 on 7 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level for Taal to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) on 9 March based on increased activity recorded since 13 February. During 8-9 March the seismic network recorded a total of 28 volcanic tremor events, four low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and one hybrid event at depths of less than 1.5 km. These events added to the totals of 866 volcanic tremor events and 141 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes recorded during 13 February-9 March. Overall, seismicity over the past month indicated increased magmatic and hydrothermal activity at shallow depths beneath Taal Volcano Island (TVI).

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption from vents on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank continued during 26 February-5 March. A large, bright thermal anomaly over the vents was identified daily in satellite images. IVS FEB RAS volcanologists visited the field site on 2 March during good weather conditions. They estimated that the cinder cone was 54 m high and 101 m wide at the base. Lava effused from the cone and traveled downslope, melting ice and snow that formed muddy streams. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Veniaminof – United States : AVO reported that elevated sulfur dioxide gas emissions at Veniaminof were first detected on 1 March and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images sometime during 2-3 March. At 0513 on 4 March infrasound sensors recorded a small explosion, prompting AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. A low-level ash plume, to less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., was visible in satellite and webcam images drifting SSE and minor ash deposits around the volcano were visible. Small emissions continued at least through 1048 that day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were visible in a webcam image on 5 March. Numerous small explosions were recorded during 6-7 March; some of them were heard and felt by residents in Perryville (35 km SE). Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, suggesting lava near or at the surface. During times of clear weather low-level gas-and-ash plumes were visible in satellite and webcam data and observed by pilots. The plumes mainly stayed below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., but at times went as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 150 km NE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 24 February 2021 – 2 March 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 22 February-1 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Three explosions and four non-explosive events generated eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 0.6-1.3 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 23-28 February ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-500 m above the summit and drifted SE and E. Weather conditions prevented visual observations during 1-2 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19-26 February that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 20 February and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images that same day. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 23 February-2 March at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit almost daily. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 26-27 February.

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 24 February-2 March gray-and-white ash plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24 February-2 March. The depth of the western part of the lake deepened from 217 to 219 m. Lava effused from a submerged vent and rapidly developed a thin crust as it flowed E towards the main stagnant island. The crust occasionally overturned at “plate” boundaries, and lava rarely overflowed onto the sloped margins of the lake. The E half of the lake remained solidified; the crusted area expanded towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 700-1,100 tons/day during 25-26 February and 1 March.

Kirishimayama – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kirishimayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 1 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes had increased in late December 2020 but then began to decline in January 2021 and continued the downward trend through February. No other observation data showed signs of unrest.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 24 February-2 March; weather conditions sometimes hindered visual observations. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 100-700 m above the summit and drifted N, E, SE, and W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the new lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 19-25 February. The 2021 lava-dome volume was an estimated 618,700 cubic meters on 25 February, with a growth rate of about 13,600 cubic meters per day. A total of three pyroclastic flows traveled 1.9 km down the SW flank. One of the three, recorded at 1652 on 25 February, was followed by minor ashfall in Kali Tengah Lor, Kali Tengah Kidul, Deles, and Tlukan. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose 200-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 24 February-2 March. Ash plumes were sometimes dense and drifted mainly N, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 24 February-2 March. Seismicity was characterized by 3-254 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but the Washington VAAC recorded almost daily ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. A seismic station possibly recorded a lahar on 25 February.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 23 February-2 March explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the complex. Collapses of blocky lava from the Caliente dome sent avalanches mainly down the SW flank, often reaching the base of the complex. Minor pyroclastic flows were occasionally generated. Ash plumes drifted W and SW, often causing minor ashfall around the volcano.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-25 February ash plumes from Semeru rose to 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE based on satellite images. PVMBG noted that weather conditions prevented visual observations during 24 February-2 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 19-26 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to grow during 24 February-2 March. The rate of growth was variable, though overall slow. Gas emissions continued to damage vegetation in the summit area as well as on the SW flank. The monitoring teams replaced a camera and continue to improve the seismic and GPS networks. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 19-26 February. These events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 200 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 24 February 2021 – 2 March 2021

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) and 24 and 28 February. Strombolian activity at two vents in SEC increased during the late afternoon of 24 February. Lava overflowed the crater at 1820 and headed ESE towards the Valle de Bove. During 1900-2122 lava fountains rose as high as 500 m above the summit. A second lava flow traveled SW, and at 2100 a pyroclastic flow descended 1 km into the Valle de Bove. An eruption plume rose as high as 11 km a.s.l. Weak Strombolian activity was visible at 0810 on 28 February. Lava fountaining began at 0839, feeding lava flows that traveled E, and abruptly intensified at 0902 with jets of lava rising 700 m above the crater rim. An eruption plume rose as high as 11 km a.s.l. and drifted ESE, causing ashfall in areas downwind. A small lava overflow at the S part of SEC began at 0909, followed by a pyroclastic flow at 0920. Lava fountaining ended at 0933, though the lava flow descending E remained active.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at two vents on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank continued during 24-26 February. Both vents produced lava flows and ejected lava 50 m high. A cinder cone had formed over the higher vent. A bright thermal anomaly over the vents was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Krysuvik – Iceland : IMO reported that seismicity in the area between Krýsuvík and Reykjanes-Svartsengi volcanic systems remained elevated during 26 February-1 March. More than 6,000 earthquakes had been detected after a M 5.7 event was recorded at 1005 on 24 February; two of those events were above M 5. The earthquakes were distributed over a 25-km-long section of a N-S striking fault along the E-W striking plate boundary, primarily located between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall. GPS data showed 4 cm of horizontal displacement near the epicenter of the M 5.7 event. An InSAR interferogram showed left-lateral movement over a large section of the plate boundary. Tremor began to be recorded by several stations at 1425 on 3 March, in an area located 2 km SW of Keilir. The signals possibly indicated magma rising towards the surface and prompted IMO to raise the Aviation Color Code for Krýsuvík to Orange.

Kuchinoerabujima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes located at shallow depths beneath Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater increased on 21 February and remained elevated. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5) on 28 February. No other monitoring data showed upward trends and no surficial changes were visible; sulfur dioxide emissions remained low at 60 tons per day on 24 February.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 23-25 February explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected incandescent material as high as 200 m. A lava flow, originating from a vent 300 m below the summit crater, was about 1.1 km long and produced incandescent blocks from the flow front that descended 300 m. more intense pulses of activity at the summit produced dense ash plumes that drifted more than 30 km S and SW. Ashfall was noted in areas downwind including Los Pocitos, Pacaya, El Rodeo, and El Patrocinio. Explosions continued during 26-29 February, although weather conditions sometime prevented visual confirmation. RSAM data values notably increased during the morning of 1 March, reflecting an increase in Strombolian activity. Moderate-to-strong explosions ejected ballistics as high as 500 m above the summit. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall at least in El Patrocinio. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and ash plumes drifted W; ashfall was reported in El Patrocinio. The lava flow on the SSW flank was about 700 m long. On 2 March gas and ash plumes rose 150 m and drifted 2 km S. A lava flow on the SSW flank was 150 m long.

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 24 February-2 March. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit most days. On 25 February avalanches of material traveled 500-1,000 m down the E, SE, and S flanks. The Darwin VAAC noted that an ash plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l., or 1.5 km above the summit, and drifted SE, based on satellite images and information from PVMBG. On 28 February avalanches of material traveled 1,000-1,250 m down the E, SE, and S flanks; the VAAC noted that ash plumes were visible in satellite images and rose to 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. (about 1 km above the summit) and drifted SW. On 1 March avalanches of material descended the E, SE, and S flanks as far as 1.3 km. A series of lava-dome collapses began at 0642 on 2 March. A total of 13 pyroclastic flows, each lasting between about two and eight minutes, traveled 2-5 km SE and E. Ash plumes rose 4-5 km along the length of the pyroclastic flows and drifted W, SW, S, and E. The VAAC reported that ash plumes were visible in satellite images beginning at 0640 rising to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW. Ash plumes rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W by 0758; within another 25 minutes the plumes had risen to 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l. According to BNPB ashfall was noted in 17 villages in the Tiganderket District, eight villages in the Kutabuluh District, and 15 villages in the Tigabinaga District. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 17 February 2021 – 23 February 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 15-22 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 16 February generated an eruption plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1-1.3 km away from the crater. That same day the sulfur dioxide emission rate was extremely high, at 4,300 tons per day. An ash plume from an explosion at 2253 on 21 February rose 1.6 km and entered weather clouds. Large bombs were ejected 800-1,100 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12, 14-15, and 17 February that sent ash plumes to 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 15 February and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 17 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 4-12 explosions were recorded per hour during 17-23 February at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Notably, on 17 February ash plumes drifted as far as 50 km E, causing ashfall in local communities as well as in Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Ash plumes drifted 40 km SW on 18 February. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 19-21 February. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit during 19-22 February.

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on most days during 17-23 February gray-and-white ash plume from Ibu were seen rising 200-800 m above the summit and drifting in multiple directions. Weather conditions sometimes hindered observations. The report stated that during 16-17 February there were a total of 88 eruptive events. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolok continued during 16-23 February; weather conditions sometimes hindered visual observations. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 50-500 m above the summit and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the new lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 12-18 February. The 2021 lava dome volume was an estimated 397,500 cubic meters on 17 February, with a growth rate of about 25,200 cubic meters per day; it was 258 m long, 133 m wide, and 30 m high. The summit lava dome was an estimated 426,000 cubic meters, with a growth rate of about 10,000 cubic meters per day; it was 160 m long, 120 m wide, and 50 m high. Seismicity was less intense than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed no notable deformation. PVMBG noted that foggy conditions often prevented visual observations during 18-23 February, though sometimes white emissions were observed rising up to 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Sabancaya – Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported a daily average of 71 explosions at Sabancaya during 15-21 February. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.2 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. Ten thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 17-23 February, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. At 0601 on 17 February an ash plume rose 300 m and drifted N. A white-and-gray ash plume rose 100 m and drifted N, NE, and E on 18 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Semisopochnoi – United States : AVO reported that no significant activity at Semisopochnoi was recorded after several ash deposits were visible in satellite images during 6-7 February. On 19 February the Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Yellow/Advisory, respectively.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) :KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 12-19 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 17-23 February, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. White plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. On 21 February pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km down the E and SE flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Ontake Crater during 12-19 February. These events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 300 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that beginning around 0220 on 19 February a series of short-lived, low-energy steam explosions at Whakaari/White Island were recorded for about 100 minutes by local seismic and acoustic instruments. Webcam images were dark due to the time of day; no trace ash deposits were visible. Tremor had begun around 2100 the night before and then ceased at 0550 when the steam explosions ended. Visual observations and gas flux measurements taken during an overflight on 18 February showed no changes compared to the previous month. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 17 February 2021 – 23 February 2021

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that a series of paroxysmal events separated by relative calm periods at Etna began on 16 February and continued at least through 23 February. The first episode began late on 16 February, characterized by gradually increasing Strombolian activity at the E vents of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Overflows of lava from the crater at 1805 caused a partial collapse of the cone and a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1.5 km along the W wall of the Valle de Bove. Lava fountains afterwards rose 500-600 m high. An eruptive plume rose several kilometers and drifted S, causing ashfall in areas as far as Syracuse, 60-80 km SSE. Lava flows advanced into the Valle de Bove and the Valle del Leone, and produced explosions in areas where they interacted with snow cover. Activity ended around 1900.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 1100-1150 on 18 February a new vent opened on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank, near Erman glacier at elevations of 2,500-2,700 m, based on satellite images. Snowfall in the area of Klyuchi during 18-19 February inhibited webcam views. Bright incandescence was visible in webcam images beginning at 0323 on 21 February, likely indicating an advancing lava flow. On 23 February the Kamchatka Volcanological Station team reported that lava was flowing from two vents and bombs were being ejected 50 m high. A lahar along the Krutenkaya River was visible in an area 7 km E of Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE). Bright incandescence over the two flank vents was identified in satellite and video images on 24 February. KVERT raised the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krysuvik – Iceland : IMO raised the Aviation colour Code for Krýsuvík to Yellow on 24 February based on recent increased seismicity. Intense seismic activity had been detected for the previous few days and since midnight through the generation of the report at 1107 more than 500 earthquakes had been recorded. At 1005 a M 5.7 earthquake occurred 5 km W of Krýsuvík and at 1027 a M 4.2 was located in Nupshlidarhals, less than 1 km NW of Krýsuvík. The seismic unrest was unusual for the area in the context of the unrest in the Reykjanes peninsula that began in January 2020.

Laguna del Maule – Central Chile-Argentina border : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-16 February the seismic network at Laguna del Maule recorded a total of 533 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Two earthquake swarms were recorded during 15-16 February; the largest events were local magnitude 3.1, and were located 9.1 and 8.8 km SW of the lake at a depth of 1.9 km. The epicenters were near the area producing anomalous carbon dioxide emissions. Swarms were recorded in June and December 2020, and January and February 2021, with the largest events occurring during the most recent swarm. The highest rate of inflation during the previous 30 days was 2.3 cm/month, recorded at a station closest to the center of deformation. The highest horizontal displacement was an estimated 1.4 cm/month from a station just SW of the center. InSAR data mostly showed agreement in the magnitude and distribution of the ground-based deformation data. Overall, the deformation rates were higher than maximum averages. On 22 February the Alert Level was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI declared a Yellow Alert for San Clemente and recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the center of elevated carbon dioxide emissions.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that seismicity at Pacaya increased around 0900 on 18 February. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above Mackenney Crater and explosions produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 450 m and drifted mostly NE and S. An active lava flow on the SSW flank was 1.1 km long and generated hot block avalanches from the flow front. A lava flow emerged on the SW flank on 19 February. During 19-20 February periods of increased activity lasted 3-5 hours; moderate-to-loud explosions were accompanied by rumbling and sounds resembling trains. Ballistics were ejected 300- 500 m from the crater and ash plumes rose as high as 450 m and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including El Rodeo and El Patrocinio. A lava flow on the S flank was 800 m long and produced incandescent blocks from the flow front that descended 500 m.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray and sometimes black ash plumes rose 200-1,200 m above Raung’s summit during 17-23 February. Ash plumes were sometimes dense and drifted mainly N, NE, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sarychev Peak-Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT noted that thermal anomalies over Sarychev Peak were identified in satellite images during 9-10 and 12-14 February. KVERT reported on 19 February that the effusive eruption was over, though lava continued to advance in the summit crater and a thermal anomaly remained visible. KVERT lowered the Aviation colour Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 10 February 2021 – 16 February 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 8-15 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. One explosion and five eruptive events generated eruption plumes that rose 1.4-1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 800-1,100 km away from the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,500 tons per day on 9 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 29 January and 1-2 February that sent ash plumes to 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that continuous avalanches of material at Fuego during 9-10 February descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages. There were 8-12 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 15-20 km W and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía, Panimache, Morelia, and Yucales, and shockwaves were audible up to 15 km away. The number of explosions increased to 3-6 per hour during 11-12 February. Ash-and-gas plumes rose to 1.1 km and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde, and Yepocapa. Shock waves were felt by nearby residents. Avalanches of material descended the flanks, reaching vegetated areas. During 12-13 February incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the summit and shock waved vibrated local structures. A lava flow had traveled 1 km down the Ceniza drainage, spalling blocks from the flow front that reached vegetated areas. By 14 February the lava flow had lengthened to 1.5 km and a lava flow in the Seca drainage traveled 500 m. During 1020-1023 a series of pyroclastic flows traveled several hundred meters down the Ceniza. Ash plumes from explosions rose 850 m and drifted NE, E, and SE, and caused ashfall in Alotenango, El Porvenir, and Finca La Reunion, in the department of Sacatépequez. During 14-15 February explosions ejected incandescent material 100 m above the summit and rattled nearby structures. Ash plumes rose as high as 450 m and drifted short distances E. Lava flows remained active; they were 800 and 200 m long in the Ceniza and Seca drainages, respectively. Block avalanches from the lava-flow fronts reached vegetated areas. The lava effusion rate had steadily decreased during the late morning of 15 February. During the afternoon explosions, occurring at a rate of 14-30 per hour, produced ash plumes that rose 850-1,050 m above the summit and drifted as far as 50 km E, NE, and N. Ash fell in Porvenir and Alotenango. Activity continued to decrease through the day, characterized by a reduction in the explosion rate, less intense summit incandescence, and low RSAM values. INSIVUMEH declared an end to the effusive eruption phase. Explosions (12-14 per hour) generated ash plumes that rose over 1 km and drifted 130 km N, NE, and E.

Kanlaon – Philippines : PHIVOLCS reported slightly increased seismic activity and volcanic gas flux at Kanlaon. The seismic network recorded 28 volcanic earthquakes during 11-13 February with local magnitudes between 0.7 and 2.2. They were located at shallow depths around 10 km across the N to E portions of the edifice. The sulfur dioxide emission rate on 13 February was 1,130 tonnes per day, the highest value recorded this year; sulfur dioxide emissions had been higher than background levels of 300 tonnes/day since June 2020. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS and tilt measurements indicated slight inflation of the lower and middle flanks since June 2020. Increased seismic activity continued through 16 February; from 0800 on 14 February to 0800 on 16 February there were a total of 59 earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that activity at Karymsky had decreased; strong explosions were last observed on 2 January and a thermal anomaly was last detected in satellite images on 5 February. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 11 February and then lowered to Green, the lowest level, on 16 February. Gas-and-steam emissions persisted.

Kavachi – Solomon Islands : Satellite data showed discoloured water around and to the SW of Kavachi on 25 January. Discoloured water was not obviously visible in 20 January images; weather clouds prevented views of the area in images through 14 February.

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 February. The western part of the lake deepened from 215 m to around 217 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The W end of the lava lake was perched by 3 m above the distal margin of recent overflows. A series of surficial cracks separated the W part of the lake from the stagnant E part. Lava spillovers just N of the inlet of lava sporadically flowed around the NW margin of the perched lake. Gas jetting at two locations above the W vents and two bursts of spatter were observed during 9-10 February. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,600 and 1,100 tons/day on 10 and 12 February, respectively. During 15-16 February a few lava flows were visible along the N and E margins of the E part of the lake.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that activity at Klyuchevskoy notably decreased, with the eruption likely ending on 8 Febryary. The temperature of the thermal anomaly identified in satellite images abruptly dropped on 7 February, and the magnitude of volcanic tremor decreased during 7-8 February and continued to decline through 12 February. Strombolian activity was not visible at night during 11-12 February. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 12 February. The Tokyo VAAC reported that re-suspended ash was identified in satellite images during 12-13 February. On 15 February an ash plume rose to 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 9-15 February. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 400-1,000 m above the summit and drifted E and SE. Strombolian explosions ejected material 500 m SE on 13 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Pacaya – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that a during 9-10 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material 200-300 high and away from the crater. Ash clouds occasionally rose as high as 650 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. A 1.3-km-long lava flow was active on the S flank; block avalanches from the front of the lava flow descended 200 m. Activity increased around 1600 on 10 February. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material 500 m above the crater rim and produced gas-and-ash plumes that drifted W. Ashfall was reported in the villages of El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) and El Rodeo (4 km WSW). During 11-12 February material was ejected 300-500 m above the crater. Ash plumes rose 950 m and drifted N, causing ashfall in San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), San Jose Calderas, and Concepción el Cedro (9 km NNW). Seismic data recorded pulses of increased activity during the morning of 12 February and again around 1400 on 13 February. Explosions ejected material 300-500 m above the crater. Ash-and-gas plumes rose almost 500 m and drifted 6 km W, N, and NE, causing ashfall in Santa Elena Barillas (6 km ENE), Mesillas Bajas (5 km NE), and Mesillas Altas. Another pulse of activity was recorded at 1145 on 14 February. Material was ejected as high as 250 m. Ash plumes rose less than 400 m and drifted 5 km E. A 650-m-long lava flow in the SSW flank was active on 15 February. Explosions continued to ejected material as high as 250 m above the vent.

San Cristobal – Nicaragua : The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 February an ash cloud from San Cristóbal rose to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite data, webcam images, and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also identified.

San Miguel – El Salvador : SNET stated that San Miguel’s seismic network recorded long-lasting and continuous periods of volcanic tremor that began on 7 February and continued through 14 February. Discrete earthquakes from minor rock fracturing were also detected. RSAM values fluctuated between 25 and 75 units, below normal values around 150 units.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 5-12 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 10-16 February, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. During 12-14 February pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km down the E and SE flanks. Avalanches descended 500-1,500 m down the E, SE, and S flanks. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to grow during 10-16 February. Gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome as well as along the contact of the old and new domes. The dome also grew taller and spread laterally to the NW and SE. By 12 February the it was 90 m tall, 618 m long, 232 m wide, and had an estimated volume of 6.83 million cubic meters. Four additional seismometers were installed, strengthening the seismic network. NEMO reminded the public to avoid the volcano and that descending into the crater remained extremely dangerous. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 5-12 February. Intermittent eruptive events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 500 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Taal – Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that geochemical data collected from Taal’s Main Crater lake indicated a continuous acidification of the water from pH 2.79 to 1.59 between January 2020 and February 2021. A maximum temperature of 77.1 degrees Celsius was unseasonably high, and carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide gas flux ratios were consistent with shallow magma degassing. Tilt data indicated minor deflation around Main Crater, though minor inflation was consistently recorded across the Taal region as indicated by analysis of GPS data, InSAR, and microgravity changes. A total of 68 relatively weak tremor signals were detected during 13-15 February; 50 of those were recorded during 0500-1500 on 15 February. The events on 15 February ranged in duration from two to five minutes and occurred at depths less than 1 km. The depth and location of the earthquakes suggested increased hydrothermal activity beneath Taal Volcano Island. Increased seismic activity continued through 16 February; from 0800 on 15 February to 0800 on 16 February there were a total of 98 earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and the Main Crater and the Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.

Villarrica – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that dense gas emissions were observed in Villarrica’s webcam images rising 700 m above the summit on 10 February. Long-period (LP) events were recorded by the seismic network at 1146 and 1156 on 16 February. Ash emissions associated with the earthquakes rose 160 m and drifted NW and 280 m and drifted NE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 10 February 2021 – 16 February 2021

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : Strombolian activity from all four of Etna’s summit craters, the Southeast Crater (SEC), Northeast Crater (NEC), Bocca Nuova (BN), and Voragine (VOR), was visible during 8-14 February. The frequency and intensity of explosions at SEC were variable; almost continuous strong explosions originated from two vents in the E part of the top of the cone. Tephra accumulated near the top of the cone and rolled several tens of meters down the flanks. Minor ash emissions rapidly dispersed. Less-intense Strombolian activity occurred at the S vent (also called the saddle vent). Intra-crater Strombolian activity at NEC sometimes produced nighttime crater incandescence. The activity at BN sometimes ejected coarse material beyond the crater rim, and rare emissions that had diffuse ash content. The the VOR Strombolian explosions ejected material that sometimes rose above the crater rim and generated diffuse ash emissions. During the morning of 15 February explosive activity at SEC gradually intensified. Activity originated from the E vents but sometimes intense explosions occurred at the saddle vent. A significant increase in tremor amplitude began at 1700. Tremor amplitude waned at 2100, the same time that explosive activity decreased. At 1700 on 16 February lava began advancing down the E flank of SEC. Part of the cone collapsed at 1705 and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1.5 km along the W wall of the Valle de Bove. An ash plume rapidly dispersed to the S. Explosive activity at SEC increased and lava fountaining began at 1710. Ash clouds drifted S. Lava flows advanced into the Valle de Bove, reaching an elevation of 2,000 m by 1759 at the latest. Lapilli, 1 cm in diameter, was reported in Nicolosi (16 km S) and Mascalucia (19 km S), and ash and lapilli fell in Catania (29 km SSE). Ashfall was also reported in Syracuse, 60-80 km SSE. Another lava flow advanced N into the Valle del Leone. Lava fountains were about 500 m tall, possibly as tall as 600 m. Tremor amplitude began to decrease at 1750 and lava fountains ceased around 1800. Lava effusion from SEC gradually diminished; the flow in the Valle de Bove was a few kilometers long and smaller flows that had traveled N and S reached an elevation of 2,900. Strombolian activity persisted at SEC overnight during 16-17 February and ceased at 0715 on 17 February. Explosions at VOR were sporadic.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome continued to grow just below Merapi’s SW rim during 5-11 February. The lava-dome volume was an estimated 295,000 cubic meters on 11 February, with a growth rate of about 48,900 cubic meters per day. Incandescent avalanches of material were occasionally visible; they traveled 700 m SW in the upper parts of the Krasak and Boyong drainages during 9-10 February. Weather conditions prevented visual observations of the lava dome in the summit crater. Seismicity was higher than the previous week. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed no notable deformation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was identified in satellite images during 5-12 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above Raung’s summit during 10-16 February. Ash plumes were sometimes dense and drifted N, NE, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 3 February 2021 – 9 February 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 29 January-1 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. Seven explosions generated eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 1,000-1,300 km away from the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,100 tons per day on 2 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asamayama – Honshu (Japan) : On 5 February JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no deformation or crater incandescence had been detected since late November 2020, sulfur dioxide emissions had trended downward beginning in December, volcanic earthquakes were recorded only occasionally since mid-December, and the number of small-amplitude volcanic tremors were recorded occasionally and had not increased.

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4, 6-7, and 9 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 29 January and 1-2 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 3-9 February gray-and-white ash plume from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky’s summit crater was visible in satellite images on 2 February. Weather clouds obscured views on the other days during 30 January-5 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava from a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater streamed down the cone into a perched lava lake during 3-9 February. The western half of the lake dropped from 213 m on 3 February to 211 m on 4 February and stayed at that level during 5-6 February; the drop in lake level was likely the result of summit deflation that was detected by tiltmeters. The lake level had risen to 214 m by the morning of 7 February coincident with the onset of summit inflation. A small dome fountain was visible at the entry point of lava into the lake on 8 February. The stagnant E half of the lake, separated by a series of surface cracks, was about 5 m lowed than the W half.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 29 January-5 February and lava advanced down the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 92 km in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued during 3-9 February. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-700 m above the summit and drifted E and SE. During 5-9 February Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-350 m above the summit and incandescent material was ejected 300-500 m SE from the crater. Rumbling and occasional banging sounds were reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Pacaya – Guatemala : On 6 February INSIVUMEH reported increased Strombolian activity and a higher number of explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater. The explosions rattled nearby houses and ejected ballistics as far as 500 m from the crater. Ash plumes rose as high as 650 m above the summit and drifted 5 km W, NW, and N. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Francisco de Sales, El Cedro, Calderas, El Bejucal, and Mesías Altas. Lava effusion also increased and two active lava flows, 800 and 1,200 m long, were advancing. On 8 February ash plumes rose almost 600 m and drifted 30 km NW and W, and 10 km N. Explosions ejected ballistics as far as 300 m from the crater.

Popocatepetl – Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 3-9 January there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl. Minor crater incandescence from the crater was visible during a few of the nights. An explosion at 2138 on 6 February generated an eruption plume with low ash content that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images on 29 January as well as 2 and 4 February. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on the other days during 30 January-5 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 3-9 February, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. An eruptive event was recorded on 5 February but was not seen, and on 6 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km down the flank. The Darwin VAAC noted that ash plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NNW that same day. On 7 February ash plumes rose 1 km above the summit and drifted E, SE, and S, causing ashfall in the Karo Regency. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to grow during 1-9 February. Gas data analysis conducted during a field visit showed that sulfur dioxide emissions were first detected on 1 February, suggesting that ground water was drying up and no longer interacting with the gas species. The dome had an estimated volume of 5.93 million cubic meters. Scientists observed damaged vegetation, likely caused by fire, on the NW part of the crater (just N of the dome). A report on 6 February stated that the dome continued to spread laterally N and S, with N as the dominant growth direction. Gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome as well as along the contact of the old and new domes. Scientists visited the Wallibou Hot Spring area on 7 February after a report of anomalously higher temperatures and gas odors; they collected water samples and took temperatures measurements for later analysis. Initial findings suggested the presence of hydrogen sulfide in that area and temperatures that had increased around 5-6 degrees; the lead scientist noted that based on their findings there was no increased risk associated with the hot springs. NEMPO reminded the public to avoid the volcano and that descending into the crater remained extremely dangerous. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 29 January-5 February. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 300 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 3 February 2021 – 9 February 2021

Etna – Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity from all four of Etna’s summit craters, the Southeast Crater (SEC), the Northeast Crater (NEC), Bocca Nuova (BN), and Voragine (VOR), was visible during 1-7 February; the last time that had occurred was during 1998-1999. The strongest and almost continuous Strombolian explosions at SEC originated from two vents in the E part of the top of the cone. Tephra accumulated near the top of the cone and rolled down the flanks. Minor ash emissions rapidly dispersed. Less-intense Strombolian activity occurred at the S vent. Intra-crater Strombolian activity at NEC sometimes produced nighttime crater incandescence. Strombolian activity at BN sometimes ejected coarse material beyond the crater rim, and rare ash emissions that had diffuse ash content. On 5 February scientists observed explosions from three vents at the bottom of the crater that had formed cinder cones. Nearby was another cone that occasionally produced dense emissions that rapidly dispersed. Strombolian activity at VOR ejected material that sometimes rose above the crater rim and generated diffuse ash emissions. On 5 February lava flowed into BN, overlapping flows from the previous week.

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the 2021 lava dome continued to grow just below Merapi’s SW rim during 29 January-4 February. One pyroclastic flow descended the SW flank as far as 600 m. The 2021 lava dome volume was an estimated 117,400 cubic meters on 4 February, with a growth rate of about 12,600 cubic meters per day. A comparison of photos taken on 21 January and 4 February showed that the morphological changes in the summit area were attributed to the growth of the 2021 lava dome as well as from a new dome slowly growing in the summit crater. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed no notable deformation. Seismic activity was lower than the previous week. BNPB noted that a total of 537 people remained evacuated (190 people from Sleman Regency and 347 from Klaten) as of 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above Raung’s summit and drifted S and E during 3-6 February. Ash plumes rose 1.2-2 km above the summit during 7-9 February and drifted SE and E. Incandescence from the crater was often seen reflected in the emissions, and rumbling and roaring was sometimes heard. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Semisopochnoi – United States : AVO reported that a 6 February satellite image of Semisopochnoi showed small ash deposits extending in a narrow strip less than 3 km N of North Cerberus Crater. The deposits were likely the result of a small explosions that occurred during the previous week. Steam emission obscured view of the summit crater. The Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level were raised to Yellow/Advisory. A second ash deposit, similar to the first, was visible in a satellite image on 7 February. This deposit extended at least 3 km NE of North Cerberus Crater. Weather clouds obscured views of the S side of the volcano. The report noted that the ash plumes associated with the deposits had not been observed; they likely rose less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and were short lived. The Aviation colour Code and the Volcano Alert Level were raised to Orange/Watch.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Sarychev Peak continued during 29 January-5 February, characterized by lava effusion from the carter onto the N flank. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 29 January and 1 February; weather clouds prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 27 January 2021 – 2 February 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 25 January-1 February incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible at night. Ten explosions generated eruption plumes that rose 1.8-2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 800-1,100 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 26 January-2 February ash plumes from Dukono rose 100-600 m above the summit and drifted W, SW, and W. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 22, 24-25, and 27 January that sent ash plumes to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 24 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over a lava dome in Karymsky’s summit crater was visible in satellite images during 21-24 and 27 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that lava from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 27-29 January. The vent was mostly crusted over during 30 January-2 February, though several incandescent areas on cone were visible and lava slowly effused from the base of the cone. The western half of the lake deepened from 209 to 212 m and was elevated ~5 m above the stagnant E half.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 22-29 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank and the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km in multiple directions. On 24 January collapses from the lava flow sent large amounts of material and pyroclastic flows down the Apakhonchich drainage. An ash cloud rose to 9.6 km (31,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km N then NE. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Lewotolo continued at least during 26-28 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 500 m above the summit and drifted E, SE, and W. Strombolian explosions ejected material 500 m above the summit, and incandescent material was ejected as far as 500-600 m SE from the crater. Rumbling was reported during 29-30 January; weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater during 29 January-2 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Nevados de Chillan – Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was ongoing with sporadic gas-and-ash emissions and continuing lava effusion through 1 February. Lava effusion began in mid-2020 though the rate had increased in the past two months. A satellite image from 25 January showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome in Nicanor Crater and one on the N crater rim, at the vent producing lava flows. A minor thermal anomaly was visible at the end of the active “L5” lava flow, about 600 m N of the vent. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the W and SW flank and 5 km away on the NE flank.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 27 January-2 February, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation. On 28 January incandescent material was seen being ejected 50 m above the summit. According to a news article a pyroclastic flow from the end of a lava flow traveled 2 km down the flank on 2 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 22-29 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung – Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1822 on 27 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose 500 m above the summit and drifted SE and E, according to a ground-based observer. Dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km above them summit during 28 January-2 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 22-29 January. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 200 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Whakaari/White Island – North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that during the previous year temperatures of Whakaari/White Island’s steam and gas vents were regularly captured during helicopter overflights. These data showed a downward trend from temperatures of over 700 degrees Celsius in February 2020 to temperatures around 300 degrees Celsius recorded on 21 January. The recent gas-emission temperatures were similar to those measured in July 2018. There was no evidence of eruptive activity observed during overflights in January nor signs of collapse in or near the active vents. A small amount of water had ponded on the 1978/90 Crater floor. Gas continued to be emitted from the active vents and from cooling lava that had erupted in December 2019, though the emission rates were the lowest recorded since that eruption. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 27 January 2021 – 2 February 2021

Karangetang – Siau Island (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 January a pilot observed an eruption plume rising from Karangetang to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The next day an ash plume identified in satellite images rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the “2021 lava dome” continued to effuse just below Merapi’s SW rim during 22-28 January, producing a total of 230 incandescent lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Krasak and Boyong river drainages on the SW flank. Pyroclastic flows were recorded 71 times and descended the Boyong drainage as far as 3.5 km. A comparison of photos taken on 21 and 26 January showed that the morphological changes in the summit area were attributed to the emergence of lava domes. The 2021 dome volume was an estimated 157,000 cubic meters on 25 January, but avalanches and pyroclastic flows during 26-27 January reduced the volume to 62,000 cubic meters based on 28 January estimates. Deformation continued, though at a lower rate; Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 0.4 cm per day. There were 36 pyroclastic flows recorded during 0000-1400 on 27 January; the longest pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km down the Krasak and Boyong drainages at 1253. The corresponding ash plume rose into low weather clouds that obscured the summit. At 1335 pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km SW. Sirens were triggered in Ngrangkah, Umbulharjo, Cangkringan, and Sleman (along the Boyong river drainage), alerting about 150 residents to temporarily evacuate. Ashfall was reported in several villages in the Tamansari and Musuk districts, Boyolali Regency, Boyolali City, and several locations in Klaten. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that daily gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-700 m above Raung’s summit and drifted SE, E, and NE during 26 January-2 February. Incandescence from the crater was often seen reflected in the emissions and rumbling was sometimes heard. At 2354 on 2 February an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption at Sarychev Peak continued during 22-29 January, characterized by lava effusion from the carter onto the N flank. A daily thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater was an estimated 428 m long, 217 m wide, 80 m high, and had a volume of 4.45 million cubic meters by 27 January. The dome continued to grow during 27 January-2 February. During a field visit on 1 February scientists observed that gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome as well as along the contact of the old and new domes. Gas-and-steam plumes were often visible from Belmont Observatory. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Tinakula – Solomon Islands : Thermal anomalies over Tinakula’s summit and on the WNW flank were periodically visible in satellite images during 17 December 2020-21 January 2021. Weather clouds often obscured views.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 20 January 2021 – 26 January 2021

Aira – Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 18-25 January incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was often visible nightly. The sulfur dioxide emission rate slightly high, reaching 1,500 tons per day on 18 January. Two explosions, on 18 and 20 January, produced eruption plumes that rose 1.3-1.7 km above the crater rim and ejecting bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0823 on 25 January an ash plume from Dukono rose 300 m and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko – Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 20 January that sent ash plumes to 3.1 km (10,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk that same day. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 5-11 explosions were recorded per hour during 19-25 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted no more than 15 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were felt by residents as far as 12 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW).

Ibu – Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 20-26 January gray-and-white ash plume from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted N, W, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky – Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over a lava dome in Karymsky’s summit crater was visible in satellite images during 14-15 and 20-21 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea – Hawaiian Islands (USA) ; HVO reported that low lava fountains from a vent on a cone on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater fed flows that traveled down a channel into a perched lava lake during 20-26 January. The western half of the lake deepened from 202 to 205 m and was perched ~4 m above the solidified lava crust adjacent to the crater wall. The stagnant E half remained slightly lower, perched ~2 m above the adjacent crust. The islands remained stationary in the E part of the lake; the dimensions of the largest island remained unchanged and was 23 m above the lake’s surface at the highest point. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,200 tons/day on 23 January.

Klyuchevskoy – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian and sometimes Vulcanian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued during 15-22 January and lava advanced down the Kozyrevsky drainage on the S flank and the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A large bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose to 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km in multiple directions. A notable eruptive event on 18 January generated an ash plume that rose as high as 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 500 km W. Ashfall (1 cm thick) was reported in Kozyrevsk. On 24 January collapses from the lava flow at about 2,200 elevation sent large amounts of material and pyroclastic flows down the Apakhonchich drainage. KVERT estimated that the ash plumes from the event rose to 8.5 km (27,900 ft) a.s.l. The Tokyo VAAC stated that ash plumes rose as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W on the same day. The Aviation colour Code remined at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kuchinoerabujima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 19 January, noting downward trends in activity data since mid-2020. Specifically, after May 2020 no volcanic earthquakes were detected, inflation slowed to baseline levels, and sulfur dioxide emissions began decreasing though remained slightly high. Additionally, crater incandescence had not been visible after July and no eruptions were recorded after August 2020.

Lewotolo – Lomblen Island (Indonesia) :PVMBG reported that a Strombolian eruption at Lewotolo continued during 19-26 January. Gray-and-white ash plumes rose 200-1,000 m above the summit daily and drifted E, SE, and W. Rumbling sounds were occasionally reported. Strombolian explosions ejected material 100-600 m above the summit, and incandescent material was sometimes ejected as far as 500 m E, SE, and W from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summer crater.

Manam – Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 January ash plumes from Manam rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and N.

Pacaya – Guatemala : Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 19-26 January. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 200 m above the vent. Occasionally ash plumes rose no higher than 200 m above the summit and drifted as far as 10 km W, SW, and S. Moderate-to-strong Strombolian explosions on 22 January generated ash plumes that drifted NW and caused ashfall in the regions of San Francisco de Sales and San Vicente Pacaya. The explosions rattled nearby structures. Lava flows were active on the S and SW flanks; avalanches from the S flow front reached the base on the volcano and the SW lava flow traveled as far as 1.7 km by 25 January.

Reventador – Ecuador : IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 19-26 January; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual conformation. Seismicity was characterized by 42-106 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling 600-800 m down the NE and S flanks were observed on some nights. A new lava flow was active on the N flank.

Sangay – Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 16-26 January. Seismicity was characterized by 30-166 daily explosions, occasional harmonic tremor, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but the Washington VAAC and IG webcams recorded daily ash plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in the provinces of Chimborazo and Guayas on 23 January.

Santa Maria – Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-25 January explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the complex. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that mainly descended the W and SW flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ash plumes drifted W and SW during 20-21 January, causing ashfall in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW). On 22 January collapses of material to the E and SE generated pyroclastic flows.

Semeru – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 19-26 January daily incandescent avalanches of material from the Jonggring Seleko Crater at Semeru traveled 200-1,000 m down the Kobokan drainage on the SE flank. Incandescent material was ejected 50 m above the summit on most days and white-and-gray plumes rose 200-500 m and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 1 km and extensions to 4 km in the SSE sector.

Sheveluch – Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 15-22 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli – Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 18-24 January activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from Area N (North Crater area) and in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m high, and produced minor ash emissions. Explosions at four N2 vents (Area N) ejected coarse material as high as 250 m. Periods of continuous and sometimes intense spattering was also visible. Explosions from at least two vents in Area C-S occurred at a rate of 10-18 events per hour; one vent ejected coarse material 250 m high and the other produced ash emissions. Lava emerged from the P1 and P2 vents in Area N four times, on 18, 22, and 24 January, and flowed onto the upper Sciara del Fuoco. On 18 January incandescent blocks from activity at the P1 vent rolled a few tens of meters down the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco. Later that same day blocks from the P2 vent traveled as far as the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco. Lava from P2 traveled down the Sciara del Fuoco on 22 January and accumulated at the coastline. A fourth lava overflow occurred on 24 January from P2, but had less volume than the third.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 20 January 2021 – 26 January 2021

Merapi – Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that the “2021 lava dome” continued to grow just below Merapi’s SW rim during 15-21 January, producing a total of 282 incandescent lava avalanches that traveled as far as 1 km down the Krasak and Boyong river drainages on the SW flank. Pyroclastic flows were recorded 19 times and descended the SW flanks as far as 1.8 km. A comparison of photos taken on 14 and 21 January showed that the morphological changes in the summit area were attributed to the emergence of new lava domes. The 2021 dome volume was an estimated 104,000 cubic meters on 21 January, with a growth rate of about 8,600 cubic meters per day. Deformation continued, though at a lower rate; Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) data showed a distance shortening between points in the NW at a rate of 0.8 cm per day. Seismic activity was lower than the previous week. According to news articles ashfall was reported in several villages in the Musuk, Tamansari, and Kemalang districts on 19 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.

Raung – Eastern Java (Indonesia) : A brown-gray ash plume from Raung rose 100-400 m above the crater rim and drifted E at 0520 on 21 January, prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Gray plumes rose 200-600 m above the crater rim and drifted E on the next day. White-and-gray plumes rose 200-500 m on 23 January and drifted WSW, and crater incandescence was visible in webcam images. During 24-25 January ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted E and S, and Strombolian activity was visible.

Sarychev Peak – Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that lava began to effuse from a vent in Sarychev Peak’s summit crater 10 January, and by 20 January it had traveled about 400 m down the N flank. A gas-and-steam plume drifted 36 km NE on 12 January. A thermal anomaly was visible during 15 and 18-21 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Soufriere St. Vincent – St. Vincent : University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to grow during 20-26 January. Gas-and-steam plumes were often visible from Belmont Observatory, on Richmond Peak, about 6 km SSW of the crater. Another seismic station and a webcam became operational, and additional instrumentation was prepped. Weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations of the crater, though observations on 22 and 25 January confirmed that the previously-identified area of burnt vegetation had expanded, including towards the top of the E crater rim. During a monitoring visit on 24 January scientists took video and still photos of the dome and installed both a camera and an EDM reflector on the S crater wall. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima – Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 15-22 January. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).